The Development of Plantation Slave Society in the Caribbean – Sugarcane Slaves

Origins of Slavery

The African Economic climate was booming before the 1500s. The economies had enough gold, diamond, and food for the region. There were great kingdoms within the West and northern African regions. The most prominent being the Egyptian Kingdom and the Ethiopian system. The Western African region also enjoyed prominence with Ghana, Songhay, and the Mali kingdoms which prospered economically in the 13th and 14th centuries[1]. The prosperity of these kingdoms invited the presence of the Europeans to the region.

As they did in Asia, the Portuguese went to Africa to participate in economic activities. From the start, they kept up inviting relations with the Africans. Christian teachers needed to convert the Africans into the new Christian religion. Cordial relations before long crumbled because the financial interests of the Portuguese—in gold and, after some time, in slaves—became self-evident.

Regardless of the way that Europeans themselves had been slaves in the Byzantine, Arab, and Turkish Empires, during the 1500s they started to utilize Slave work in their abroad domains. Europeans had a go at oppressing Native Americans, however, the framework didn’t function admirably because of the annihilation of the Native American populace brought about by illness and the troubles of enslaving individuals in their own property. Rather, the Europeans started to depend on all the more vigorously on oppressed Africans.

The slave exchange developed immediately when the Portuguese set up sugarcane ranches on islands off the shoreline of Africa. The Europeans wanted to increase their profits, they therefore sourced enormous numbers of slaves. Estate proprietors got these slaves from the African terrain. Afterward, the Dutch, English, and French likewise got dynamic in the slave exchange. By the mid-1600s the slave exchange was the main focal point of European relations with Africa.

The Caribbean

Before Colonization

The Caribbean region was occupied by game hunters, fishers, and foragers before the beginning of the Holocene. The people lived in primitive homes and semi-permanent campsites and lived nomadically.  Most of these regions were not occupied until after 600AD. Trinidad was first colonized as it was the originally most occupied Island in this region. After colonization, the Caribbean region experienced much social, ritual, and cultural transformations because of the Saladoid interactions.  The population increased and the smile camps were converted into larger villages. There was also a climate change that consisted of a more dryer pattern and this forced the people to stop depending on gathering. They ventured into small scale agriculture. After 1200 AD, society became more structured, with hierarchies and with differentiation in different economic activities. Therefore, at this stage, there was the restructuring of the socio-political structure. At the time of the European entry into the Caribbean, there were three major communities settled within the area, they were the Taino, Coboney, and the Galibi forming the Amerindian Indigenous people.

Discovery and Colonization

Christopher Columbus in his travels on the Atlantic Ocean discovered the Caribbean region and claimed it for the Spanish[2]. He brought home some of the people from this region and they found many gold ornaments among them and they saw an opportunity. Soon after that, the Portuguese and the Spanish ships came down to the region and started claiming the territories. The two nations set to establish economic colonies within the region. They set up several economic activities within the region. They also set up coastal trade where they brought in good and exchanged it for sale back in their home countries. The Spanish claimed the regions of Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, and Jamaica.

Growth of Labour Intensive Agriculture in the Caribbean

The arrival of the Spanish was to develop gold mining within the region, they started by forcing the nationals to mine for gold. Christopher colobus then noticed the region was prime or sugarcane plantations and wrote back to Spain. Therefore, the start of sugarcane production was closely related to the colonialism of the region. The Portuguese introduced sugarcane on the Caribbean region off the shores of Brazil.

Sugarcane plantation in Brazil started as Jews and New Christians in Portuguese West African coast provinces moved to Brazil in view of social abuse and an unfavorable atmosphere. The Portuguese and Spanish unions within the Caribbean region escalated the expansion of sugarcane production within the regions[3]. Brazil initially had no particular cash crops, so new pilgrims in Brazil began to develop productive sugarcane in Brazil. Portuguese government likewise advanced it by building an illustrious government in Brazil and giving tax exemptions to planters of sugarcane ranches for certain time spans. Two principle places of sugarcane estate in Brazil were Pernambuco and Bahia. They had rich soil, satisfactory rainfall, and favorable soil in addition to nearness to significant ports like Salvador and Recife. Since there were no sugarcane processing plants in Brazil during the colonial time frame, individuals utilized mud to refine sugarcane.

