Renaissance Art: Madonna and Child

Annotated Bibliography

Kuuva, S. (2016). Metabolism of Visual Symbols: Case Madonna. International Journal of the Image, 7(2).

Kuuva (2016) seeks to interpret the visual symbols developed in secular and religious art about Madonna.  The metabolism is derived from the life maintenance reactions within the body that allow it to reproduce and grow. In the same manner, visual imagery interacts with its environment, produces, and grows. The imagery of Madonna has transformed with the different periods of art. She has been used to represent Mary, the Virgin mother of Jesus. (Bergström, 1955) Kuuva further checks into her facial representation, dressing, halo, size, position, and countenance through all these periods. The examples are taken from both secular and religious pieces with special attention to the cults and dogman.  The dogmas of Mary’s conception, Mary and Child, are significant pieces in guiding the symbolism. Overall, the piece is successful in mapping out the changes in the representation of Madonna throughout Art history. It creates a good profile of how the symbolism initiated the changes and continuity of the images.

 With, M. M., & Jones, T. G. (1966). Once Again Piero della Francesca’s Montefeltro Altarpiece. The Art Bulletin, 48(2), 203-206.

Piero Della Francesca is laced in a vital position within renaissance art but is not duly recognized as the others and most of his works misunderstood by writers. With & Jones (1966) seek to clarify these two aspects by providing the complete picture. His previous symbolic association between Ecclesia and Mary created a wave of inspiration of the Madonna in church. He uses the Altarpiece of Piero Della Francesca to progress his work further. He divides the composition of the image into two vertical forms, which are guided by his conviction to attain perfection with humanistic objects. He therefore uses, humanistic images and a background that represents the Christian church. All these are, however, symbolic in representing the heavenly. & Jones claims that the humanistic nature of his representation was what made the image an informal conversation. He is also humanistic in representing Saints and leaders of his time within his image. The paper effectively analyzes the Altarpiece providing all meanings to the hidden symbols and interpreting the mentality behind the creation.

Even, Y. (2003). Domenico Ghirlandaio: Artist and Artisan. Fifteenth-Century Studies, 28, 248.

Even (2003) takes an in-depth, comprehensive study of the life and works of Domenico Ghirlandaio.  Much in scholarly articles focus on Domenico Ghirlandaio apprentice Michael Angelo but not of hers. The paper takes a step by step formal study into every one of her works. It makes it clear that Domenico Ghirlandaio had an illustrious career, especially European paintings. One focus within the paper is the representations she makes within the Christian art. She delves into the art by representing Madonna, conception, the birth of the child, the vocation of Jesus and his apostles, and his ministry. Domenico Ghirlandaio is effectively in the depiction of the biblical representations. She gets the timings and locations right as per the spruce biblical tests. Overall, the analysis by Even (2003) is effective in enlightening the symbolism present in Domenico Ghirlandaio’s art. It explores the varied meanings brought by the images according to the expertise of the context.


Masaccio, Madonna, and Child with Angels

This is a painting created by Masaccio, a renowned renaissance period artist. It is located in the Pisa Altarpiece in the St. Julian Chapel in the church of Santa Maria del Carmine in Pisa. The painting itself is unusually narrow and tall with a composition of polyptych even until today (Kuuva, 2016).  The sides of the painting have, however, been cut, but scholars haven’t yet discovered how much of the painting has been lost.

Figure 1Mother and Child (Kuuva, 2016)

The picture contains six significant figures; Madonna, Child, and four angels. Madonna has been used in Renaissance art to represent Mary, the mother of Jesus (Bergström, 1955). In this Masaccio presentation, Madonna is the central figure and is larger than any of the others to signify the hierarchy of importance. The child and the mother have a higher status than the angels who are smaller. Madonna and the child are also sitting on a raised throne and thus are looked upon reverently, especially when placed in an altarpiece (Kuuva, 2016).  This is used to signify her importance. She is wrapped in a blue cloak with a red undergarment with golden edges but with a face of vulnerability. She looks like she understands Jesus as much as he is God; he is still an infant. She, therefore, cups her hand around him and gently offer him a fruit.

