Eating meat is immoral

Obtaining animal meat is a product of causing animal suffering which is immoral. The pain that animals endure is close to or even just as real as that felt by humans. We should feel compassion for animals the same way we would for a human being.

Singer argues that it is possible to survive and live a healthy life without eating meat. It is best for one to choose that option and avoid causing unnecessary harm and suffering to animals. Non -human animals also feel and should be treated according to utilitarian ethics. The reasons for killing animals or hurting them are similar than reasons for not hurting or killing humans. Humans unlike other animals are conscious of their behavior and have a choice, and should therefore choose not to cause animal suffering.


Singer finds that animals merits equal rights because like humans, there should be equal considerations of interests which embraces all animals with the differences that exists in them. These considerations should be used as a basis of relations for our species and in relating with other species too (Rachels, & Rachels,2015). Norcross argue that what Fred does to puppies is the same as what we do to eat meat. In both cases, animals are tortured so that to enjoy an animal product. He adds that it doesn’t matter if you do the torturing individually or hire someone lese to do it for you. In the case of Fred, he does the tutoring of the puppies himself while most of the meat-eating population have the same done to animals by either meat factories or other people.


Norcross dismisses the argument that one should not be obliged to stop eating meat as it will not reduce the number of animals being killed. He says that it can make a difference in the long run as people refraining from purchasing the meat will affect the industry. It may take time but eventually with the number of people refraining from eating meat increases the demand will reduce reducing total number of animals being killed. I agree with him because slowly but surely with the increase of number of people a number will be reached that will affect the industry and it will translate to reduced number of animals killed for meat.
















Rachels, J. & Rachels, S. (2015) The right thing to do (7th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill

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Philosophical Views


Torture is not ethically justifiable. There are a number of hypothetical situations that one may imagine torture being ethically justifiable. However, a critical analysis into such issues will present one with reasonable doubt. An example, torture has often been associated with producing bad intelligence. Most interrogative experts do not consider torture to be an effective means of gathering intelligence. Hosenball (2012) indicates that after a three-year investigation by the United states senate Intelligence the committee found that there is little evidence linking enhanced interrogation techniques to producing high counter terrorism break throughs. In addition to the same, Science Daily (2012) gives a report on the use of torture indicating that despite the arguments by government officials that enhanced interrogation techniques are necessary to protect the citizens of United States a study on the same reveals that when torture is used to elicit information it is likely to be unexpectedly harsh and still ineffective. There have been a few instances where torture has produced good intelligence like in the case of the pope in Philippines (Rachaels and Rachaels,2015). However, the big question here is if it is the best and most effective way of obtaining intelligence. Torture is associated with immense human suffering which is done in the most inhumane way.

Looking back through history, it shows that whenever a country begun to use torture, it became hard to contain its use. A senate report for example indicates that permitting the use of torture gives loopholes for increased use of torture by other people within the state. In the incidence of Abu Gharaib for example, United States soldiers were found humiliating Iraq prisoners due to signals that had been sent from higher up, tracing back to harsh CIA interrogation practices (Shane & Mazzetti, 2008). Torture is illegal in most countries across the globe. It goes against the laws of both the United States and that of the United. However illegal things are not necessarily immoral I most times. The case of torture is different because it goes against not only the fundamental constitution but also the international constitution. Governments are powerful institutions and with the legalization of torture it may give such governments too much power than it is desired, hence the need to put checks on its powers by illegalizing torture. it is paramount therefore that torture is not legalized or institutionalized as it is immoral and may also result to increased cases of human torture, when it is actually not effective.


Homosexuality is not immoral. Many people in the society today not only find a conversation about homosexuality as being awkward but also think of it as being immoral. The relationship between religion and homosexuality has also provided the basis for most individuals mindset about homosexuality. The ethicist argues that most people in the society find homosexuality immoral because they rely on faulty ethical theories. Homosexuality is not no more chosen in individuals as much as heterosexuality is. Lesbians and gays in the society lead a normal life like any other individuals and are able to raise a healthy family with children not being likely to face psychological and social problems (American Phycological Association, 2020). It dates back in history among some communities in the world and it therefore can not be said to be a new trend that one can be recruited into.

It is also present among the animal kingdom. Despite the popular perspective that male -female pairing is the only natural way there are several examples from the animal kingdom that dispute this line of thinking. Penguins, swans, bison, chimpanzees and giraffes are just but a few examples of many species in the animal kingdom that sometimes pair up with same sex partners (Moskowitz, 2011). More research is directed to the evolutionary reason for such pairing in the animal kingdom as it does not produce offspring.

Opponents of homosexuality continue to push repeated debunked claims concerning homosexuality and the spread of AIDs virus. The origination of AIDS is linked with human contact with chimpanzee’s feces/meat in Africa. The disease has been known to easily spread through anal sex. However, AIDs is a serious concern for both the homosexual and heterosexual. It therefore can not be solely said that AIDs spreads through homosexual contact. Mainstream researchers are not in serious dispute about the above facts.

Religion has been known to be against homosexuality. However, taking an in-depth look into their arguments, they can be found to be faulty and not grounded on facts. The catholic church for example, opposes same sex marriage for being unnatural. Homosexuality is present in the animal kingdom which goes against their argument, proving that it is a natural phenomenon. Furthermore, if something is natural or unnatural has no bearing to it being moral or immoral. The second argument by the catholic church is that sex organs is for procreation. In contradiction, they support marriage between infertile individuals and elderly couples, which does not yield offspring.


When trying to figure out if something is moral or immoral, I consider the effects of the action to the society. Morality is a societal phenomenon hence the implications of an action to the society are very fundamental in establishing whether it is moral or immoral. In this regard, I have often found things that cause more harm to the society and individual to be immoral while those with no negative effects to individuals and society to be moral. Religion and culture have heavily influenced my life growing up. Both have been used to mold and shape my believe system and the judgement of things around me and the society at large. I pay more attention to the consequences of actions. I would choose a path that has less or no negative consequences to me or the people around me. In the same way, I find actions that have fewer negative consequences to be moral as compared to actions that bring about harm to individuals and the society at large.

This course has had immense effect on my moral philosophy. Firstly, it has taught me the need to have a broader view on issues taking a more critical and analytical view before reaching has eliminated the need to weigh through facts the beliefs carried from religion and culture as they may be misguided by faulty facts.