Sugarcane estates in the Caribbean islands had started in 1493 when Spanish King urged ranchers to move to a new area. By 1520, it was a productive industry with a least 28 sugarcane factories working on Hispaniola. It was enormously extended when Jew and New Christians, administrators, and specialists of sugarcane ranch moved, moved from Portuguese Brazil to Caribbean islands, for example, Barbados, Martinique, Guadeloupe, and Saint-Domingue. Sugarcane creation in these islands before long outperformed that in Brazil and turned into the biggest sugarcane makers on the planet.

Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade

The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade was a maritime exchange for African men, ladies, and youngsters who kept going from the mid-sixteenth century until the 1860s. European dealers stacked African hostages at many ports on the African coast, from Senegambia to Angola and around the Cape to Mozambique[4]. The incredible dominant part of the slaves was gathered from West and Central Africa and from Angola.

On the first section of their three-section trade, frequently called the Triangular Trade, European boats brought made products, weapons, even alcohol to Africa in return for slaves; on the second leg, they moved African men, ladies, and youngsters to the Americas to fill in as slaves; and on the third leg, they sent out to Europe the sugar, rum, cotton, and tobacco created by the slave labor.

The exchange was started by the Portuguese and Spanish particularly after the settlement of sugar ranches in the Caribbean. European growers spread sugar, developed by oppressed Africans on plantations in Brazil, and later Barbados, all through the Caribbean. In time, farmers tried to develop other productive crops, for example, tobacco, rice, espresso, cocoa, and cotton, with European obligated workers just as African and Indian slave workers. Almost 70% of all African workers in the Americas took a shot at estates that developed sugarcane and created sugar, rum, molasses, and different by-products for transit to Europe, North America, and somewhere else in the Atlantic world.

Before the main Africans showed up in British North America in 1619, the greater part 1,000,000 African hostages had just been shipped and enslaved in Brazil. Most of the African hostages were conveyed by the Portuguese, Brazilians, the British, French, and Dutch. English slave merchants alone moved 3.5 million Africans to the Americas.

Europeans utilized different techniques to arrange the Atlantic exchange. Spain authorized (by Asiento arrangements) different countries to gracefully service its Spanish American and Caribbean provinces with African prisoners. France, the Netherlands, and England at first utilized imposing business model organizations. In time, the interest of African workers in the Americas was met by the more open exchange which permitted different dealers to take part in the exchange with Africans. In this manner, considerable private exchanging organizations developed, for example, Britain’s Royal African Company (1660–1752) and the Dutch West India Company of the Netherlands (1602–1792).

Such organizations worked in significant ports to build, account, safeguard and arrange slave ships and their cargoes. The benefits produced from the Atlantic exchange financially and politically changed Liverpool and Bristol in England, Nantes and Bordeaux in France, Lisbon in Portugal, Rio de Janeiro, and Salvador de Bahia in Brazil, and Newport, Rhode Island, in the United States. Each port created connections to a wide hinterland for nearby and worldwide merchandise in Asia and funding to support the exchange African hostages.

European vendors and boat skippers (followed later by those from Brazil and North America) pressed their cruising vessels with nearby products and wares from Asia to exchange on the African coast. African brokers set explicit expectations for European products in return for African prisoners. Oppressed Africans, their regularly brutal catch and subjugation far out of the European overall population, were traded for iron bars and materials, extravagance merchandise, cowrie shells, alcohol, guns, and different items that changed district by area after some time.

Definition of Slavery in the Caribbean

The Caribbean during the eighteenth century was known predominantly as an agriculture-based locale with many plantations. The main yields in these plantations were sugar, an item profoundly requested in Europe acquiring high profits for the planters. Nonetheless, to make such tremendous amounts of sugar required human labor, bringing about the development of Slavery. This bondage framework involved principally of Africans whose qualities were reasonable for the heat and humidity of these tropical regions. Slavery was a fascism framework where the enslavers had total force, similar to a manikin master pulling all the strings, thus, delivering the enslaved slaves to authority. Sometimes, the enslaved waged war against the landowners in a bid to seek their freedom, but they were completely dominated.

