Human beings are classified as mammals and as primates. Humans and apes belong to the same group of primates that is referred to as the Hominoidea. There are a range of similarities that are exhibited between the human beings and the apes which are inclusive of complex social relationships, capacity to utilize tools, large brain size to mention a few. This paper presents observational findings on the primates at Los Angela’s zoo on their interaction with the environment, hierarchy, social interactions among members and activities that they are involved in during the day. The observed behavior will then be compare with that of modern man.


At the Los Angela’s zoo, I made a close observation of two species of monkeys; black Howler and Geoffrey’s black-handed spider. Notable thing about both species of the monkey was that they were placed more than one in a cage and were in groups and all of them seemed to stay close together in their cage. The black howler monkey I observed were hanging on top all together. They seemed to be less active compared to the other species of monkeys and primates in the zoo as most of the time they were resting together. They also seemed to prefer walking and climbing that leaping that is generally associated with most monkeys. They produce low and guttering sound, which seemed to be a form of their communication. There was one of them that had a different color from others that were buff colored which I was made to understand to be male. It was golden in color. It produced a louder sound in comparison to its female counter parts.

Black howler monkeys are sexually dimorphic with the male being darker and much larger in size than the females. The females are buff colored and the infants either male or female are born buff and the males go on to become much darker in their later stages of development. They all however have a dark hairless face with prominent faces. Unlike the Black Howler monkeys these species of spider monkeys seemed a little more active. They looked at people keenly and even came closer to their cages to reach out to individuals who were trying to get their attention. Their “communication” involved much more sounds that those made by the black howler monkeys. They made a range of sounds including screams, whinnies, sequels and some kind of barks. Other forms of communication that is observed curled tail and arched back during fighting to send some kind of message to their opponent.

The black handed spiders like the howler monkeys seemed to prefer to stay on high positions although they also had a spot on the ground that I observed them stay at. When one of them made for a high position off their ground position the rest of them seemed to follow. I later learnt that that was the male monkey that and the rest that followed it for a higher position when it did when he females and the younger monkeys. They seemed to interact actively with things in their environments and also the people who had visited the zoo. It was evident as they jumped from one place to another. They came closer to the humans but when they felt threatened or unsafe they would go back to their spot. The interactions with one another was much more seen by cleaning one another making sounds that they seem to understand what it was meant for and moving together from one spot to the other within their confinement area within the zoo.

 Behavior similarities between the primates and human beings

The first observable behavior similarity is in association of the primates among themselves which showed evidence of the need of company and association among them. The same can be compared with human society where they live together in groups by associating with one another at different levels in their society. The monkeys like human beings cultivate friendship among themselves through simple acts like cleaning each other’s far and sharing their food.

Like the human beings the monkeys also showed some form of communication. There communication however was not as refined as that of humans into speech. Their communication is trough different sounds that they make and are able to be understood and interpreted by otter monkeys (Povinelli, Reaux, Theall, Giambrone, & Humphrey, 2000). Communication also includes some body movements like lifting of the tail, curving f the back and other body movements. These movements are not random but rather tied to a particular meaning and situation which are understood by the other monkeys and give responses to such reactions. They also showed curiosity especially for the spider monkey. They were interested to find out about things in the surrounding. An example is when a human called it with something on the hand, they would approach to find out what the thing was until they felt threated and went back to the others.















Povinelli, D. J., Reaux, J. E., Theall, L. A., Giambrone, S., & Humphrey, N. (2000). Folk physics for apes: The chimpanzee’s theory of how the world works (Vol. 7). Oxford: Oxford University Press.



Humans are believed to have been a direct occurrence of evolution of Apes many years back. Many features and habits are similar to humans even though a big difference might be in terms of morphology and cognitive ability. The relationship goes beyond just genetics and into the psychological similarities that humans and other primates possess. A close study of the primates today will reveal evidence of behavior similarities between them and the human beings A greater interest was taken in the study of chimpanzees and gorillas in the report, expounding on the similarities in both physical and behavioral characteristics that these primates share with humans.


During the observation of the chimpanzees, it is quite evident just from the morphology of the face and body of how closely related they are with humans. According to the hierarchy, chimpanzees only differ from humans in the genus and species sections (Pan troglodytes). It therefore means that chimpanzees share much of genetic similarity to humans. A great similarity is observed in the number of fingers and toes, and also in the skeletal and muscle structure of the body. The major physical difference between them and human beings is on their hair body than that of humans and their overall body size. Apart from the genetic, physical, and morphological connection, chimpanzees exhibit some behavioral patterns that are exhibited in the human way of life.

The Chimpanzee I observed in Los Angela’s zoo they depicted higher levels of intelligence that other animals. This was shown on how they payed attention to the people around and would not be easily lured to approach the fence of its confinements. It was well structured that they had an eating area, resting area and playing area. When the eating time came the animal knew where to go to get its food, and after which it would move to another area to find its rest. I found this to be very smart of the animal.

Just like humans, chimpanzees share their food and cluster as a family during meals, which shows human traits of selflessness and solidarity. These traits are instinctive due to their relatively high cognitive abilities. Chimpanzees are able to express emotion through their body language such as empathy, by patting the back or hugging. They are also able to feel sadness and joyfulness, which are considered human emotions. They tend to follow a family structure in which there is a leader who is obeyed and respected, and the rest tend to group to where that leader is. Chimpanzees are able to walk just like humans using their two hind feet and equally sit when interacting with others of its kind or just when relaxing.


The gorilla I observed was huge in body with physical features like that of human beings. It however walked on four limbs but would occasionally move on three. It did not stay on high grounds but rather preferred to stay on low areas near the ground. They stayed in groups and the adult male was bigger and had a silver black appearance contrary to others that had a black appearance. The male with a silver back (Stoinski, Lukas, Kuhar,  & Maple, 2004) has dominance over re female as I observed leadership behaviors like leading them during eating and moving from one section of their confinement to the other while the rest followed. There was also evidence of protection from these males especially in the instances when the humans appeared to be causing disturbance. The male would make a move leaving the female behind to protect them from the possible danger that they were facing. The animals stayed together most of the time enjoying the company of each other. I observed them resting together and also eating together. They depicted behavior of friendship like the humans in sharing of food and also in the need of company and association with one another.

The animal also seemed to have a form of communication among them like the human beings. Their communication however was not as refined as that of humans into talking understandable things but was Ruther encompassed in body movements and making of sounds. The animals would make sounds that the others understood and reacted promptly to it and also had different body language including touch and some kind of facial expressions that they could understand among themselves. The gorillas seemed to interact more through grooming, playing and staying together. Grooming time showed some high level of intimacy, trust and friendship, as they dd it interchangeably among themselves. They also appear to be very observant animals of their environment as they were not only keen about what was happening in their habitat but were also keen to observe what was happening outside especially with the people who had visited the zoo and were observing them. This behavior is similar to that of humans of being active partakers in the environment that they are in.