The ethicist and the utilitarian perspectives are that there is no harm for either individuals or society from homosexuality. They do not find homosexuality wrong or immoral. In fact, the harm comes from the society through discrimination of the gays and the lesbians. According to the Kantian perspective, no one is being disrespected, no rights of an individual are being violated in a consensual lesbian and gay relationship hence there is no wrong done.











American Phycological Association. (2020). Sexual orientation and gender identity. Retrieved 17 June 2020, from

Hosenball, M. (2012). Exclusive: Senate probe finds little evidence of effective “torture.” Retrieved 16 June 2020, from

Moskowitz, C. (2011). 5 Myths About Gay People Debunked. Retrieved 17 June 2020, from

Rachels, J. & Rachels, S. (2015) The right thing to do (7th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill

Shane, S., & Mazzetti, M. (2008). The Plot to Subvert an Election: Unraveling the Russia Story So Far. Retrieved 16 June 2020, from

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The world presently is faced by several environmental issues.

The major one being overpopulation. Global warming, depletion of natural resources, waste disposal, deforestation, climate change and ocean acidification are just but a few of environmental challenges we are facing in the world today. There is the possibility of extinctions of some animals and plants from the face of the earth if things do not improve. Nature is not able to adapt to the changing environmental conditions especially climate change which will see a number of detrimental effects to plants and animals. Discovery news (2010) reports that with continued environmental conditions there will be mass extinction of marine life and coral reef growth by the year 2050.

Human beings have an obligation to change how they live so that they can reduce or eliminate the harm caused to the environment. The ways of man have adverse effects to the environment which consequently affects our lives. Roberts (2009) identifies carbon as one of the major sources adverse environmental effects and calls for reduction or replacement in the use fuel that emit carbon to the atmosphere.  Lifestyle changes can include recycling, using alternative sources of energy and implementing environmental conservation measures at a community level. The government may help by putting in places policies towards environmental conservation. Technology may be used to reverse some adverse effects caused where possible and also monitor human activities.


Aldo calls for moral responsibility to the natural world. His core on land ethic is about caring for people and land and strengthening the relationship between them. Aldo advices that members of the community should treat one another with respect for the mutual benefit of all. The word community here is expanded to include not only humans but also other parts of the earth (Land). Good relationship between humans and land will bear good results for both. Aldo looks at ecological conscience as efforts to conserve land which is lacking among farmers. He holds the believe that direct contact with the natural world is crucial in shaping our ability to extend our ethics beyond our own self-interest.

Leopold views ecological consciousness in relation to relationship between man and lad which includes land ethics. He sees that farmers are not ecologically conscious because they did not recognize that farming is one of the greatest arenas for conservation. Taking only an economic approach to ecological conservation is doomed as it does not cover all the fundamental aspects. Aldo indicates that there can be no important change in human conduct without internal change in our intellectual emphasis on our loyalties and convictions (Rachels, & Rachels,2015).

Milestone Reflection

On world poverty my position is that there is no moral obligation for the rich to give to those living in extreme poverty. Individuals should have the choice of whether to give or not. Morality is based on individual autonomy and in the case of making giving an obligation it takes away a person’s autonomy. I found the argument on giving improving the life of people convincing. There are people who live in extreme poverty and cannot afford the basic and necessary thigs in life and giving will help them acquire these basic human needs. The argument on giving as an exchange of extremities was unconvincing as it does not provide a strong basis to give.

My position on the treatment of animals is that it is immoral to eat meat as they go through torture to obtain meat and other products and that there should be equality in animal treatment. The convincing argument is one raised by Aldo that it doesn’t matter if you do it yourself or hire someone less to slaughter an animal it still goes through pain to have it on the table. Unconvincing argument is that stopping eating meat does not make to a difference as it actually does eventually with increased number of people not taking meat.

On environmental ethics, I believe that there should be a good relationship between man and land to ensure mutual benefits. Land ethics is essential to ensure that man conserves the environment to reduce the negative impact to the environment. Convincing argument is on the benefits of land conservation and improvement of the environment. Environmental conservation has proved to have much benefits to both human beings and the environment at large. His argument against modern technology having brought about disadvantages to land rater than improvements is unconvincing. Modern technology has played a central role in modernizing agriculture and improving land use. It is important however that this technology is used in a manner that does not harm the land.

Defining what is morally right and wrong sometimes goes beyond personal expectations and desires while in other cases it is more straight forward and easy to define. In the aspect of eating eat for example, it is possible to say that quite a large population of people eat meat and do not find it wrong as the vegetarians would. Therefore, when looking at moral aspects of world poverty, environmental ethics and treatment of animals its essential to address it broadly.









Available from: (Accessed: 16 June 2020).

Discovery News (2010, May 17) Ocean’s fish could disappear by 2050 [Online].

Rachels, J. & Rachels, S. (2015) The right thing to do (7th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill

Roberts, D. (2009) Scientists identify “safe operating space for humanity” in seminal Nature study [Online]. Available from: (Accessed: 16 June 2020).

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Wealthy countries do not have the obligation to donate to famine and poverty relief

Donations must come from voluntary choice and good will and not a moral obligation. In that regard therefore, the amount an individual or a state wishes to donate is solely their choice. This means that they can therefore donate a little or a substantial amount. Imposing a moral obligation to donation negates the very purpose and definition of donation. Imposing of moral obligation to donate implicitly sacrifices an individual autonomy which is something of immense moral worth.

In McNamara speech for example, the world bank advances loans to the less developed countries that are facing high cases of poverty (McNamara, 1973). In addition, countries are urged to willingly donate to the official development assistant program. The programs and aids that are advanced to these adversely affected countries from the world bank according to McNamara are done willingly without coercion.


Extreme poverty is associated with a number of effects including increase in crime, disease, increased mortality rate, slow development to mention a few. These effects not only affect the countries that are directly affected by poverty but by extension affect the entire globe. Despite all these effects of extreme poverty, it does not increase the obligation of the wealthy to give relief directed to people in extreme poverty.  And hence an increase in the poverty cases does not translate to increased giving. It may increase the willingness of people to give to help the poor not as an obligation but as a personal choice. Giving to the poor is not a moral obligation Utilitarian’s, however hold the position that we have the duty to give extensive aid to strangers who live in poverty, because by donating a small fraction of their income the rich lose nothing of moral significance (Yu, 2018). The same is negated by the social contrast theorists as they view giving not to be a moral obligation.