Chattel slavery alludes to An arrangement of slavery whereby an individual and their children are perceived by the law similar to the property of someone else for life[5]. Slaves could be purchased, sold, and marked similarly as a household item, and these brutal conditions infuriated the enslaved bringing about the opposition.  This record of resistance illustrates that there was hardly a generation of enslaved males or females in the Caribbean who did not take their anti-slavery actions. Capturing, is against human instinct, and in this manner, the enslaved opposed from the beginning in a long or ‘extended’ war. Many slave revolts and plots in these domains somewhere in the range of 1638 and 1838 could be imagined as ‘200 years war’ one extended battle dispatched by Africans and their Afro-West Indian descendants against slave proprietors. The Enslaved worked under unforgiving conditions from sun up to sundown, with little rest and exposure to ailments, under exacting control from the boss who requested profitability. The universe of the enslaved, therefore, was a consistent fight between abuse of control and the craving for freedom.

Slave society alludes to the entire network dependent on bondage, including masters and freedmen and the slaves [6]. The Societal structure was a chain of hierarchy, white experts at the top socially and strategically, then colored in the center and the slaves shaping the establishment at the base. Around 1832 there were roughly 50,000 whites and 100 000 freedmen in the British Caribbean however just 32 000 slave owners. Freedmen claimed slaves; however, it was not as common when contrasted with the whites. Despite the fact that speaking to the minority whites control the legislative issues and most of the riches keeping up total influence. The whites were profoundly educated when contrasted with the freedmen who had basic training, leaving a larger part of the slaves uninformed. This solid differentiation reflected contrasts in the education of free guys and females, but on the other hand, it indicated contrasts in wealth. Whites were the masters working the estates, while freedmen were either ‘liberated shaded’ or ‘liberated blacks’ who earned their opportunity and attempted to create their own identity. These consolidated features and attributes of each class made a game plan of assorted practices and conduct that represented the properties of a slave society.

For any general public to work satisfactorily there must be an arrangement of control and the slave society was no exclusion. Arrangement of slave control exemplified physical, social, mental, financial, and legitimate components. The oppressed were practically misused by enslavers, as they had to work in ranch through physical inhumanity denying them individual freedom.  The whip was an upgrade to work and a consistent type of discipline and inspired by a paranoid fear of the many lashes ‘kept in line’ and did essentially as they were told. Slaves lived on the plantations in little earth huts, and enslavers situated their houses at the top administering their enslaving network and society works on, accentuating oppressed social inadequacy. Food and garments were constrained by the enslavers, as they chose what and when oppressed ought to eat and furthermore how they should dress. Slaves were not permitted to be educated; illiteracy was an amazing method for control. Denying fundamental social capacity, for example, training connoted oppressed inadequacy. The Enslaved religions rehearse, for example, their drumming, music, and the move was not permitted and even deserving of death. The enslaver’s religions were constrained upon them as a type of control, and the Oppressed was just permitted to sit at the rear of the Anglican/Catholic chapels[7]. The oppressed were viewed as mediocre compared to the whites and the whites contended that Africans were savage and unseemly. Enslavers attempted to abuse and squash the spirits of the oppressed through mental thoughts of race and shading. The financial structure of society regarding the property, profit (Money), and time were control purchase the enslavers. Slaves couldn’t legitimately group property or lawfully make contracts, couldn’t be paid for any work that they did, couldn’t possess creatures, and couldn’t claim land. These financial and legitimate limitations disabled the enslaved opportunity of developments. The diverse control frameworks actualized upheld subjugation and ensnarement, nonetheless, the oppressed opposition kept on interspersing the general public.

 

Slave Culture in The Caribbean

The principle explanation behind bringing in enslaved Africans was economical. In 1650 an African slave could be purchased for as cheap as £7 despite the fact that the value rose so that by 1690 a slave cost £17-22, and after a century somewhere in the range of £40 and £50. In correlation, in the seventeenth century a white obligated worker or worker would cost a grower £10 for just a couple years work, however, would cost the equivalent in food, haven, and apparel. Subsequently, after 1660 not many new white workers arrived in the Caribbean the Black Africans took their spot[8].

As an outcome of these trades, the size of the Black populace in the Caribbean rose drastically in the last part of the seventeenth century. During the 1650s when sugar began to take over from tobacco as the fundamental money crop on Nevis, enslaved Africans formed just 20% of the populace. By the census of 1678, the Black populace had ascended to 3849 against a white populace of 3521[9]. By the mid-eighteenth century when sugar creation was completely settled almost 80% of the populace was Black. The extraordinary increment in the Black populace was dreaded by the white ranch proprietors and thus treatment regularly got harsher as they felt a developing need to control a bigger however unhappy and possibly insubordinate workforce.

