The changing dynamics of population has presented management challenges in the criminal department to a degree. The world population is expected to increase by two billion people by the year two thousand and fifty. The continued increase in population, presents the criminal and criminal justice organizations with new challenges or an exacerbate of the challenges that they have been facing previously. The management bares the heavy load of the challenge as they are looked upon to provide solutions to these issues. This paper seeks to investigate through an in-depth literature review the management challenges because of the shifting demographics populations within criminal justice organization.

Criminal justice is delivering justice to hose who have committed crimes. The criminal justice system consists of a series of government agencies and institutions whose goals include rehabilitation of offenders, preventing crimes and moral support for victims. Proper management of criminal justice organization is key in ensuring that they meet their set goals in a manner that is swift and efficient. This cannot be over emphasized as the role of these organizations are key to individuals and the society at large.

There is a common tendency in the criminal justice departments to confuse the concepts leadership and management especially when the terms are used interchangeably with the concepts of administration and supervision. However, both are needed to ensure that organizations operate in an efficient and effective and they are also needed in a balance for one to be effective in their position of authority.

An effective leader in the criminal justice organizations becomes adept at responding to challenges. The police department and other criminal justice organizations must balance constancy and predictability as they adapt to change especially relation to shift in demographic populations (Batts,Smoot, & Scrivner, 2012). Managers must recognize the fluid context that their agencies operate in and further understand that they are forces to which police organizations must adapt and evolve so that they can remain effective and relative in the changing world. It is these forces that drive organizational change by managers being the initiators of creating new models for conducting the business of criminal justice.

Successful leadership in the criminal justice department is characterized with having a strong interpersonal skill a capacity to motivate others to follow the set vision and an ability too articulate vision. In addition is the ability to motivate others to take part in decision making process (Bennis, 2003; Burns, 2003; Kouzes & Posner, 2002; Yukl, 2002). The dominant traits that are evident in literature concerning an ineffective leader in the criminal department are an inverse of a well-regarded leader. They exhibit habits that both enhance and diminished their efficacy (Dotlich & Cairo, 2003). They exhibit poor interpersonal skills; they fail to delegate or indecisive. Successful leadership for example in the policing department ensures the shaping of traditional policing outcomes, reduction in incidences of misconduct and abuse of authority (Huberts, Kaptein, & Lasthuizen, 2007)

Managers in attempt to dispense their duties and mandates within the criminal and justice organization are faced with a number of challenges. The first one relates to ethics. The police department for example has an image problem due to events that have helped shape the perception of policy while rarely according them to exercise a “do over”. The major challenge to chiefs and or senior leaders is on those that attack their personal integrity and honesty. Ethical climate of most criminal justice organization has been set on actions and behaviors of their men and women and especially the managers who make critical decisions. It exerts a lot of pressure to chief of police for example to ensure there is ethical climate established in the organization so that to improve their public image.

There is need for promotion of training especially on leadership for people in the criminal justice organizations different from the training received before assuming the position. There is usually low training for supervisors and managers or in the case there is it comes after assuming the position, this creates its own falling point. Leadership training for people in this organizations is key and it should focus of skills, characteristics and choice of leadership style that is most effective in ensuring successful leadership of the organizations.

Political challenges may be another impediment towards effective management of the criminal justice organizations. Most of the leaders in these organizations are required to manage the political face while at the same time be a public figure. For example, most people view the position of chief of police as political hence required to be a public figure. Events may occur that strain their relationship with other public officials and it is sometimes difficult to maintain a relationship that allows leaders in criminal justice organizations and governing bodies to dispense their duties independently without political interference (Middleton-Hope, 2011).


The criminal justice organizations play a significant role in the society hence the need to be managed and led well. The literature highlights the importance of effective leadership in these organization so that to ensure they meet the set goals. Despite the mentioned challenges to the implementation of a successful management, it is still possible to have a successful management in these organizations.





Batts, A. W., Smoot, S. M., & Scrivner, E. M. (2012). Police leadership challenges in a changing world. US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice

Bennis, W. (2003). On becoming a leader. New York: Basic Books

Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper & Row.

Dotlich, D. L., & Cairo, P. C. (2003). Why CEOs fail: The 11 behaviors that can derail yourclimb to the top- and how to manage them. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass

Huberts, L. W. J. C., Kaptein, M., & Lasthuizen, K. (2007). A study of the impact of threeleadership styles on integrity violations committed by police officers. Policing: AnInternational Journal of Police Strategies & Management,30, 587−607

Kouzes, J. M., & Posner, B. Z. (2002). The leadership challenge (3rd ed.). San Francisco:Jossey-Bass.

MIDDLETON-HOPE, J. O. H. N. (2011). Challenges in Contemporary Police Leadership. Strategies and Responses to Crime: Thinking Locally, Acting Globally, 235.

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