Utilitarian stand point on world poverty has been heavily coitized for demanding a lot from people especially the rich. In response to the criticisms Singers argument on the utilitarian standpoint is that by the rich giving to the poor it allows an appreciable gain in the quality of life for the disadvantaged and the poor. He adds that the need to help the poor is illustrating a contrasting position of excess. I do not agree because it still takes away an individual’s autonomy to donate.















McNamara, R. (1973) The Nairobi speech. Address to the board of governors [Online]. Available from:

Yu, R. (2018). Against A Moral Obligation to Donate. Retrieved 15 June 2020, from

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Huemers article

In Huemers article, he argues than an individual has the right to use drugs as  drug use is not harmful (Smythe, 2016). The harm caused by drugs are also not the kind of things that we should punish people for. He further argues that drugs are harmful only to users and not others, and that there are some instances when drug use is beneficial. He invokes the principle that people have the right to do what they please with their bodies as long as they do not violet the rights of others. If an individual is not truly acting freely in acting to use drugs, then they are not exercising their rights.

Huemer’s argument refutes the war on drugs. The author generally negates the effects that drug has on both the user and the society at large and uses it as a basic argument against the war on drugs on his paper. However, over the years, research has proved the devastating effects that different drugs have on the user and the society. Some being extreme enough to cause death of the users and other members of the society (Smythe, 2016). His arguments of overlooking the harms of drugs and going ahead to legalize them is detrimental to the fight against drug abuse.

Bright is of the thought that the concept of murdering murderers, raping rapist and torturing torturers is harmful to the societies morals because it goes against all the societies values and what it stands for. Therefore, doing this will be equivalent to breaking the societies moral cords and values which is very harmful to a society. The moral cords are a fundamental aspect of a society as they provide directions on how to act and the basic rights ad wrongs and should therefore be upheld and respected.

The use of death penalty undermines the standing and the moral authority of the United States because it goes against the human rights cords that the United States subscribes to. Bright argues that the death penalty goes against the right to life which is a fundamental human right that should be respected and upheld. The United States being a democratic country that respects and upholds the rights of its citizens, should therefore be against the death penalty as it is in contrary to human rights. Furthermore, the death penalty goes against the moral integrity of the society, hence capital punishment is seen my many as immoral. I agree with the sentiments of Bright, as I believe nations and individuals should resect human rights and most of all the right to life.

China, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, and Pakistan are among the nations that are leading in the number of executions in the world. The statistics of china executions are in thousands which is the highest number in the world (Dhiraj, 2016). The graph of number of people executed in the United states has been going down from 2000 to date. In 2000 a total of eighty-five people was executed in comparison to 2019 where three people were executed (“U.S. capital punishment – executions per year 2019). A large number of individuals given the death sentence are involved in crimes of murder.

There is no correlation between the use of

the death sentence and a reduction of murders in the United States region. This may be evidence that the death sentence does not serve to reduce the number of capital crimes in an area. There have been few number individuals involved in crimes of genocide who have received the death penalty. In recent years however the number of executions in the United States have significantly reduced.











Dhiraj, A. (2016). Countries Leading the World on Executions, 2016 List > CEOWORLD magazine. Retrieved 27 April 2020, from

Smythe, T. (2016). Critique of Arguments on Legalizing Drugs. Retrieved 27 April 2020, from

U.S. capital punishment – executions per year 2019 | Statista. (2019). Retrieved 27 April 2020, from

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The research sets to investigate the effects of ocean acidification in the costal cities. The research is based in San Diego investigating the effect that ocean acidification has had to the marine ecosystem and the surrounding environment .Ocean acidification refers to the change in pH of the ocean which occurs over a period of time due to uptake of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere (Doney,  Fabry, Feely,  & Kleypas, 2009). The water pH changes towards the neutral conditions rather than having a transition to acidic conditions. It is estimated that about thirty to forty percent of carbon dioxide released by human activities to the atmosphere dissolves into water bodies with some reacting with water to form carbonic acid. Some of the carbonic acid further dissociates into bicarbonate ion and a hydrogen ion resulting in increasing ocean acidity (Feely et al,2004)

Jacobson (2005) notes that between the years 1751 to 1996 the surface water pH is estimated to have decreased from approximately 8.25to 8.14 which represents an almost 30% increase in hydrogen ions concentration in the world oceans. He further estimated that by the year 2008 the acidity levels would have exceeded the historical analogues and in combination with other changes occurring in the ocean especially biochemical changes it could cause an effect to the marine ecosystem and the surrounding ocean environment. Increase in ocean acidity presents a range of potential harmful consequences for marine organisms. The topic of ocean acidification is of major concern to the world today as the levels of acidification have gone up to alarming rates hence the need to be addressed not only at the local but also global level.





Cases of oceanic acidification in the world in recent years have been increasing. At the moment, ocean acidification is affecting the entire worlds oceans which is inclusive of waterways and coastal estuaries (California Coastal Commission, 2020). The increase in ocean acidity levels is due to the increase in the levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide which results from absorption of about one third of atmospheric carbon dioxide that is released to the atmosphere at the rate of twenty-two million turns in a day (Doney, Fabry, Feely, & Kleypas, 2009). This leads to a decrease in the concentration of carbon ion resulting to environmental effects to the marine ecosystem and beyond. The levels of ocean acidification currently in the world is causing much effect to the marine life and  further increase of carbon will lead to much more severe consequences. This necessitates a research into the matter to find ways of mitigating the effects and the damage caused and find solutions o prevent further acidifications of the oceans in the world.

This research focuses on Ocean acidification in San Diego. The west coast famously abundant fisheries are at risk with increased acidification of the ocean. There have been dire changes in the ocean chemistry and marine life in this region and a solution ought to be sought quickly to prevent further risk to the marine life. A review of related literature on ocean acidification globally and narrowing it down to San Diego will help inform the research on the background of the situation, what has been done and areas that need to be addressed and the best approaches of conducting this research.