Stoinski, T. S., Lukas, K. E., Kuhar, C. W., & Maple, T. L. (2004). Factors influencing the formation and maintenance of all‐male gorilla groups in captivity. Zoo Biology: Published in affiliation with the American Zoo and Aquarium Association, 23(3), 189-203.

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The world is taking huge steps in overcoming world poverty. This is evident because, since 1990, a quarter of the world has risen out of the extreme poverty levels. However, approximately ten percent of the world lives in extreme poverty, surviving at less than a dollar and ninety cents a day. Poverty reduction is a set of measures that may be both humanitarian and economic put in place to lift people out of poverty. Such actions may enable the poor to create wealth themselves as a means of putting an end to poverty. This paper will explore the different ways of reducing poverty.

How to reduce poverty

Government policies are one of the most effective ways to achieve poverty reduction in any particular country. The policies may be directed towards services, economic, or humanitarian sector with the aim of easing the burden on poor people. Policies directed on welfare has benefits to the poorest people in society, for example, may come a long way to improving their lives. These benefits may include unemployment benefits, food stamps, housing benefits, income support, among others. Policies on minimum wages, which may be enforced by regulation of labor markets, ensure statutory minimum payments. Other government policies that way help reduce poverty include free-market policies to promote economic growth and direct provision of goods and services, to mention but a few.

Investing in and implementing agricultural programs goes a long way to reduce poverty in a region. China, for example, has helped about eight hundred million people out of poverty since 1978 by focusing on agricultural programs. The Agricultural Bank of China has lent more than four hundred million to help develop rural areas, fund education, infrastructure, and crop production. Agricultural development can stimulate economic development outside the agriculture sector and lead to higher job and growth creation. Increased productivity of agriculture boosts food supply, raises farm income, reduces food prices, and increases job opportunities in both urban and rural areas. Such linkage between growth in the agricultural sector and the broader economy may enable a country to diversify to other sectors where growth is higher and wages are better.

Encouraging countries to engage in trade is the path out of poverty. Countries like Brazil, Botswana and Indonesia have used trade as a way out of poverty. According to Le Goff, & Singh, R. J. (2013), economic growth is essential to sustained poverty reduction and trade is argued to lead to an increase in the production of sustainable growth. Freer trade they add provides more significant incentives for investments leading to higher economic growth. Open trade is particularly beneficial to the poor because it reduces the cost of what they buy and raises the prices of what they sell. Research by the world trade organization in conjunction with World Bank reveals that farmers and manufacturing workers earn more income when their products can reach overseas markets and this can be made possible through open trade.

Education is a powerful tool towards poverty reduction. Marginalized families are in the lowest income brackets in the world. With lower rates of life expectancy, higher incidence of health problems, and are more poorly nourished than the rest of the population. Education that targets marginalized people and poor populations can bring change to many of the systemic factors that have contributed to delay in poor communities’ development. Education influences the seventeen sustainable development goals, as shown in figure 1. Education, for example, helped Liberia to rebuild after the Ebola virus crisis. Maitta a 14-year-old in Liberia, for example, was taken by her aunt after she lost her parents to Ebola and took her to school and her teacher Elizabeth, who remained strong for her students helped the students rise above the crisis and perform well in school to become a great support system for their families.


Sustainable development goals achievable through education

Poverty levels can be reduced by providing access to technology and innovation. These include internet access and affordable energy. In Bangladesh, for example, only 40 percent of the rural population has access to grid electricity. Those that do not have access endure frequent power outages. In the bid to fight poverty, Bangladesh started the second rural electrification and renewable energy project plan to increase access to electricity in rural areas via renewable energy. In a seminar on Science Technology and Innovation for poverty reduction, it showcased a range of projects that are designed to benefit people in the poorest parts of the world, particularly those who reside in rural areas. These projects include technologies to provide clean water, electricity, disease control and mobile communication.



The world has made significant progress in poverty reduction and eradication. However, there is still much to be done across the globe to ensure poverty levels go down. Among the measures that can reduce poverty include implementing poverty reduction policies, encouraging countries to be involved in trade, education, providing access to technology and innovation, and investing in and implementing agricultural programs.

















Diyamett, B. D., Wangwe, S. M., Komba, A., & Mneney, E. (2013). Science, Technology and Innovation for Poverty Reduction in Tanzania: An Analysis of the Sectoral Systems of Innovation. A Research Report for Manufacturing and Agriculture–Part II. Dar es Salaam: Research for Poverty Alleviation (REPOA).

Le Goff, M., & Singh, R. J. (2013). Does trade reduce poverty? A view from Africa. The World Bank.

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Nonverbal Communication in Interview

While preparing for a job interview, most individuals concentrate on providing the best answers for the questions. This drives them to concentrate their preparation on verbal communication neglecting or giving less attention to the nonverbal form of communication that plays an equally central part in whether or not one gets a job. Nonverbal communication includes body language and paralanguage, which are elements of speech besides words. These elements include intonation, speaking speed, facial expressions, sighs, and pauses. Nonverbal communication also includes grooming and attire. I am going to focus my advice on three main nonverbal communication areas which are personal appearance, facial expression and the use of body when standing or seated in an interview.

The first piece of advice I would give is on looking neat and presentable. It is key that the first impression on the interviewer is good as the process of judging as soon as one enters the interview room. Wear formal clothes and avoid the use of strong perfumes as some people may be allergic. Ladies should avoid the use of too much makeup and extra hairstyles as it may be distracting or give a wrong impression. Men should also ensure their hair and beards are well groomed and neat looking. In case one carries a folder for their documents, ensure that it is professional looking. Things that should be avoided includes, creased clothes, dusty shoes, very short dresses and skirts, and dirty clothes.

My second piece of advice is on positive body language. This may be achieved by correct use of gestures and facial expressions. Looking at the interviewer is a way of saying that you are listening to them. It is also important to nod your head occasionally as a signal that you acknowledge what the interviewer is saying. One should avoid gazing aimlessly around the room or constantly looking at the tie as it gives an impression of one who is not interested. One should also avoid overusing their hands while talking and fidgeting. You can rest your lap and occasionally use your hands when necessary. A number of things you should avoid include frowning at questions, chewing, looking bored, and raising eyebrows too much.