Enslaved Africans were frequently treated cruelly. First, they needed to endure the shocking conditions on the journey from West Africa, known as the Middle Passage. The demise rate was high. One ongoing assessment is that 12% of all Africans shipped on British boats somewhere in the range of 1701 and 1807 passed on the way toward the West Indies and North America; others put the figure as high as 25%. Almost 350,000 Africans were shipped to the Leeward Islands by 1810. however numerous passed on the journey through illness or abuse; some were driven by misery to end it all by hopping into the ocean.

When they showed up in the Caribbean islands, the Africans were readily available to be purchased. They were washed and their skin was oiled. At long last, they were offered to neighborhood purchasers. Frequently guardians were isolated from kids, and spouses from wives.

The estate depended entirely on an imported enslaved workforce and turned into an agrarian plant focusing on one gainful yield available to be purchased. Enslaved Africans had to participate in an assortment of relentless exercises, every one of them overwhelming. The work in the fields was difficult, with extended periods of time spent in the sweltering sun, managed by supervisors who rushed to utilize the whip. Undertakings went from clearing land, planting sticks, and reaping sticks by hand, to manuring and weeding. The plantations depended on an imported oppressed workforce, instead of family work, and turned into a rural plant focusing on one beneficial yield available to be purchased.

Inside the plantation’s works, the conditions were frequently more awful, particularly the heat of the bubbling house. Moreover, the hours were long, particularly at reap time. The demise rate on the plantation was high, a consequence of exhaust, helpless nourishment, and work conditions, mercilessness, and malady. Numerous estate proprietors wanted to import new slaves as opposed to giving the methods and conditions to the endurance of their current slaves. Until the Amelioration Act was passed in 1798, which constrained grower to improve conditions for oppressed specialists, numerous proprietors essentially supplanted the losses by bringing in more slaves from West Africa.

Diet and Food

From the seventeenth century onwards, it got standard for plantations proprietors to give enslaved Africans Sundays off, despite the fact that many were not Christian. Oppressed Africans utilized a portion of this spare chance to develop garden plots near their homes, just as in close by ‘arrangement grounds’.

Arrangement grounds were zones of land frequently of low quality, rocky or stony, and regularly at some good ways from the towns which estate proprietors put in a safe spot for the enslaved Africans to develop their own food, for example, yams, sweet potatoes, and plantains[10].  notwithstanding utilizing the product to enhance their own eating regimen, slaves sold or traded it, just as domesticated animals, for example, chickens or pigs, in neighborhood markets.

Despite the fact that the volcanic soils of the two islands were profoundly prolific, estate proprietors and chiefs were so anxious to augment benefits from sugar that they liked to import food from North America instead of losing stick land by developing food. Salted meat and fish, alongside building wood and creatures to drive the plants, were dispatched from New England. The plantations proprietors furnished their enslaved Africans with week after week proportions of salt herrings or mackerel, yams, and maize, and here and there salted West Indian turtle. The oppressed Africans enhanced their eating regimen with different sorts of wild food. Revd Smith watched,

Slave Houses

The places of the oppressed Africans were far less strong than the stone and wood structures of European ranch proprietors. Hence reports give our two primary wellsprings of data on slave houses. The main sort comprises records from movement authors or previous occupants of the West Indies from the seventeenth and eighteenth hundreds of years who portray slave houses that they found in the Caribbean; the second is contemporary delineations of slave lodging. As of late, the third wellspring of data, paleontology, has started to add to our comprehension.

Slave houses in Nevis were portrayed as ‘made out of posts in the ground, covered around the sides and upon the rooftop, with boarded partitions’. They were minimal more than hovels, with a solitary story and covered with stick garbage. In the stock of property lost in the French attack on St Kitts in February 1706, they were commonly esteemed at as cheaps as £2 each.

Scarcely any representations make due to slave towns in St Kitts and Nevis. A progression of watercolor artworks by Lieutenant Lees, dated to the 1780s is one special case. His artistic creations principally portray the British fortification on Brimstone Hill, yet additionally, show gatherings of slave houses. One composition shows a slave town close to the foot of Brimstone Hill. The eighteen obvious hovels of the town are organized in no specific request inside a stone-walled nook, which is encircled by stick fields on three sides. The houses have hipped rooftops, thickly covered with stick rubbish. A striking element of the town territory is the thick mass of shrubs and trees, including coconut palms. Another slave town remains alongside a fenced compound, associated with the fortification. Be that as it may, as this town may have been related to the post of the fortification it might not have been run of the mill of towns at sugar ranches.