Rationale for research

Dating back to about 1850, the ocean has absorbed about a third and half of the carbon that is emitted to the atmosphere. The result has been the falling of the average pH of the water by about 0.1 units which is from 8.2 to about 8.1 (Monroe, 2011).  This corresponds to a twenty six percent increase in the acidity of the ocean. This rate of change is ten times faster that any time in the last 55 million years. If this rate of acidification continues, the marine life and the surrounding environment are at high risk as the effects that are being presented now are expected to increase further and cause untold consequences. It is therefore vital that solutions are sought to avert the possibility of the situation getting worse.

This situation is further expected to worsen in the future if steps are not taken to mitigate the situation. The degree of future ocean acidification will closely be linked to future atmospheric carbon. An increase in greenhouse as emissions as they are being observed now would lead to an increase in ocean acidity by around 0.4 units by the end of the century which will have devastating effects to the environment and the ecosystem (Monroe, 2011). There is therefore, the need to investigate issues sounding ocean acidity, find a way to mitigate the causes of ocean acidity and in the cases where there are negative effects of the phenomenon being experienced already find a remedy to it so that we can save the environment and the marine ecosystem. The dangers posed by ocean acidification and the possibility of the situation getting worse (Weber,2015) if nothing is done lays the importance of conducting this research.






The quantity of carbon released to the atmosphere through human activities is enormous. Doley at all (2009) indicates that I the year 2008 the total human carbon dioxide emission was about ten million tons which is equivalent to one million tons per hour on per capita basis. Of this amount, approximately 8.7 million tons comes from fossils fuel combustion and fuel production while another approximate 1.2 tons comes from deforestation (Le Quéré et al.,2009). Cumulative human emissions over industrial areas comes close to 560 million tons. Approximately half of this carbon emissions remains in the atmosphere long enough to be of grave concern.

As atmospheric carbon dioxide rises thermodynamics and air sea gas transfer processes drive some of the carbon to the ocean water surface which leads to substantial shift in the sea water acidity, and the chemical speciation of large reservoirs of carbon dissolve in sea water as indicated in figure 1

There are concerns of how the marine life will respond to changes in circulation that is caused by circulation in planets radiative balance that is caused by elevated carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (Boyd and Doney,2002). In the 1980’s and 1990’s there was few research o how carbon dioxide affected marine life but with time, there has been several ground breaking research and findings that have been designed to test atmospheric carbon dioxide impact revealing potentially drastic responses in corals and the coral reef communities  Gattuso et al., 1998; Marubini and Atkinson, 1999; Kleypas et al., 1999; Langdon et al., 2000) an planktonic organisms (Riebesell et al., 2000)

Despite the fact that ocean acidification has become a global phenomenon, emerging research n the field are indicative that United States of America specifically Canadian West coast will face one of the earliest and most severe changes in ocean carbon chemistry. Due to the circulations of the Pacific Ocean, the west coast is exposed to more acidic water than other areas in the world. There has been already evidence of reduction in production of oyster in the pacific Northwest as the changes in the chemistry of the water tamper with shell formation while scientist warn that more risks are yet to come including popular game fish and other species will face the same effects as oysters (Murphy, 2013).

Figure 1: Time series of atmospheric CO2 at Mauna Loa (in parts per million volume, ppmv; red), surface ocean pCO2 (μatm; blue) and surface ocean pH (green) at Ocean Station ALOHA in the subtropical North Pacific Ocean.







Different literature on the research indicate a number of effects that acidification of the ocean has had on marine life and its environments. It is also indicative of further danger if the amount of carbon in the atmosphere causing ocean acidity does not reduce. A projection in the future with increased emission of carbo in the atmosphere presents a decrease in water pH by about 0.4 which means that the effects that we are experiencing now caused by ocean acidification may worsen. This translates to increased danger on marine life and possible extinction of some marine species that can not cope up with the high levels of ocean acidification.

The literature indicates that there has been an increase in the amount of carbon dioxide released in the atmosphere by human activities. Human activities in comparison to natural causes of acidification, account to a larger percentage of the carbon dioxide responsible to oceanic acidification. Ocean acidification has so far had a number of effects to the marine life which is expected to worsen if the number of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere keeps increasing. It is therefore important that a solution is sought for this to prevent the negative impact.









Boyd, P.W., and S.C. Doney. 2002. Modeling regional responses by marine pelagic ecosystems to global climate change. Geophysical Research Letters29(16), 1806, doi:10.1029/2001GL014130

California Coastal Commission. (2020). Ocean Acidification. [online] Available at: [Accessed 3 Feb. 2020].

Doney, S. C., Balch, W. M., Fabry, V. J., & Feely, R. A. (2009). Ocean acidification: a critical emerging problem for the ocean sciences. Oceanography, 22(4), 16-25.

Doney, S. C., Fabry, V. J., Feely, R. A., & Kleypas, J. A. (2009). Ocean acidification: the other CO2 problem. Annual review of marine science, 1, 169-192.

Feely, R. A.; Sabine, C. L.; Lee, K.; Berelson, W.; Kleypas, J.; Fabry, V. J.; Millero, F. J. (2004). “Impact of Anthropogenic CO2 on the CaCO3 System in the Oceans”. Science. 305 (5682): 362–366. Bibcode:2004Sci… 305..362F. doi:10.1126/science.1097329. PMID 15256664. Retrieved 25 January 2014 – via Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL).

Gattuso, J. P., & Hansson, L. (Eds.). (2011). Ocean acidification. Oxford University Press.

Gattuso, J.-P., M. Frankignoulle, I. Bourge, S. Romaine, and R.W. Buddemeier. 1998. Effect of calcium carbonate saturation of seawater on coral calcification. Global and Planetary Change 18:37–46.

Jacobson, M. Z. (2005). “Studying ocean acidification with conservative, stable numerical schemes for nonequilibrium air-ocean exchange and ocean equilibrium chemistry”. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres. 110: D07302. Bibcode:2005JGRD.11007302J. doi:10.1029/2004JD005220.

Langdon, C., T. Takahashi, C. Sweeney, D. Chipman, J. Goddard, F. Marubini, H. Aceves, H. Barnett, and M. Atkinson. 2000. Effect of calcium carbonate saturation state on the calcification rate of an experimental coral reef. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 14:639–654.