Lastly, I would like to advice on the use of our body when standing or seated during an interview. One should sit up straight and plant their feet firmly on the floor during an interview. Most people are of the belief that a relaxed pose will show confidence but instead it depicts lack of respect or interest. Sitting with both hands in your laps beneath the table depicts nervousness and should hence be avoided. When sitting, one should avoid weight shifting or foot tapping. One should stay standing until they are welcomed to have a seat. In a situation allowing standing, it is encouraged for one to stand while shaking the hands of the interviewers and do so until the other person sits. One should maintain an upright posture when standing and avoid awkward standing positions.

In conclusion, my advice on nonverbal communication aspects to take note of during interview include, looking neat and presentable, having positive body language, and maintaining an upright posture when standing or sitting. Putting into practice all of the above mentioned coupled with adequate preparation and self confidence will be a step towards getting the job you are interviewing for. However, this is just a portion of nonverbal communication skills that will guide you through the interview and direct you to be aware of other nonverbal communication through the interview session. I wish you all the best in your interview and may you emerge as the best.

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Over the past number of decades, a number of newspapers have become sluggish. The newspaper industry has been accustomed to making revenue without much competition. The onset of the internet and technology have brought newspapers to a realization that they are bound to encounter a financial crisis if they do not keep up with the new technology of their competitors. Several newspaper companies have not been able to keep up with competition and technological changes due to financial constraints. It has forced a number of them to be out of business while the big companies in bid to remain competitive have merged with the smaller newspaper industries. Nonetheless, this has not been adequate to tackle the challenges that are facing this sector. The existence of several options for catching up on the latest news has made the newspaper readers reduce in comparison to some decades back. However, the newspaper industry has not gone extinct, as some have been able to evolve with the rise off digital media successfully. This paper will make a description of the industry focusing on the history of the sector; the present trends in the industry and the challenges that the industry is facing currently. It will further look at approaches that can be put in place to ensure that the industry remains profitable and competitive despite the challenges that it is facing today.






Description of the Industry

A newspaper is a periodical that contains written information on specific events within geographical confinement or news of the world. They cover a wide variety of fields including business, sports, politics, and art. They further may include columns of weather focusing, public opinions, obituaries, review of local services, comic strips, crosswords, editorial cartoons, advice columns and so many more depending on the newspaper.

The history of the Newspaper industry dates back to the 17th century. The modern Newspaper traces its roots to Europe with the first real newspaper printed in England in 1665, which was followed by successful printings of Newspapers in 1702 (Picard, 2003). The ancestry of Newspapers, however, are closely linked with handwritten news sheets that were being circulated widely as early as 1566 in Venice. They were weekly news sheets that were filled with information concerning wars and politics in Europe and Italy. Early newspapers were published weekly and were highly censored by the government with most of its news being foreign and current prices of commodities in the market. Censorship of newspapers was relaxed later on in 1695 by the British government hence the beginning of flourishing of the newspaper industry in London and other cities which included Philadelphia and Boston. By the 1830s, newspaper industry had picked up so well that high-speed presses made it possible to print thousands of papers cheaply allowing for a low cost of production and a shift from the weekly production to the daily production of newspapers in many cities and countries (Lambert, 2019). The news of the world was first published in 1843. Newspapers have begun to become very common in the late 19th century, which saw the introduction of century stamp duty on Newspapers making them expensive.

The newspaper industry reached a stagnation point in the twentieth century. There were so many newspaper industries in a given country. The newspaper industry was actively facing a changing world, which challenged its dominance as they were in the 1800s. In the 1920s, radios had started taking center stage in news production until televisions came in place to take up the position of radios. The silent film industry was thriving, as magazines became more sophisticated adapting quality color printing and a general improvement to its overall look. A number of newspaper industries adopted to the changing environment (Lambert, 2019). A few that were not able to adopt to the changing environment were kicked out of business due to low profits, losses and stiff competition in the market.

There are new trends in the Newspaper industry today. Traditionally newspapers have been published on print. However, today most newspapers have included their publications on websites and online newspapers with some abandoning their print versions entirely. The newspaper industry was the first news sector, which was hit hard in many ways by the advent of the digital age. Readers have begun to move online, even products that had a legacy in their production. It was only a matter of time before the technology age caught up with them. In an industry that was used to content creation rather than engineering change and adoption to the new technological environment came very slow. In a few years, the newspaper industry found itself far behind in technology and behind their reader’s changing news habits. The sad fact for the industry that is still hitting them hard to date is that the change is only accelerated and every day they try to keep up with this change. To keep many of these industries functional the industry is experimenting on new ways of generating revenue as well as new ways of creating content so that they can engage with the audience much better.



Challenges facing the Newspaper industry

The threat of newspapers appears now from nearly every indicator. The growth of the Newspaper industry from 1950 to 1999 was at seventy percent and this has been decreasing since the year 2000. From the year 2000 to 2006, the industry recorded a growth of 0.5 percent and the growth dropped even further in the first quarter of 2006 to o.35 percent. Despite numerous efforts made the industry to venture into the online sector and other revenue sources, they only account for 5 percent of the total company’s revenue. In addition to this apparent sluggish growth, the newspaper industry faces challenges in circulation declines, ownership changes and a decline of its consumers.

The economics of the industry has further been challenged by the rise of internet and cable news, which has rendered newspapers to be no longer the biggest beneficiaries of reporting a story. Cable news networks and bloggers are able to take up stories much faster than the Newspapers can; hence, much of the profits of the hard work of newspaper reporters go to other players (Everett, 2011). This has served to the significant reduction of the profit margin of most newspaper industries and has seen others close down. Competition in the news industry has also increased significantly. The sector has further faced a reduction in the number of the consumers as the majority of the population is made up of the youth who are heavily reliant on social media and other online platforms to get their news. This has transferred to the revenue of the industry that has also been affected negatively. The newspapers face competition from different platforms including the television, radio, online platforms. Competition has been one of the significant challenges that are facing the industry especially with the down of new technologies that have revolutionized the industry.

Despite the struggling nature of the industry, they are still some companies that have managed to rise above the challenges and to stand tall in the market. This, of course, has come at a high cost of technological advancement and keeping at par with the changing technology and environment. It is possible to ensure that the newspaper industry remains afloat by the incorporation of approaches that will ensure they compete effectively on the market and stay profitable. The other section of this paper will look at several methods that can be used in the newspaper industry to ensure that they remain productive and compete effectively in the market to ensure their survival.