How the Slave Masters Maintained Control

As somewhere else in the Americas, the privilege of bosses in Jamaica to rebuff slaves was revered in law, and the viciousness that continued subjection went beyond past whipping. Disciplines could incorporate removal, deforming, marking and that’s just the beginning. Slaves could likewise be executed – a punishment regularly implemented during the consequence of uprisings[11]. Also, they were once in a while slaughtered rapidly. The unbearable executions dispensed to the individuals who drove uprisings or who were blamed for teaming up in defiant plots give the absolute most offensive instances of human brutality on record.

Yet, physical maltreatment alone couldn’t keep the worthwhile estates of the British Caribbean beneficial. It is difficult to get enormous gatherings of individuals to perform supported work adequately and reliably for quite a long time just through giving out agony and instilling fear. Indeed, even the most severe of slaveholders were along these lines constrained to build up a modern arrangement of the executives that misused the most human desires and fears of the individuals they ruled.

Making divisions between slaves was basic to this. Oppressed individuals dwarfed free whites in the British Caribbean. In Jamaica, the proportion was higher than 10 to one, and on some large plantations, it was around 100 to one. Chiefs in this manner expected to separate slaves so as to lead over them. The slave exchange from Africa gave them one chance. As a director of a few huge Jamaican sugar domains commented in 1804, it was an overall arrangement to ‘have the Negroes on a home a blend of countries to adjust one set against another, to make certain of having 66% join the whites’ (in case of an uprising)[12]. The hypothesis behind this was oppressed individuals from one African ‘country’ would decline to join uprisings plotted by those from others, or by creole (privately conceived) slaves, picking rather than serving their white experts in the desire for remunerations for steadfast assistance.

Privileging some enslaved individuals above others was another powerful method for planting dissension. Slaveholders energized complex social orders on the plantations that added up to something like an arrangement of ‘class’. At the head of estate slave networks in the sugar provinces of the Caribbean were gifted men, prepared up at the command of white administrators to become sugar boilers, smithies, woodworkers, coopers, artisans, and drivers. Such men were, as a rule, really happier than field slaves (a large portion of whom were ladies), and they would in general live more.

The most significant individuals from this oppressed first class were the drivers, liable for implementing order and work schedules among the other enslaved specialists. These men were fundamental to powerful estate the executives – a conductor for orders and, some of the time, for exchanges between white managers and the massed positions of field workers. The benefits gave on the enslaved world-class came in a few structures: better food, more food, better apparel, additionally garments, better and greater lodging, even the possibility (in some uncommon cases) that an ace may utilize his last will and demonstration of free them. It could even be shown in a name. For example, the head driver on one Jamaican sugar bequest is recorded in the records of 1813-14 by the name of Emanuel, yet in addition by another name: James Reid.

Impact of Slavery on the Caribbean Regions

Characterizing the Caribbean is difficult, as every island, spot, and individual has followed a special direction to the present. However, it is conceivable to recognize a couple of examples of trends in the land, work, and history. One example is a demographic collapse as an outcome of European and African (Old World) diseases being brought to the New World. Evaluations differ greatly, however, most researchers concur that local Caribbean populaces surpassed a few million preceding contacts with Europeans, and declined quickly maybe as much as 90% in certain spots—inside the primary century after European appearance. Fighting represented a portion of this decline, however, the essential driver was the accidental presentation of microbes like flu and smallpox (to name just two). Confronting a lacking indigenous labor supply, Europeans started to import African workers through the overseas slave exchange.

A critical African-descended populace is another element of the Caribbean. Over the long course of the slave exchange, slave shippers conveyed in excess of 4,000,000 Africans to the Caribbean. These populaces prompted the development of multiracial social orders in the area, a significant number of which have a mixture of African-European-indigenous social attributes[13].

As the African slaves got incorporated with the Indians in the various states, just as with their European experts, the continuous combination of these three races and societies came to portray life in the American provinces, especially in the Caribbean. Associations with people of various races and legacy were socially adequate for the Spanish and Portuguese and thus there was a quick development of a blended race society in the American provinces during the time of Spanish and Portuguese pilgrim rule.

 

The combination of these three racial gatherings (Spanish, African, and Indian) offered an approach to various physical qualities and types, which were given various names to recognize the diverse blends. Specialists made artworks of the diverse physical qualities and made tables naming the aftereffects of the combinations of races.