Le Quéré, C., M.R. Raupach, J.G. Canadell, G. Marland, L. Bopp, P. Ciais, T.J. Conway, S.C. Doney, R.A. Feely, P. Foster, and others. 2009. Trends in the sources and sinks carbon dioxide. Nature Geoscience 2:831–836, doi:10.1038/ngeo689

Marubini, F., and M.J. Atkinson. 1999. Effects of lowered pH and elevated nitrate on coral calcification. Marine Ecology Progress Series 188:117–21.

Monroe, R. (2011) Comprehensive Study Makes Key Findings of Ocean pH Variations. Institute of Oceanography.

Murphy, S. (2013). Rising Acidity Threatens Marine Ecosystems Off San Diego. [online] KPBS Public Media. Available at: [Accessed 3 Feb. 2020].

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Figure sources

Doney, S. C., Balch, W. M., Fabry, V. J., & Feely, R. A. (2009). Ocean acidification: a critical emerging problem for the ocean sciences. Oceanography, 22(4), 16-25.




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The African continent has diverse people, but despite this, there are some aspects that they share due to partly expansion of the Bantu speaking people migration south and East throughout the African region. The migration of the Bantus was in two waves, the first in 2000BCE and the last ending about 1000CE. The sub-Saharan area had a cultural preference of kin-based societies as their kingdoms and empires were lost due to foreign contact and trade. Africans had a ‘stateless society’, headed by council and chiefs. Over time this kin-ship based villages collapsed due to population growth combined with unavailability of land for expansion and settlement leading to competition and eventually conflict. There was development of commercial centers due to trade later on at the edges of the Sahara Desert.

Introduction of camels made trade through the Sahara easy, as it enabled transportation of more goods through the desert due to the adaptation of the animal to the desert climate. There was an emergence of Islamic trading routes even among the Bantus who settled in the east coast of Africa due to the maritime trade. Maritime trade was an attraction of settlement for a number of people along the coast of East Africa. Islam and the culture that came with it transformed the elite merchants’ class in west Africa and Swahili coast, but at the same time, native Muslim rulers continued to be tolerant of their traditional beliefs. Christianity made its way to sub-Saharan Africa through Egypt, which until the 7th century CE Muslim conquest, had been the most Christian nation. Evidence of this are present in Axum. It is believed that Menelik one brought the Arc of Covenant to Ethiopia. Christianity in Ethiopia gave rise to Rastafarianism in which Haile Selassie is regarded as the divine figure. The features of the religion included dreadlocks, religious use of marijuana, and reggae music.




The Eurasian Steppe is mostly the present-day Southern Russia and parts of adjacent countries. It was home of migratory herding communities that came in that region attaching themselves to the migratory herd hence becoming pastoralists. Some communities that migrated out of this region brought the knowledge of horse keeping, lightweight wheel for wagons, carts, chariots, and a family of languages including English. Turkic and Mongol tribes, living in the Eurasian Steppe lived in numerous extend families that were organized into clans. Saljuq was a special Turkic people that were attracted by trade to the boarders of Abbasid empire where they converted to Islam. They later created Saljuq Empire.

Mongols created the largest contagious land-based empire in the world stretching from Korea to Central Europe. This empire traces its roots to Temujin, a noble from the family of Mongol tribal leaders. The success of the empire can be linked with highly trained Mongol army and Calvary. Mongol empire at its height was made up of four Khanates stretching from East to Central Europe. The largest of the Khanates was China. The most westly of the four Mongol Khanates was Khanate of the Golden Horde. It was founded by Batu Khan who overran Russia between 1237 and 1241 CE. He continued west to acquire the present-day Poland. The second son of Genghis Khan founded the khanate of Chagatai, which was centered around the great silk roads cities of Central Asia and extended west as far as the Aral Sea. The decline of the Mongol empire is linked to Timur-I Lang. Following his death, his empire swiftly broke up into four regions among his heirs which disintegrated further on. Later on, his great-great grandson conquered India in 1526 and founded the Mughal Empire, which continued to rule much of India until it was dissolved by the British in 857CE.


The main feature of the High Middle ages was the emergence of relatively stable regional states. A large part of central Europe came under Holy Roman Empire. During this time, emperors sometimes found themselves in conflict with the power of the papacy, as in those times, popes were powerful and influential figures. There existed a contest between the popes and the emperor on who gets to choose the Bishops, as they were also an equally important people. From the 8th Century, papal states became important. It flourished through the years until it was taken away by Italian nationalities creating a united Italy in the 19th Century CE. Iberian Peninsula has been ruled by Muslims since the Umayyad conquest in 711 CE and was later ruled for about a century by the independent Caliphate of Cordoba. Christian Kingdoms at this time were able to retake part of Iberia through Reconquista campaigns. The clergy promoted an analysis of society called the Three Estates or Estates of the Realm. The idea behind it was that humanity is naturally divided into three sections; the monarch, the king, and Queen. The high middle ages had knightly warriors drawn from descendants of a fusion of remnants of old Roman equestrian class and Germanic warriors. Development of guild in big manufacturing towns was yet another important feature of this period. It had two main models, capitalism and communism. It is during this period that first universities emerged in Europe which developed to modern universities. There was also a great surge in popular piety and devotion among the general population, as much needed help was sort through divine intervention of various saints. Virgin Mary was very popular among the saints at the time.







Americas was one of the greatest centers of civilization. It was located in the valley of Mexico. After the settling of Mexica, they founded their city in present day Mexico. transformed their city into a great metropolis with civic buildings, open market places, causeways between islands, fresh waters, and sewers for waste. They formed an alliance with Tlacopan and Texcoco and a conquest began of all civilized Mexico. In the era of Aztec Empire, the Mexicans had a rigid social hierarchy with the military aristocracy enjoying wealth and privileges, while the king and priest being members of the nobility. The rich religious life of the Aztec priest was built up from age-old religious beliefs and practices of the region as a whole, with some emphasis on innovation. Mexica rose from servile obscurity to masters of the Aztec Empire. The reason for its rise is attributed to educating their children in deliberately austere conditions, training them on endurance of hardship like hunger and cold, to develop self-restrain and humility. These qualities were expected of everyone including the emperor.