Approach to Remaining Profitable and Competitive

A mentioned earlier; newspaper industry has suffered drastically from the rise of the internet which allows online access to news, instant update of content and often use for free luring many leaders away from print media. The economic realities in the Newspaper industry, coupled with the strength of digital-only publications, are suggestive that a strategy that embraces online editions is a way forward for the newspaper industry (Purdy, Wong & Harris, 2019). In fact, recent economic trends have seen a wave of newspaper consolidation where larger chains have acquired smaller competitors. Despite this step, it has failed to strengthen the industry’s profit to any great degree caller for a better approach in solving the problems that are facing the industry. Using the five forces model to analyze the industry laying emphasis on the first point of competitors in the industry, we are able to identify that the Newspaper industry has a number of competitors who are undercutting the industry. Porter in his five models indicates that an industry that has a large number of competitors offering an equivalent number of products or services reduces the power of the company (Purdy, Wong & Harris, 2019). This statement is directly relating to the case of the Newspaper industry. The number of competitor s is many, including television, radio, social media, and online platforms, to mention a few. The increased number of competitors have reduced the power of an industry that once in history was leading in news production to now where it is a struggling industry. Porter offers a solution to such a scenario by advising such an industry to either offer a better deal or lower their prices so that they can compete favorably in the market. Transferring this solution to the Newspaper industry, embracing online editions will be a step towards dealing with the challenge of competition. Now, print spinoffs and other newspaper companies do not have the adequate financial resources to pull off a pivot new digital model that is equal or even better than that of their competitors. However, the possibility of consolidations enables the pooling of resources and enhancing scale so that these newspaper companies may be able to offer opportunities for investors hence gaining the ability to prosper in an increasingly digital world.

Large media companies that own television print and other types of assets can spin-off their newspaper operations. Separating publishing units segregates the print products and enables the company to keep its performance separate. In many news companies, when conglomerates are held at different kinds of media together, newspapers are often at lower growth and margin and starved for investments and resources — observing the growth and finances of a newspaper independently in a company rather than collectively ___ enables the company to identify its weaknesses and needs. It makes it possible therefore, to address these challenges directed to the Newspaper sector. It also ensures close monitoring of the department in the company so that it is easy to track changes and trends. Doing so also enables us to gauge it in relation to the market and put plans in place to ensure that they remain profitable and compete favorably.

In porter’s five forces, the fourth force addresses the power of customers. This force speaks to be the power of customers to drive the power of the industry up. An industry, therefore, is affected by how many buyers or customers that it has and how significant each consumer is. It also looks unto how much it would cost a company to find new customers or market for its output. A company that has much smaller, independent customers have the potential of having an easier time charging higher prices to increase profitability. Looking at the Newspaper industry today, the number of customers has gone down which makes it nearly impossible for the industry to increase its profitability. Towards better profits for the industry, it is vital to seek and identify ways of increasing the number of consumers by reaching more people in the market. Technology offers the best solution to this problem. The growing presence of technology may be used to influence the way newspapers distribute their news. In a survey study involving 109 participants, 63.9 % of the participants indicated that newspapers they are using technology are doing a good job.97.2% of the participants stated that they were using websites, 70.6 percent were using social media42.2 percent were suing instant messaging awhile 37.6% were using smartphone applications (Bird, 2017). Newspapers may take advantage of this large number of individuals in websites, social media, messaging and smartphone applications to increase its number of customers. This may be achieved with blogs, free text message subscriptions. Research indicates that mobile technology has a promising future, although potential technology is yet to be discovered by the Newspaper industry. Direct channel allowing contact with mobile internet customers is essential and it further promises an increased number of consumers for the industry. These new technologies above mentioned are sweeping across the news industry and it would be wise and profitable for Newspapers to adopt these new technologies to enhance their business.

The Newspaper Company can focus on the few areas that are still working for them to improve on their profitability. An example is the New York Times where advertisements remain a primary revenue source and it has maximized on this enabling the company to stay afloat despite the challenges facing the industry. The annual report for New York limes for the year 2016 indicated that 89 percent of advertisement revenue came from displays advertisements in both digital and print versions (Bird, 2017). Five percent of the Newspaper advertisements both printed and digital were attributed to classified advertisements, and finally, 6 percent came from other advertising like freestanding inserts, branded bags and so on. Digital advertising for Newspapers has held quite steady, with only a 2 percent drop between 206 to 2015. Digital advertising increased from 1.2 million dollars in 2003 to 3.5 million dollars in 2014. Digital advertisements are a great contributor to the industry’s revenue (Bird, 2017). Newspaper industries ought to maximize their strengths to ensure that the company is profitable. Maximizing on strengths begins with the overall analysis of the company and identifying the areas of strength and those of weakness. Maximizing these areas of strength enables the industry to compensate for the areas of weaknesses eliminating losses in the sector.

Newspaper companies may also increase their profitability by tackling the threats of new entrants. They may do so by coming up with new products, which will not only bring new customers but also give the old customers reason to buy from the Newspaper industry (“The New York Times Company Porter Five (5) Forces & Industry Analysis [Strategy]”, 2019). They may also build economies of scale so that they can lower the fixed cost per unit, which goes a long way in increasing their profit margin. It is difficult for new entrants to enter into a dynamic industry that has established players who keep defining the standards regularly. This may be made possible by building capacity and spending money on research and development of the industry. T reduces the window of extraordinary profits for the new entrants discouraging new players in the industry. Discouraging new entrants in the industry also have the effect of reducing the number of competitors in the industry through the control of the number of players. It becomes difficult for the industry to flood, which encourages too much competition that some companies cannot withstand.







The newspaper industry has undergone several changes from its early years until now. In the first years, it enjoyed enormous profits and less competition being the primary source of news at the time. Over the years however, the industry has become flooded increasing competition on the market and reducing the profit margin of the entire industry. The down of the internet days and improved technology hit the industry the hardest as it struggled to remain relevant in a world where people preferred online sites to obtain their news from. Some of the newspapers successfully adapted to the change while a number run out of business. Apart from the challenge of technology and the internet, the industry also had its consumers significantly reduced and competition in the market heightened. The sector however can remain profitable and competitive by embracing the new technology of their competitors, increase the number of their consumers, improve on their services that they become more desirable among their customers, tackling the threats of new entrants and capitalizing on their strengths. These approaches and more are able to provide the much-needed strength for the newspaper industry to ensure that they remain afloat and keep up with the changing trends as they still make enough revenue to certain them in the market.








Bird, B. (2017). How the Newspaper Industry Is Profitable Today. Retrieved 19 December 2019, from

Grundy, T. (2006). Rethinking and reinventing Michael Porter’s five forces model. Strategic Change15(5), 213-229.

Everett, E. (2011). Transformation of Newspapers in the Technology Era. Retrieved 19 December 2019, from

Lambert, T. (2019). A History of Newspapers. Retrieved 19 December 2019, from

Picard, R. G. (2003). The economics of the daily newspaper industry. In Media economics (pp. 119-136). Routledge.

