Philosophical Views

Torture

Torture is not ethically justifiable. There are a number of hypothetical situations that one may imagine torture being ethically justifiable. However, a critical analysis into such issues will present one with reasonable doubt. An example, torture has often been associated with producing bad intelligence. Most interrogative experts do not consider torture to be an effective means of gathering intelligence. Hosenball (2012) indicates that after a three-year investigation by the United states senate Intelligence the committee found that there is little evidence linking enhanced interrogation techniques to producing high counter terrorism break throughs. In addition to the same, Science Daily (2012) gives a report on the use of torture indicating that despite the arguments by government officials that enhanced interrogation techniques are necessary to protect the citizens of United States a study on the same reveals that when torture is used to elicit information it is likely to be unexpectedly harsh and still ineffective. There have been a few instances where torture has produced good intelligence like in the case of the pope in Philippines (Rachaels and Rachaels,2015). However, the big question here is if it is the best and most effective way of obtaining intelligence. Torture is associated with immense human suffering which is done in the most inhumane way.

Looking back through history, it shows that whenever a country begun to use torture, it became hard to contain its use. A senate report for example indicates that permitting the use of torture gives loopholes for increased use of torture by other people within the state. In the incidence of Abu Gharaib for example, United States soldiers were found humiliating Iraq prisoners due to signals that had been sent from higher up, tracing back to harsh CIA interrogation practices (Shane & Mazzetti, 2008). Torture is illegal in most countries across the globe. It goes against the laws of both the United States and that of the United. However illegal things are not necessarily immoral I most times. The case of torture is different because it goes against not only the fundamental constitution but also the international constitution. Governments are powerful institutions and with the legalization of torture it may give such governments too much power than it is desired, hence the need to put checks on its powers by illegalizing torture. it is paramount therefore that torture is not legalized or institutionalized as it is immoral and may also result to increased cases of human torture, when it is actually not effective.

Homosexuality

Homosexuality is not immoral. Many people in the society today not only find a conversation about homosexuality as being awkward but also think of it as being immoral. The relationship between religion and homosexuality has also provided the basis for most individuals mindset about homosexuality. The ethicist argues that most people in the society find homosexuality immoral because they rely on faulty ethical theories. Homosexuality is not no more chosen in individuals as much as heterosexuality is. Lesbians and gays in the society lead a normal life like any other individuals and are able to raise a healthy family with children not being likely to face psychological and social problems (American Phycological Association, 2020). It dates back in history among some communities in the world and it therefore can not be said to be a new trend that one can be recruited into.

It is also present among the animal kingdom. Despite the popular perspective that male -female pairing is the only natural way there are several examples from the animal kingdom that dispute this line of thinking. Penguins, swans, bison, chimpanzees and giraffes are just but a few examples of many species in the animal kingdom that sometimes pair up with same sex partners (Moskowitz, 2011). More research is directed to the evolutionary reason for such pairing in the animal kingdom as it does not produce offspring.

Opponents of homosexuality continue to push repeated debunked claims concerning homosexuality and the spread of AIDs virus. The origination of AIDS is linked with human contact with chimpanzee’s feces/meat in Africa. The disease has been known to easily spread through anal sex. However, AIDs is a serious concern for both the homosexual and heterosexual. It therefore can not be solely said that AIDs spreads through homosexual contact. Mainstream researchers are not in serious dispute about the above facts.

Religion has been known to be against homosexuality. However, taking an in-depth look into their arguments, they can be found to be faulty and not grounded on facts. The catholic church for example, opposes same sex marriage for being unnatural. Homosexuality is present in the animal kingdom which goes against their argument, proving that it is a natural phenomenon. Furthermore, if something is natural or unnatural has no bearing to it being moral or immoral. The second argument by the catholic church is that sex organs is for procreation. In contradiction, they support marriage between infertile individuals and elderly couples, which does not yield offspring.

Reflection

When trying to figure out if something is moral or immoral, I consider the effects of the action to the society. Morality is a societal phenomenon hence the implications of an action to the society are very fundamental in establishing whether it is moral or immoral. In this regard, I have often found things that cause more harm to the society and individual to be immoral while those with no negative effects to individuals and society to be moral. Religion and culture have heavily influenced my life growing up. Both have been used to mold and shape my believe system and the judgement of things around me and the society at large. I pay more attention to the consequences of actions. I would choose a path that has less or no negative consequences to me or the people around me. In the same way, I find actions that have fewer negative consequences to be moral as compared to actions that bring about harm to individuals and the society at large.

This course has had immense effect on my moral philosophy. Firstly, it has taught me the need to have a broader view on issues taking a more critical and analytical view before reaching conclusions.it has eliminated the need to weigh through facts the beliefs carried from religion and culture as they may be misguided by faulty facts.

The ethicist and the utilitarian perspectives are that there is no harm for either individuals or society from homosexuality. They do not find homosexuality wrong or immoral. In fact, the harm comes from the society through discrimination of the gays and the lesbians. According to the Kantian perspective, no one is being disrespected, no rights of an individual are being violated in a consensual lesbian and gay relationship hence there is no wrong done.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reference

American Phycological Association. (2020). Sexual orientation and gender identity. Retrieved 17 June 2020, from https://www.apa.org/helpcenter/sexual-orientation

Hosenball, M. (2012). Exclusive: Senate probe finds little evidence of effective “torture.” Retrieved 16 June 2020, from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-congress-torture/exclusive-senate-probe-finds-little-evidence-of-effective-torture-idUSBRE83Q07J20120427

Moskowitz, C. (2011). 5 Myths About Gay People Debunked. Retrieved 17 June 2020, from https://www.livescience.com/13409-myths-gay-people-debunked-sexual-orientation.html

Rachels, J. & Rachels, S. (2015) The right thing to do (7th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill

Shane, S., & Mazzetti, M. (2008). The Plot to Subvert an Election: Unraveling the Russia Story So Far. Retrieved 16 June 2020, from https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2018/09/20/us/politics/russia-interference-election-trump-clinton.html

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