North America also had some advanced societies before the European contact. Pueblo and Navaho peoples for example had large settled societies in the Arid America Southwest. They had sophisticated dams for irrigation which enabled them have large scale farms in the desert. The indigenous Owasco people in Northwest America gave rise to Iroquois nations that formed the league of five nations. Oceania geographic regions includes Australia, New Zealand, and neighboring islands. First notable migration of people to Australia and New Guinea was at least 60,000 years ago. By about 3000BCE there was agricultural villages in New Guinea with cultivation of root crops and herding. The Aboriginal Austrians were nomadic, hunters and gatherers, and they preserved their way of life until they had contact with the Europeans. By the end of the mid-centuries inhabitable islands of pacific oceans had been occupied by human beings using only large, double-hulled dugout.



In the centuries before 1500 CE there was increasing interactions through cross cultural networks between Europe and Asia which had been brought about by significant developments in these regions. The contact between Europe and America at about 1500 CE had significant impact in transforming the world. Cross-cultural exchange was further enhanced by long distance travel which led to exchange of ideas, music, art, and technology. There was introduction of new crops into Spain and Sub-Saharan Africa by Muslims. Sugarcane was introduced to Europe leading to sugarcane plantations run by Europeans through the Mediterranean basin. Interaction of people led to spread of bubonic plague that killed two thirds of the world population and weakened countries’ economy. China’s recovery begun with the overthrowing of Mongols. Recovery in Europe was accompanied by state building. Renaissance was the most important development in Europe during this period as it led to the rediscovery of intellectual and authentic culture of Greco-Roman antiquity. China opened up to the outside world in the 15th Century as Emperor Yongle allowed foreigners to trade at great south ports and sponsor a series of reconnaissance and diplomatic maritime expeditions in Indian Ocean basin. Prince Henry of Portugal was the main initiator of the age of discovery in Portugal. The Spanish were ambitious to create a great commercial empire of their own and they did so by the help of Christopher Columbus through financing his voyage.



Television is a telecommunication medium that is used in transmitting moving images in either black and white, or color, and in two or three dimensions and sound. It is a mass media for advertisement, news, sports, and entertainment. A television can show pictures from a number of television networks. The first sets of televisions looked like a box; they had a large cathode ray tube in a large wooden frame that sat on the floor like furniture. Present day televisions are much lighter and flatter. Development in technology today has made it possible for mobile devices and computers to be used to watch television programs.

Brief history of Television

The history of television dates back to Paul Nipkow in 1884. He developed the first workable device that generated electrical signals. It consisted of an electrical scanning disc in front of a photoelectric cell producing 4000 pixels per second, which produces a picture composed of 18 parallel lines. It was referred to as the Nipkow disc. As early as 1925 John Logie Baird was able to transmit moving images using a mechanical disc, and by 1928 he sends a television picture successfully from London to Hartsdale, New York. Vladimir Zworykin made further developments on picture tube allowing him to transmit film clips (Starnley, 2012, p177-178). The first true demonstration of television was made in April of 1939 at the worlds fare in New York. It was in form of a two-hour NBC broadcast.

By 1952,17 million homes owned televisions with about 108 stations broadcasting. When the decade was coming to an end there were nearly 559 stations and nearly ninety percent of homes in the United States had televisions (Starnley, 2012, p184-185). Technical standards were fixed while stations were proliferating and flourishing. The public tuned in and advertisers were enthusiastic. In 1964, color broadcasting began on prime television. Carnegie commission report in 1967 recommended the creation of a fourth, noncommercial, public television network. It was to be built around educational non profit stations already in operation in the United States. The rise of cable was a force that changed the dominance of two major television networks and offered people a dozen of choices, and hundreds of television channels.

The 1990s made digital television a possibility.  HDTV technology was developed by a Japanese consumer electronics in 1980s, then an American company demonstrated the feasibility of digital television signal years later. It was clear in March 1990 that digital standard was feasible, however digital television transmission started in the late 2000s. All governments in the world set deadlines for analog shut down by 2010. Digital television allowed the development of innovations like smart televisions which is integrated with internet and web features (Boulgaz, 2019).

Television sets have also transformed greatly. The early sets were mechanical. They were initially radio with an additional television device consisting of a neon tube behind a mechanically spinning disk. They later changed to electronic sets which were large and bulky with analog circuits that were made of vacuum tubes. Invention of transistors in 1952 by Masaru Ibuka made it possible for the making of smaller television sets (Boulgaz, 2019). Later in 1962, thin film transistors were invented leading to LCD technology in television sets. Presently television sets can employ several display technologies.

Current trends and future developments in Television

Todays television experiences are very different from what our parents and grandparents watched at their times. We have come to an era where television networks no longer dictate what, when, and how we watch as the customer presently is firmly in control of what they watch. Customer demands is the main point of focus for many television networks (Stier et al., 2020, p1). Companies are trying to find the right balance between todays daily operational challenges and innovation for the future that is directed towards the customer demands.

The smart phone could function in the future as the brains of screen world, triggering content experiences based on viewers location and direction that they are viewing. Future programming is likely to incorporate the high context and deliver custom programming through learning consumption patterns. Extreme home entertainment can be integrated with quantified personal devices.

Television today has embraced the internet. This has reduced the need of people to have television sets in order to consume media. This has promoted many television manufactures to invest in new internet enabled models. Traditional television is being challenged by the rise in internet video streaming hence manufacturers are forced to embrace customers’ needs. This kind of televisions are more holistic and offer streamlined experience. There are also several other ways of streaming web content from the television including the use of devices like Boxee Box.

There has been further expansions on next generation technologies coupled with many sharp refinements and expansions in the existing cutting-edge standards for television display technology. Recently, there has been a key focus on 4K televisions, mid-range, and budget 4K television series with HDR, higher NTSC packed in them, and brightness which provides visible improvements in the quality.

Cable and satellite offer interactive television that allows viewers to talk back to content providers. Digital cable television of the two, offers the truest form of interactive television. Cable digital channels allow for multiplexing, carrying two or more digital signals over the same channel (Starnley, 2012, p196). It not only permits the subscribers to talk back to the system operator but also offers additional services like video on demand, one click shopping, local information on demand, program interactivity, interactive program guides, and video games.