The child, Jesus Christ, sits on Madonna’s knees, eating grapes offered to him by his mother. The representation of the baby is realistic as he has bay fat; the head is proportionately bigger than the body (typical of a child). The child, however, has a halo, which is a supernatural form expressed for angels and gods. The intention of this was to make the child like both human and supernatural as a representation of Jesus, who was God and came down as a human. The grapes have a deeper somber meaning. Presence of grapes within the Christina renaissance period represented wine (Kuuva, 2016). Wine is used in Christian mass to represent the blood of Jesus, shed during the Eucharist. Therefore, it represents the salvation of humankind through Jesus Christ through crucifixion. The humanistic nature of Jesus makes us understand how hard it was for him to go through with the crucifixion.

The angels in the art are highly individualized, with different facial expressions and different hairstyles.  Each of their facial expressions represents the different responses people give towards religion and its experiences as so do Christians congregations do.  The art uses a gilded background, which makes the mother and child seem to be in a special place. The throne has no support in a realistic place.  The image also portrays some realistic elements, such as a single point vanishing point. Shadows consistency with light direction and shortening of the angel’s instruments.

Piero Della Francesca, Brera Madonna – Madonna and Child with Saints (1472-1474)

Brera Madonna, also known as the Montefeltro Altarpiece, was created between 1472 and 1474 by Piero Della Francesca. It exited in the renaissance period and consisted of a type of work referred to as scare conversazione.  It is a representation of a conversation between an enthroned virgin holding a sleeping child and sounded by saints and angels.

Figure 2Mother and Child (With & Jones, 1966)

The art contains an actual depiction of the real characters who existed before and during the creation. Mary (Madonna) is the most significant part of the conversation. She sits in the middle, and her figure is represented to be bigger than everyone else, showing her pre-eminence in the depiction. She dons her big blue cloak, which is also a representation of her purity and royalty (With & Jones, 1966). She holds her hand together in a symbol of prayer as she faces Jesus, Showing the Lordship that Jesus represents. It is the reason why this art piece is used to remind people of prayer.

Jesus, the child, lies on her mother’s lap. Jesus is dressed with red coral beads in which the color red represents the bloodshed for the world sins during the crucifixion. At the right corner, he kneels Federico da Montefeltro with his full armor. It shows the reverence and worship that he gives to the child. The presence of the Montefeltro member within the art was because he was the patron of arts within this period and also the duke of Federico da Montefeltro (With & Jones, 1966).

Several saints also appear in the picture. The picture displays several saints around Madonna.  These saints include Jerome, Andrew, Peter the Martyr, Catherine, Saint Cecilia, Paul, Bernadino of Siena, and Luca Pacioli. John the Baptist is the representation of handling the mantle of salvation to Jesus (With & Jones, 1966). In this art, therefore, he stretches his hand towards the child.

Behind the saints is an apse with the structure of the renaissance churches.  The apse is semi-done and has the figure of an ostrich egg hanging on top of Mary. This image represents the birth of the new Venus of eternal beauty, who is Mary. The figure of the new Venus represents that Mary will be eternal in the kingdom of God.  The eggshell represents the immaculate conception of Jesus. The egg further is a symbol of conception. The ostrich is a symbol of the Montefeltro family, who one of them is kneeling at the foot of the throne.

The sacred conversation of Mary, Jesus, and the saints was a more causal/informal representation of Madonna. It takes place in a humanistic form as there is no representation of any angels. The humans are also depicted in their real form. All the characters have their eyes on the child, and it, therefore, speaks out the message of prayer and reverence to God  within the humanistic context

Domenico Ghirlandaio, Madonna, and Child with St. John and Three Angels

Figure 3Mother and Child (Even, 2003)

Domenico Ghirlandaio was from a wealthy family of businessmen and artisans. His depiction of Madonna and son takes the face of a world scene but with the presence of some heavenly occurrence.  The picture is drawn within around panel, which is a poetic representation of eternity among the Italians. It also represents perfection and heavenly harmony. This same circular inclination is followed when placing the characters within the picture. The configuration starts with the face of Mary, down to her right arm, touching Jesus, down to her blue dress, then to St; John, inwardly to the angels, and then to Mary (Even, 2003). There are also the same oval windows. Seeing through the windows, on the right, is the city of Venice. The left side does not properly define and open to interpretation.  There is, however, the image of a person on a donkey, which may signify a city such as Jerusalem, Bethlehem, or Egypt. The mother, Mary, is reaching out to St. John, who is facing Jesus (Even, 2003).  The child, on the other hand, is blessing St. John. The three angels are holding lilies, which are used to signify innocence and purity.