Purdy, S., Wong, P., & Harris, P. (2019). Stop the presses!. Retrieved 19 December 2019, from

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My Love Don’t Cross That River

This is a documentary by Moyoung Jin. It hit became for famous becoming South Korea’s most successful independent theoretical feature in the history of the country. The documentary displays true love and loss. This is a celebration of a very long-term marital contentment. It portrays a very happy kinship evidenced by true soul mates who are in their nineties and at a point where death does not spare meeting them.  An older woman sobs bitterly at the foot of a grave mourning the loss of a loved one who recently died. To capture the title of the movie, it presents its title on a docile river. The film’s first moments are indicative that it is meant to manipulate two of human emotions that are love and loss, and by the end of the movie, it leaves the viewer’s feeling something profound.

Jin follows the life of a Kye-yeol who is 89 years old and her 98-year-old husband, Byeong-Man Jo, while they are nearing the end of their lives, as it films for approximately sixteen months. The first half of the film shows their romantic and most joyful life with each other. It captures the little romantic moments like Jo singing to Kang as she urinates in the outhouse to keep her fear at bay. They engage in snow, leaf, and water fights as if they were nothing more than a few years. This is until health issues finally catch up with Jo, and we see his health deteriorating.

Despite the success of the film in capturing, life is of the two. It displays shortcomings, including an utter lack of character or story development. Despite the health of Jo, deteriorating their life never changes, which leads one to believe they are reading from a script.




Raise the Red Lenten

Raise the red Lenten is a Chinese film of physical beauty and angry passions directed by Zhang Yimou. It is based on the novel Wives and Concubines. It can be interpreted in many ways. One as a cry against the women subjection in Chin, secondly as an attack on the feudal attitude and lastly as an exercise in storytelling. Overall, the movie is so fascinating at the level of melodrama.

It introduces the viewer into the world of a rich man’s house to observe ho jealousy fosters in the atmosphere. Despite all the four wives being treated like goddesses, they are driven by envy and competition. The new wife, Songlian quickly learns the routine of the house, and before she drowns into its intrigues and alliance formation. The film focuses on the theme of Concubine. The old man is only seen in hints and shadows as his wives and staff scheme amongst themselves at the favour of the old man.

It is the master’s tradition to raise a Lenten at the house of the wife she wishes to spend the night at. The new wife quickly learns that she has to resort to manipulation if she wants attention as during the first night, the third wife to sooth calls he master her, as she is ailing. The movie offers a view of life within a dictatorial social community. A better part of the film deals with the changing balance of power between the various communities. The master is easily manipulated although his favour determines the wife that commands the most power. The acting is very effective that it capture the multiple personalities of the concubines who struggle to not only be cold but also calculating.



The Twilight Samurai

Twilight Samurai is a film that tells a story twilight Seibei, who is a lowly retainer toiling under great financial hardship so that he can raise his two daughters and also care for his senile mother following the death of his wife from consumption. He is an incredibly sincere man with honour and personal pride. The story of Seibei I told by the director in muted tones and colours that beautifully re-creates the feudal village, which has retained its architecture, ancient values, customs and economy. Seibei’s daughter tells the story who in the film is young but is in the sound truck as she remembers her father with so much love and admiration.

Seibei is tasked by the clan’s men to kill Yogo, an unruly Samurai who is considered crazy. Eibei, despite refusing the task he is bribed and blackmailed into it. The film magnificently gathers all that we have learnt about Seibei and uses it to bring depth to what would have happened in sequence as Tomoe shyly prepares him for battle.

The film is deliberate, beautiful and concise. The violence is dished out in sharp bursts but has a very real quality, which is a perfect illustration of Seibei as towards the end of the movie, he steps over the body of slain Samurai assassin who now is frozen in rigour mortis and also engulfed by flies. This makes the film more anchored and authentic. The theme of honour, material goods, and modernization resonates loudly I the movie making it something more profound.






My Love, Don’t Cross That River (2014) – IMDb. (2019). Retrieved 10 December 2019, from

Raise the Red Lantern (1991) – IMDb. (2019). Retrieved 10 December 2019, from

The Twilight Samurai (2002) – IMDb. (2019). Retrieved 10 December 2019, from

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Militarization of The Law Enforcement Agencies in The United States of America.

There has been an increase in the National debates surrounding police tactics which includes militarized policing. Militarized policing incorporates the use of military tactics, weapons and uniforms by the police while dealing with criminal activities among civilians. The costs and benefits of the controversial practice is a subject that is still a topic of debate as its results remain unclear due to a limitation in data on the topic. An increase in the visible presence of militarized police men in the United States has raised concern. This paper will address the factors that have induced the increase in the adoption of military paradigm by domestic civilian police agencies.


Factors that have induced increased Militarism among civilian police agencies.

Law enforcement in the United States has not always been a formal entity that is run by the government, as early forms of policing in the United States consisted of volunteer groups and privately funded part timer officers. The new policing can be associated with urbanization and growth leading to the development of centralized municipal policing departments. Law enforcement departments currently in the United States have increased immensely which employ over 420,000 law enforcement officers tasked with protecting the safety of our communities. Police militarism is a recent rising phenomenon among the law enforcement agencies (Mosteller, 2020). It incorporates civilian police increasingly draw the pattern of tenets of militarism and military model. The increase use of military equipment’s has also coincided with the use of military tactics like SWAT teams, no-knock-raids by the law enforcement agencies.


One of the explanations to the gradual shift in policing to be more militarized is the everyday concept of risk. Shifts on how particular societies responds to risks has a profound impact on the society. Societies today view risks on a futuristic lens, hence when the security of a society is violated the state must take action and in the same light when the law enforcement officers feel threated, they take action to protect themselves. Due to the increase of both domestic and global risks such as issues arising from clandestine transnational actors, United States among other nations has shifted to a crime fare state. Here, policy begins to incooperate a distinctively militarized tone so that they can better face and eliminate the enemy (Andreas, 2003). Threats from transnational actors for example terrorism and drug trafficking further shifts the police forces to militarization (Hill, & Beger,2009).

Police are also prone to militarize themselves as every agency is militarized to a certain degree. The availability of federal funding and equipment program being readily available for law enforcement officers makes it possible for federal agencies all over the United States gradually shift to a militarized policy approach (Fisher,2010). The domestic and global threats and the natural inclination of police agencies to militarize has led to the use of special weapons and tactics throughout the United States and beyond (Bolduc,2016). The law enforcement agencies respond to a typically and dangerous situations in a not typical manner.