People across the television are increasingly adopting cloud technology. It is expected to address security and data privacy issues satisfactorily in the future. Machine learning algorithms that are driven by new computing technologies shall help enhance television scalability and improve its operations. A future of this combined with artificial intelligence, business analytics, and machine learning promises a future that provides a solution to a variety of television complexities.

The future of television lies on cutting-edge technology that will transform the television experience. The current market trends already show an integration of software which is tangibly expected to be improved in future televisions, that will be rich in features with improved quality (Global media and entertainment center, 2020, p6). This is expected to be dominant in the years to come. The vision of television in the future is about personalized technology, individualized viewer experience, on demand viewer experience, small television shows, binge-watching innovative television formats, advertisement free models, and more localized and vernacular content. There is an increased possibility of more people being connected to a smart television.










Baran, Stanley J. “Introduction to mass communication: Media literacy and culture.” Introduction to Mass Communication: Media Literacy and Culture (2012).

Boulgaz, Atika. “What Are the New Trends in Television Broadcasting and The Media Landscape?”. Viaccess-Orca.Com, 2019,

Global media and entertainment center, Future of Television Media and Entertainment, 2020Retrievedfrom$FILE/EY-6-trends-that-will-change-the-TV-industry.pdf

STIER, JEFF et al. “Six Trends Directing the Future of Television”. WIRED, 2020,

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Religion and Ethics

Euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide should not be legalized. These two practices are a violation of human dignity (Rachels, J. & Rachels,2015). All men are created equal and are endowed by the creator with certain an inalienable right among these is life, and every human being has inherent and equal fundamental dignity and basic right. Human dignity does not depend on subject evaluation of worth as human dignity is intrinsic. The recognition of human dignity is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world hence legalizing euthanasia may be equivalated to taking away the freedom, peace and justice in the world.

Physician assisted suicide and euthanasia overlook the possibility finding a cure. There are medical research and breakthrough often in the field of medicine and science. These new findings may offer patients who are viewed to be terminally ill the hope to have a new life where they either recover or the diseases that they have can be managed so that they lead a normal life. Euthanasia takes away completely the possibility of such patients to enjoy such a possibility by taking away their life. There is also the risk of abuse of euthanasia and physician assisted suicide when it is legalized. It may crate a loophole for people’s life to be taken or one to take their life for personal reasons other than medical reasons.

Assignment 1

The main argument from nature is that euthanasia is wrong as it is equivalated to taking someone’s life which is not approved no matter the situation. The same argument is extended in religion. Religion sees life as a sacred gift given to man by God, and it is only God that has the right to take the life back (“Religious Perspectives On Euthanasia – Institute of Clinical Bioethics”, 2014). Taking a life then, despite the circumstances, is viewed as wrong and even punishable. A supporter of euthanasia, however, looks at this on the mercy side. They may argue that there is no humanity in watching someone go through so much pain and someone who is in a position to help does not help them, as religion call also for mercy.

Euthanasia has effects on the medical profession as they are called to protect life and taking away that life is against the oath of office they took. However, in some instances, helping a patient who clearly stated for example not to be resuscitated may lead to legal actions against the medical practitioner. From the utilitarian perspective of mercy, there are some instances where the patient should be put out of their pain especially when they eventually succumb to the disease.


Homosexuality is not immoral. Homosexuality does not go against any ethical values today. It is however the thinking of many people around the world that homosexuality is unethical, but looking at the facts of ethics, it does not go against them. This thinking by people may be because they find the topic on it awkward, they hold on arguments that have been given in the past and do not understand the changing minds in the society.

The convincing argument is that there is no any particular genuine harm that is caused to individual or the society by homosexuality. In fact, it is the society that causes harm to homosexual individuals by discriminating against them which has resulted to increased cases of teen suicide and bullying.

The argument of homosexuality being unnatural is not convincing. In the case that homosexuality was unnatural as some people claim especially the catholic church, it would not be happening among the animal kingdom. There are also world cultures that have been practicing homosexuality for many years and find it quite okay and normal to them. Furthermore, the argument on being unnatural does not address the morality of the discussion.

Euthanasia should not be legalized. I found several arguments on this convincing, including restricting possibility of cure, violation of human dignity and potential abuses. I believe that in the world we are living today there are many advisements that can ensure one is comfortable enough, example induced coma, as they explore other potentials for the patient. New findings on a disease may bring about cure or different ways of managing the disease that a patient can enjoy which may not be the case if they end their life or are assisted to do the same

The argument on mercy does not hold strongly especially in this century of technological advancement. Mercy invokes on feeling of compassion so that they can take someone out of their misery and allow them rest. However, there are several medal procedures today that would do the same without necessarily ending the life of an individual. These alternatives would be sought in such case, as they find a way out or wait for a patient to die naturally.

Religion plays an important role in the society especially on how people interpret and understand different concepts in the society. However, it does not comprehensively analyses and deal with issues which may make individuals hold onto concepts that do not have strong grounds. Example on the issue of immorality, religion does not provide any empirical evidence on why homosexuality is immoral.










Rachels, J. & Rachels, S. (2015) The right thing to do (7th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill

Religious Perspectives On Euthanasia – Institute of Clinical Bioethics. (2014). Retrieved 16 May 2020, from

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Privacy and Surveillance

I believe that privacy is necessary to autonomy and the protection of human life and dignity hence some aspects of my life should remain private (“The Right to Privacy and Why It Matters”). Privacy is the foundation in upon which most of the human rights are used upon and should therefore be respected. Maintaining some level of privacy on one’s life enable them be protected from a number of things that may course physical or mental harm or even both. It is through privacy that we are able to create boundaries and protect ourselves from interference that we do not what in our lives while at the same time deciding how we want to interact with the world. These reasons and more make me unwilling to share my personal information with strangers with the possibility of them sharing that information with others as that takes away my privacy and security.