The blended race society of the Caribbean is still racially and socially solid today. Anthropologists accept that in spite of European and Asian attacks since ancient occasions, occupants of Africa’s west coast and focal areas protected their unadulterated racial characteristics[14]. The African slaves were additionally ready to save a considerable lot of their societies just as a portion of their strict convictions. Regardless of the Spanish forced Christianity, their dedication to their customary divine beings didn’t vanish totally, rather the two commitments intertwined and adjusted. Music and move are significant pieces of the day by day life in western and focal Africa and the beautiful jamborees held each year in the Caribbean are an aspect of the islands’ African legacy.

Enslaved and unfree laborers worked inside a framework—regardless of whether in gold or silver mines or on sugar, espresso, or cotton estates, for instance—that was intended to remove riches from the area for transit to Europe. This for the most part made connections wherein Caribbean regions were subordinate to European countries. Components of this example would proceed through a significant part of the locale’s set of experiences. All things considered, the Caribbean was the site of a few freedom fights—one eminent case of which is the slave upheaval in Saint-Domingue that prompted the rise of the Republic of Haiti.

 

 

Sources

Browne, Randy M. “The “Bad Business” of Obeah: Power, Authority, and the Politics of Slave Culture in the British Caribbean.” The William and Mary Quarterly 68, no. 3 (2011): 451-480.

Canterbury, Dennis. “Caribbean agriculture under three regimes: Colonialism, nationalism and neoliberalism in Guyana.” The journal of peasant studies 34, no. 1 (2007): 1-28.

Davies, Arthur. “The” Miraculous” Discovery of South America by Columbus.” Geographical Review 44, no. 4 (1954): 573-582.

Eltis, David. “Europeans and the Rise and Fall of African Slavery in the Americas: An interpretation.” The American Historical Review 98, no. 5 (1993): 1399-1423.

Mullin, Michael. Africa in America: Slave acculturation and resistance in the American South and the British Caribbean, 1736-1831. University of Illinois Press, 1994.

Rawley, James A., and Stephen D. Behrendt. The transatlantic slave trade: a history. U of Nebraska Press, 2005.

Twaddle, Michael, ed. The Wages of Slavery: From chattel slavery to wage labour in Africa,

[1] Rawley, James A., and Stephen D. Behrendt. The transatlantic slave trade: a history. U of Nebraska Press, 2005.

 

[2] Davies, Arthur. “The” Miraculous” Discovery of South America by Columbus.” Geographical Review 44, no. 4 (1954): 573-582.

[3] Canterbury, Dennis. “Caribbean agriculture under three regimes: Colonialism, nationalism and neoliberalism in Guyana.” The journal of peasant studies 34, no. 1 (2007): 1-28.

[4] Rawley, James A., and Stephen D. Behrendt. The transatlantic slave trade: a history. U of Nebraska Press, 2005.

 

[5] Twaddle, Michael, ed. The Wages of Slavery: From chattel slavery to wage labour in Africa, the Caribbean and England. Routledge, 2013.

[6] Twaddle, Michael, ed. The Wages of Slavery: From chattel slavery to wage labour in Africa, the Caribbean and England. Routledge, 2013.

 

[7] Twaddle, Michael, ed. The Wages of Slavery: From chattel slavery to wage labour in Africa, the Caribbean and England. Routledge, 2013.

[8] Mullin, Michael. Africa in America: Slave acculturation and resistance in the American South and the British Caribbean, 1736-1831. University of Illinois Press, 1994.

[9] Mullin, Michael. Africa in America: Slave acculturation and resistance in the American South and the British Caribbean.

 

[10] Mullin, Michael. Africa in America: Slave acculturation and resistance in the American South and the British Caribbean, 1736-1831. University of Illinois Press, 1994.

 

[11] Browne, Randy M. “The “Bad Business” of Obeah: Power, Authority, and the Politics of Slave Culture in the British Caribbean.” The William and Mary Quarterly 68, no. 3 (2011): 451-480.

[12] Browne, Randy M. “The “Bad Business” of Obeah: Power, Authority, and the Politics of Slave Culture in the British Caribbean.”

 

[13] Eltis, David. “Europeans and the Rise and Fall of African Slavery in the Americas: An interpretation.” The American Historical Review 98, no. 5 (1993): 1399-1423.

[14] Eltis, David. “Europeans and the Rise and Fall of African Slavery in the Americas: An interpretation.”

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