The United States in the 20th century has faced a large and heavy number of criminal organizations in which the law enforcement officers have been outperformed. The periods of 1920s saw criminals being armed with submachine guns and automatic rifles. This pushed the Federal Berea of investigation and the police departments in cities to begin a deployment of automatic weapons. The dawn of the 21st century saw the fourth amendment that requires police officers to receive written permission from the court of law to lawfully search and seize evidence while investigating criminal activities. Patriotic act further gave them the permission to search home and business without owners or occupant’s knowledge or permission if terrorist activities were suspected. On May18, 2015 the president announced limits to the type of military equipment that can be transferred to the police departments and also required that the police go through a training program to ensure that they use the equipment’s well.

It is necessary that in the event that the police have to use military equipment and tactics, proper training of the same follows. This will enable them use the equipment and tactics in the correct way to avoid the effects it has to the public bringing about public opinion and uproar against police militarization. There is also the need for the reduction of the warrior like police training which foresters an “us’ verses “them” approach when dealing with civilians. The proper process also ought to be followed on the policies and procedures laid down on police militarization. This includes the gears and equipment’s that they are required to use and obtaining court orders and permissions where needed. These will serve to improve the relationship between the law enforcement officers and the community.


Potential danger of police militarization

Increased militarization of law enforcement agencies may lead to a significant decline in public trust of law enforcement agencies. Public opinion and trust on law enforcement agencies is likely to decrease even further compared to the total decrease since the year 200 when the concept of police militarism stared to be active among many communities in the United States f America. In a survey study conducted in 2016 the conclusions of the study indicated that civilians in the United States considered the use of military equipment by the police to have gone too far (Mosteller, 2020). The same study indicated that a large number of Americans belief that police should be required to get a warrant before using extra force on civilians, searching their homes and monitoring phone calls. The reduction in law enforcement low support for militarism from the public impends the implementation of this military aspects in law enforcement and consequently the law enforcement ability to effectively secure the public.



Militarization of the law enforcement agencies has been a phenomenon that has been on the increase in recent years. It has attracted uproars from the community, public figures and politicians, who have tried to find a way around the issue that would drift the gap between law enforcement agencies and the civilians. However as seen above there are reasons why the police have increased their use of military equipment and tactics. One is due to the increased number of crimes both locally and internationally, including terrorism, drug trafficking or even bank robbery. They also feel by militarizing, they are safer from possible attacks and are at a position of offering security to the citizens much better. Regardless there is need for them to go through training before handling this equipment and also ensure that their actions are within the confinements of the law.









Andreas, P. (2003). Redrawing the line: Borders and security in the twenty-first century. International security28(2), 78-111.

Bolduc. (2016). Global Insecurity: How Risk Theory Gave Rise to Global Police Militarization. Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies, 23(1), 267. doi:10.2979/indjglolegstu.23.1.267

Fisher, J. (2010). SWAT Madness and the Militarization of the American Police: A National Dilemma: A National Dilemma. ABC-CLIO.

Hill, S., & Beger, R. (2009). A paramilitary policing juggernaut. Social justice36(1 (115), 25-40.

Mosteller, J. (2020). Militarization of Police In the United States | Charles Koch Institute. Retrieved 9 March 2020, from

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Microbial ecology of the rhizosphere and selection

The properties of soil that are in close vicinity with roots of a plant undergo modification by a number of processes that occur during plant growth. microbiota Phillopot et al., (2013 indicates that this has an effect on rhizosphere. Low-molecular mass compounds, root border cell, root cap cells and polymerized sugar are released by the roots. the soil in then uses these rhizodeposists as carbon sources in grasses and cereals. These rhizodeposists further contain secondary metabolic that are involved in establishing in symbiosis or in warding off pests and pathogens.

In a study by Phillopot et al (2013) to determine the multitrophic interaction in the rhizosphere, there is constitutive and inducible changes in secondary metabolism and morphological structures due to direct interactions between hosts and their associate microbiota. Regulation of these interactions is made possible by communication through signaling. An example of communication through signaling happens in flavonoids, stigolactones and sesquiterpenes. Such communication is important as it helps plants to coordinate their activities in response to changing conditions. There existed assumptions among ecologists before that above ground interactions wee more specific than below ground multitrophic interactions. Evidence however indicate that below ground multitrophic interactions the governing mechanisms for below ground and above ground interactions are similar. Recent research in this line has hence served to prove that the former believe was misinformed as further research on the same reveal that interactions below and above are actually similar. There has been extreme documentation of interactions in rhizosphere with direct or indirect effects on plant health. The following have been observed to have adverse effects to plants, pathogenic bacteria, fungi (including AMF), oomycetes, nematodes and microarthropods. Roots can also be a point of virus to infect a plant but nematodes or fungi is required to penetrate the root tissue. Most nematodes are free living and feed on bacteria, fungi. Nematodes feed on all parts of the plant including roots, stems, leaves. Flower and seeds but all use specialized spear called a stylet. Zarraonaindia et al., (2015) in addition indicates that rhizosphere microbial community composition is known to be influenced by roots through both selective enrichment via root exudation and root morphology.

Importance and Function of Plant Microbiomes

The root microbiome is a dynamic community of microorganisms that are associated with plant roots. The root microbiome is recruited from a diverse range of microbes that are present in the surrounding bulk soil ((soil biome outside the rhizosphere). Plant roots microbiome are essential for protection from pathogens, regulation of host immunity and uptake of nutrients. Research is indicative of the capability of plants in recruiting beneficial bacteria expressing high levels of AHL- degrading enzymes when they are exposed to pathogens hence suppressing virulence gene expression (Rout 2014). Plants also specifically stimulate AHL degradation by recruiting activity within microbiome. fluorescent pseudomonads demonstrate another example as many of them are capable of producing the antimicrobials 2,4- diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG) and derivatives of phenazine (Phz). Rout (2014) indicates that these bacteria is common to the rhizosphere of a diverse array of plant species. Protection is given by antimicrobials against a wide range of plants pathogens, in which most of them are fungal. Pathogen suppression can persist for an extended length of time. Suppression activity can be induced through recruitment of microbes that secrete valuable antimicrobials. There has been an observation in many ecosystems of buildup of 2,4-DAPG in the rhizospherewhich is correlated with the suppression of take-all disease in wheat (Rout, 2014). Rout (2014) research further reveals that alterations to exudate profiles and play a role in the induction of plant systemic resistance.