In the instances where the privacy of an individual is not guaranteed for ne reason or the other, individuals, corporations or even the government may use this information to target an individual negatively. Chokshi f in an article in the New York Times cites an example indicates that advancement is surveillance can allow owners to identify unusual behavior, recognize actions like hugging or kissing or easily seek out embarrassing footage estimate a person’s age or even their disposition which can be used to target the individual negatively. He further cites an instance when a politician requested footage of his enemies kissing in public, a life insurance company offering rates depending on how fast someone rans when exercising and a sheriff receiving a list from surveillance of people who appeared to be intoxicated in public. All this were able to happen through surveillance of individuals which results to negative impacts to their lives overall because their privacy was not guarantee

Privacy is an undertaking that begins at an individual level, although individuals contribute to their own surveillance hence compromising one’s privacy. Mobile phones for example have become a platform for both media consumption and consumption trough media in which we have subjected ourselves to tracking and sharing of data. Mobile phone camera can be interpreted as a potential helper in surveillance and monitoring, by making and sharing of footage (Timan, and Albrechtslund). The sharing of such content and also making it available to other people implies an act of subjection to potential surveillance, as a person volunteers not only to watch but also to be watched. One can also contribute to their own surveillance through their devices like computers by visiting certain types of unsafe websites or communicating via email with suspicious individuals or group. Computer can be surveillance targets because of the kind of data stored in then so there is the need of one to ensure their privacy hen using computers.

Considerations should be made on who one talks to especially on the internet. There are some group of individuals, groups and website that are a threat to the privacy of an individual. Speaking to them over the internet may be an opening they need to monitor you or obtain data from one’s devices that may be used for the wrong purpose to the harm of the owner (Christian, p300). Public interaction is also important because as Stuart reports there are areas in public that have been fitted with cameras equipped with biometric recognition technology that are used to ap facial features. These cameras then ran this information through database supplied by metropolitan police service to check for matches. The same information may be used by other people for their personal interest. More caution should also be taken on individuals one interacts with as it may be a lop hole to unauthorized surveillance. Thomason (2017) sites an incidence in North Caroline University where police interacted with students pretending to be a mechanic and sympathizing with their plight only to get information from them by recording conversations’

Being under surveillance makes me suspicious about my every action and move. The thought that someone might be watching me in my daily activities gives me an uncomfortable feeling where I can not be comfortable to engage freely with my pears or do my daily activities with the confidence, I would have knowing that I am not being watched. This is not because my actions may be wrong or anything but the uncertainty f what the person is looking for and at what point would my actions lead to my own harm or be used against me or a tool to be targeted. I believe that every individual is entitled to some privacy because there are personal things that should not be exposed to the public for several reasons and being under surveillance takes away all these. California State University is a place that offers students the freedom to interact freely creating a conducive learning environment. Nonetheless, I am of the feeling that there is some ow level of surveillance that goes on to ensure that things in the institution run smoothly and also to curb some instances of insecurity in the campus.

In today’s technological world, the thought of a safe space free from surveillance is almost impossible. Surveillance technologies are increasingly being used both in private and public areas. CCTV cameras have become a norm in almost all buildings, walkways roads and paces of public and private gathering (Bartczak, p5). Some people have installed it even in their house which makes evading surveillance almost impossible. In the event where we get to be in a room without CCTV our own personal devices including mobile phones, computers, tablets among others are a loophole for surveillance. One may argue that going to a remote area with no internet connectivity is the key to evade surveillance but satellite technology is still able to capture one with their cameras. In this lite I believe there is no place that one can feel safe and free from surveillance.

The alternatives for pervasive surveillance especially by the government through the police and other intelligence agents may include putting phone metadata collection under purview of one telecommunication company. This will enable agents that require to obtain such data and hence the communication companies would return only the results of those specific searches other than collecting data on customers who are unrelated to an investigation. Another option would be different federal agencies to hold data but under the control of a third entity that is neither a federal agency nor telecommunication company (Toor). I another extreme solution data collection may be completely abolished which in reality is an almost impossible task to undertake. Surveillance further threatens the lives and security of individuals and groups through the threats of the autonomous systems weapons. Surveillance can be used to target a place or a person then weapons can be independently selected to attack the targets. This is a great threat to people and even nations at large.

I hold the believe that I should own rights to my images, photographs, voice and videos. Every individual has a personality right which is the right to an individual to use one’s identity which includes name, image, likeness and other unequivocal identities (Duane and Schultz, p 196) . It therefore should be considered property right and hence the right for one to own them. In that case therefore, it ought to be wrong for an individual or government to use my image, voice and recording without first getting my approval. These rights I believe should service even after the death of an individual to varying degrees depending on the jurisdiction. Doing contrary to these should be likened to violating the privacy f an individual and one should be held accountable by law.




In this era of surveillance, being expressive starts with understanding more about surveillance, how it works its advantages and disadvantages so that one may be vocal with facts. There is also need for one to understand their rights and ho far their privacy extends so that they can be vocal bout actions that infringe on their privacy. I may take advert age of social media and the internet to speak openly about surveillance and educate the mass on the different ways that they may be surveilled and what one may do to avoid it. My approach will be a rather educational one to ensure that the public are woke about these issues and are aware on the dangers of invasion of privacy.



The discussion above reveals how surveillance has increased so much in the world that our privacy is not guaranteed. Improvements in technology coupled by finding ingenious ways of dealing with threats ins society have seen increased reduction of privacy through surveillance. This has both its advantages and disadvantages. Among its disadvantages is the aspect that one may use such information to target an individual hence threatening one’s life and security. We also have a part o play in ensuring our privacy in the day to day interactions with our devices. However, there is need to come up with ways to curb surveillance for the sake of personal privacy.





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Fuchs, Christian. “Web 2.0, prosumption, and surveillance.” Surveillance & Society 8.3 (2011): 288-309.

Lyon, David. “Surveillance technology and surveillance society.” Modernity and technology (2003): 161-183.

Schultz, Duane P., and Sydney Ellen Schultz. Theories of personality. Cengage Learning, 2016.

Stuart, Freddie. “How Facial Recognition Technology Is Bringing Surveillance Capitalism To Our Streets”. Opendemocracy, 2019,

Thomason, Andy. “When Student Activists Discovered Their New Friend Was An Undercover Cop”. The Chronicle Of Higher Education, 2017,

Timan, Tjerk, and Anders Albrechtslund. “Surveillance, self and smartphones: Tracking practices in the nightlife.” Science and engineering ethics 24.3 (2018): 853-870.

Toor, Amar. “Obama Assessing Four Alternatives To NSA Phone Data Collection: WSJ”. The Verge, 2014,

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