Muller et al., (2016) notes that plant growth is promoted indirectly in diverse members of plant-associated microbiota by protecting them from pathogent. plant-associated microorganisms protect against plant pathogens through a mechanism that include, production of lytic enzymes, competition for nutrients and niches, induction of plan mediated resistance, and antibiosis. Interactions with other organisms, e.g., herbivores, can be affected by plant associated microorganisms as well. Protection against plant pathogesns is also made possible by Phyllosphere-colonizing bacteria. In an observation made by Innerebner et al. (2011) it is indicative that several sphingomonads isolated from various plant species protected Arabidopsis against foliar bacterial pathogens, on the other hand did not isolate from water or air. Vogel et al., (2012) adds that, the identification of several Sphingomonas mutants which provide attenuated protection in planta suggested that different mechanisms could contribute incrementally to plant protection.Recently it was known that distinct phyllosphere microbiota harboured by this mutant conferred increased resistance of an Arabidopsis cuticle to fungal pathogen Botrytis cinereal.Protectio against B was provided by a  species of  Pseudomonas isolated from the phyllosphere of the mutant.Cinera in Arabidopsis which is also found in apples reveals that upset of the microbiota might contribute to the protection of plant under the conditions of this experiment. The control of soilborne pathogens can either be general due to the overall activities of microorganisms found in soil or specific by relying on activity of only a subset of microorganisms (Muller et al., 2016). Muller et al., (2016) ) reports that the results of a test conducted to compare the rhizosphere microbiota of sugar beet grown in either suppressive or conducive soil.Despite the fact that the number of bacterial taxa was similar in two types of soil, the number of certain members of the microbial community was different in suppressive soils. Disease-suppressive soil irrespective of pathogen presence was associated with Pseudomonadaceae, Burkholderiaceae, Xanthomonadales, and Lactobacillaceae, while in suppressive soil when the pathogen Rhizoctonia solani was present Actinobacteria were more abundant. A later study found an increased abundance of several bacterial families and induction of stress-related functions in the presence of the pathogen when it assessed the composition and function of the rhizosphere microbiome of the same disease-suppressive soil as discussed above for microbial interactions.

Microbes provide novel biochemical capabilities. They do this by mediating plant functional traits and further through altering existing plant pathways. In comparison to the plant’s hoists, microbes have a far more diverse metabolic library. Their diverse metabolic library makes it possible for them to synthesize biologically active chemicals that are able to mimic those produced by plants or are totally novel to plants. Friesen et al., (2011) notes that all plants hormones currently known produce microbes. This ability makes it possible for altering of plant physiological pathways by producing or manipulating phytohormones by microbial communities. For example, eighty percent of bacterial taxa in plant rhizospheres have been reported to produce IAA. High concentration of IAA inhibits plant growth and cause developmental perturbations typical of plant pathogenic bacteria while Low concentrations of IAA promote root growth in many plants.

Nutrients uptake

Plants need nutrients for a number of reasons, germination, growth, fight off diseases and pest and also reproduce The presence of both symbiotic nitrogen-fixing rhizobacteria and AM fungi in a gnotobiotic grassland microcosm, synergistically affected composition and function of the plant community in a beneficial way under nutrient-limiting conditions. Other than rhizobia rhizosphere and endosphere microorganisms can also fix nitrogen, but the extent to which these diazotrophs contribute to nitrogen input can differ widely in agricultural settings.Nutrients that are not readily available to plants can be mobilized by other rhizosphere colonizers such as iron or phosphorouss through mineralization, solubilization or excretion of siderophores. Plant growth can also be influence by Modulation of plant hormone.There are different mechanisms of modulating plat hormones including amino acid conjuction. Root system architecture is altered by Auxin, as well as other compounds produced by rhizobacteria which indirectly enhances nutrient acquisition by the roots. Microorganisms may also indirectly activate nutrients acquisition of plants. This is observed in some rhizobacteria that induce the iron acquisition machinery in Arabidopsis.

Environmental Stress Shielding (muller et al., 2016)

Plant tolerance to abiotic stresses such as flooding, drought, high salinity, extreme temperatures, and heavy metal contamination can be increased by plant microbiota. 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, an enzyme implicated in plant growth promotion, which converts the ethylene precursor ACC to α-ketobutyrate and ammonia. ethylene-mediated inhibition of plant growth in response to various stresses is alleviated by Microorganisms with ACC deaminase activity divert ACC which, reduce ethylene production via ACC oxidase by the plant. Plants may be helped to changing environmental conditions by the microbiota. Muller reports that Brassica rapa were adapted to dry and wet conditions, respectively, for three generations. The Brassica rapa are associated soil microbial communities

Climate stresses, like climate change, extreme temperatures and plant phenology could lead to fluctuations in the plant’s need for increased or decreased levels of this hormone. PGP members of the microbiome are favored by the selection pressures. that can influence plant traits in ways that increase abiotic stress tolerance and/or plant performance to ensure plant persistence, and empirical evidence supports this. Muller et al., (2016) indicates that PGPB which contain and express multiple genes important for maintaining the plant–microbial association have been called ‘competent’.PGPB were more effective in promoting plant growth when they were capable of dual growth promoting traits an idea that is similar to the ‘dual trait ‘phenomenon.

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Understanding and Managing People’s Resistance to COVID-19 Health & Safety Rules and Regulations

The recent rise of Covid-19 pandemic has brought an era where changes in all circles of life are quickened. There is the requirement for fast adjustments and most extreme changes to combat this disease. Changes happen to quickly that even the extreme advancements are required to take place within a brief timeframe. One of the most baffling and recalcitrant of the problems which the government, health sectors, society, and individuals face is resistance to change which takes a number of forms. Change usually creates uncertainty that requires new learning behavior. An understanding of this, creates a foundation which enables understanding and managing people’s resistance. This paper will explore the different reasons for resistance and how to manage it, laying emphasis on changes brought about by Covid-19.

The risk of change is often perceived by individuals to be greater than the risk of standing still (Schuler,2003). Making change is more often like taking a leap of faith by deciding to move in the direction of the unknown, for a promise of things to get better. During this time, for example, people’s economic sources have either gone down or completely been shut down. Most governments have advised their citizens to either go in lockdown or reduce social interactions. Many families tend not to adhere to this as they do not know how their tomorrow will be, having no finances to fend for their families. In return, they end up resisting to change by continuing in their economic activities, as they try to provide for their families and see that their businesses and work do not go under. Making a change is more about managing the risk (Schuler,2003). In the cases where individuals see greater risks beyond what the governments assess, they tend to resist the change. When an idea of change is seen only based on idealistic evidence, individuals may not be nearly as effective in moving into action. The power of the human response can be activated for change but it begins with perception of the risk. In this case, therefore, governments ought to address the risks caused by COVID 19 broadly to include its risks to the economy, health, families, and individuals. Where possible, they help mitigate these risks to the economy, family and individuals to enable people be receptive to the changes they suggest.

Personal characteristics also play a significant role in resistance to change (Radzi, & Othman, 2014). The characteristics may include cognitive rigidity, reluctance to lose control, intolerance with adjustment periods, lack of psychological resilience, reluctance to give up old habits, and a preference for low level of stimulation and novelty. These characteristics are often rooted in the personality of an individual, and are related to their need to restructure which shapes their reaction to change. Personality is among the many factors that underlie peoples cognitive, affective, and behavioral response to change. Change can evoke emotions as an individual assesses positive and negative outcomes and the processes that deliver them. Sanguine individuals for example, tend to be lively, buoyant, and carefree and may find it very difficult to keep up with changes of social distancing and lockdown, as they love interacting freely and being in the company of people. This may make them be resistant to such changes due to their personality. The solution to this may involve increasing people’s involvement in the change initiatives so as to create support for the program. This creates trust which is a vital element in gaining confidence in the government and the health regulations that has been laid down to be followed by citizens. The development of trust involves building a positive relationship with people in order to gain support in the process of change. Individuals should be able to trust that the health regulations and change are reliable and credible in handling the fight against the pandemic.

Change starts with the perception of its need; hence, a wrong initial perception is the first barrier to change. Distorted perception, interpretation, and vague strategic priorities give room to resistance (Del Val, & Fuentes, 2003). The inability of a country or health sector to look into the future with clarity, denial, or refusal to accept information that is not expected or desired, may serve to distort reality. Let us take a case of Italy as presented by Pisano, Sadun and Zanini (2020). Italy discovered its first Corona case in February 21st. The leaders in Italy failed to recognize the magnitude of the threat posed by Covid-19 and were therefore not able to organize systematic response. At the point when the government decreed essential prohibition of all movements of people within the territory, and closure of all non-essential business activities, people perceived the disease without the seriousness that it deserved. They therefore went against the government directives of social gatherings and closure of non-essential areas. The results were devastating in that within a month and a half the disease had brought the country on its knees, reporting among the highest numbers of deaths and infections (Pisano, Sadun & Zanini, 2020). To avoid such a situation, individuals should be made to understand the importance of the change and the implications that it holds for them. An understanding of this helps individuals to be informed and motivated towards the change. Their motivation is further informed, which enables making rational decisions that is directed towards the anticipated positive outcome.










This paper highlights the reasons why people are resistant to change especially at this time when governments have put health measures and regulations to fight the spread of Covid-19. The first reasons for resistance are that the risk of change is often perceived by individuals to be greater than the risk of standing still. The way out of this is reducing the possible risks caused by such change. In the case of the fight against Covid-19, the governments can mitigate the risks associated with the measures implemented in the economy, family, and individuals. The second reason for resistance is personal characteristics of individuals that may make them rigid to change. Involvement of people in the change process helps such individuals to gain trust in the process and make the needed changes. Lastly, perspective of people can also affect their reaction to change. It is therefore essential that people are helped to have a clear perception of the change, its impact, and benefits, so that they can be motivated to change. At this time when the world is fighting against this pandemic, it is crucial that people adhere to the regulations that have been laid down to ensure the spread of the disease is stopped.










Del Val, M. P., & Fuentes, C. M. (2003). Resistance to change: a literature review and empirical study. Management decision.

Pisano, G., Sadun, R., & Zanini, M. (2020). Lessons from Italy’s Response to Coronavirus. Retrieved 12 May 2020, from

Radzi, N. I. M., & Othman, R. (2014). Resistance to change: The moderating effects of leader-member exchange and role breadth self-efficacy. Journal of Advanced Management Science Vol4(1), 72-76.

Schuler, A. J. (2003). Overcoming resistance to change: Top ten reasons for change resistance. Retrieved May 12, 2020.

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Literature review

Kuwait took drastic measures early with the onset of coronavirus pandemic. These measures include, halting air travel, quarantining and testing thousands of people and imposing curfews. Kuwait suspended all commercial flights leaving and arriving at Kuwait City International Airport. Gulf state was further shut down for two weeks. Employees were also given a two weeks holiday starting on March 26th. Prohibitions on market gathering, cafes and also health clubs were made. There has been a further ban on food exports with the government reassuring citizens that it has enough food to sustain the country and shopping was continuing to take place (New York Times, 2020).These are the latest steps in a series of precautionary measures that have been put in place by the government in the Gulf country which has recorded over thirteen thousand cases of corona. People have been encouraged to follow the measures imposed by the government as warning that curfews and deportations could be used if people failed to comply with the measures.

Hagagy and Kalin (2020) indicate that following a previous experience in 2012 of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome disease (MERS), Kuwait was better prepared to deal with coronavirus. Their previous experience with MERS meant that hospitals had already established separate triage units for respiratory illness which have specialized ventilation to protects the medical personnel from infection. Two of the hospitals in the region have a drive -thru testing in place which is instrumental in mass testing of the public. The health care providers following their previous experience have adequate knowledge on handling a pandemic and patients of such nature.

Kuwait has integrated the use of artificial intelligence to increase surveillance of the citizens as a means of fighting the outbreak. The measure has faced a number of criticisms from people arguing that it is impinging on civilians’ human rights. Gramah (2020) says that there is increasing deployment of sophisticated technology to ensure that movement of people is limited and that social distancing is in place through the use of speed cameras, robots and drones. Applying location -based contact tracing, the government of Kuwait can monitor those who have tested positive for the virus and try ways of limiting their exposure to the rest of the population. Ramah adds that artificial intelligence has the ability to crunch large amounts of data which enable the government to collect information to try and stop the pandemic. Despite the controversies brought about by the use of artificial intelligence, and its violation on human privacy, it has been found to be key to lifting lockdown measures. Surveillance has been upgraded under the banner of combating Covid-19. National wide curfew is been reinforced by increased security service and surveillance. Criminal penalties have also been introduced in the dissemination of information about the virus that are false.

On April 16th, the ministry of health direct orders that that in the event of death caused by the virus, the deceased is placed in a completely closed bag which does not open. The burial procedure is under the health directive procedures and the graves are chosen according to the established numerical sequence ensuring that there are no places designated for those who died with the virus. Only three people are allowed to attend the burial which takes place in a cemetery (Arab Times, 2020).








Arab Times (2020) 3 dead bodies infected with coronavirus buried without washing – ARAB TIMES – KUWAIT NEWS. (2020). Retrieved 19 May 2020, from

Graham, E. (2020). Some countries in the Middle East are using artificial intelligence to fight the coronavirus pandemic. Retrieved 19 May 2020, from

Kalin, S., & Hagagy, A. (2020). Hard times shape speedy Saudi and Kuwaiti coronavirus response. Retrieved 19 May 2020, from

New York Times (2020) “Kuwait Gears Up for Coronavirus Lockdown, Minister Urges Calm”. The New York Times. 12 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.

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