Just in other renaissance art, Mary dons her blue cloak of purity and a red undergarment. She is a figure of royalty and importance but still maintains the face of humility and innocence. In this depiction, Jesus is represented as a real human baby, naked, with baby fat. He is also holding on to his mother’s red pendant, which would signify the blood of crucifixion. John the Baptist is in a child’s form, and so are the angels. The faces of the angels are different, each representing the different approaches we have for religion and its effects on us (Even, 2003). The difference in this depiction comes in because all the characters are focusing on John. Jesus and his mother and two angels are focusing on John. In the biblical narrative, John was born three months earlier that Jesu and is the one on to prepare the way for him. This is, therefore, a more accurate representation of Jesus and John’s age difference.



Even, Y. (2003). Domenico Ghirlandaio: Artist and Artisan. Fifteenth-Century Studies, 28, 248.

Kuuva, S. (2016). Metabolism of Visual Symbols: Case Madonna. International Journal of the Image, 7(2).

With, M. M., & Jones, T. G. (1966). Once Again Piero della Francesca’s Montefeltro Altarpiece. The Art Bulletin, 48(2), 203-206.

Bergström, I. (1955). Disguised Symbolism in’Madonna’Pictures and Still Life: I. The Burlington Magazine, 97(631), 303-308.


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History of the Concept of Race

What are the five key components of the race concept?

The concept of Race has been defined differently in history, but it has always revolved around grouping humans based on their different qualities. Most of these early groupings were based on language and nationalism before it went further into phenotypical qualities. Currently, the most profound categorization of races is based on five-point criteria. Firstly, Race has its foundation in genetics, and thus it reflects upon a biological function (Levin 21). Secondly, the biological foundation creates different groups of people that all the members share the set of genetics, which are different from all other races. Thirdly, the biological foundation discrete to the group is carried down from generation to generation, and therefore one can trace their Race based on their genetic genealogy. Upon investigation, therefore, fourthly, each Race should identify their geographic origin (either Asia, Africa, Europe, or the Americas). Fifthly, this form of biological foundation needs to be noticeable in the physical characteristics of the person, including eye color/Shape, Skin color, hair texture, and bones.

How was the international slave trade in West Africa established and by whom?

The Europeans were the first to discover the African lands through their naval expeditions. They, therefore, began to migrate their businesses and settlement into the new native continent.  At first, they invaded the Canary Islands in the 15th century and converted the place into the production of sugar and wine. Within the island, they captured the citizens and used them as slaves within the islands, and some were transported Across the Mediterranean’s. Using the Canary Island as their base, the Portuguese started raising down into West Africa, capturing slaves and transporting them for sale in the Mediterranean.  Other European countries made an entry into the business in the 16th century.

How did the emergence of Capitalism and English attempts to colonize Ireland lay the foundation for their embracing the race concept?

The Europeans developed upon the idea of Capitalism with their much involvement in the triangular trade.  This trade was created to obtain sugar, silk, gun powder, cotton, and other products.  Liverpool, Bristol, and London were the main trade centered that produced silk, gunpowder, and textiles. The ships docked in Africa, where they exchanged goods with slaves. The slaves were taken into the Caribbean islands and America to work in plantations where they were exchanged with cotton, sugar, spices, and rum, which were taken back to Britain. Ireland was used as one of the spots for the transportation of slaves to the west indies. Because of the Catholicism in the place, there was much opposition to Slavery and demeaning of the black Race. The British, through Limerick, tried to capture and colonize this region to promote their slave trade.

Who were the first slaves in English colonies on the American continent? How does the life of one of the first African Americans, Anthony Johnson, demonstrate that Africans and Europeans had the same legal status in 17th-century English colonies?

A ship carrying African slaves to Mexico was captured by British soldiers in 1619, who took it to Point Comfort, a port town in Virginia, An American British Colony. This was the first shipment of the first slave in America. Within this period, Enslavement was not based on Race. There were already some Africans who were living in America as early as the 1500s. The Africans and Americans were treated equally legally and could participate in trade, own property, and live with autonomy. However, after this first ship landed in the Port, the slaves were sold as commodities, and this changed everything (Smedley and Brian, 214). Slavery was changed from this moment and based on Race and inherited from one generation to another.

What role did Bacon’s Rebellion play in the formation of the race concept, and what problem for the capitalist system was the race concept invented to address?

Nathaniel Bacon was a property owner in Virginia and a relative to the Governor, but they did not like each other. Bacon wanted the colony to retaliate on the attacks by the Native Americans to push them out so that landowners such as him would get more land. The Governor did not support Bacon because it would cause a costly and destructive war.  Bacon defied the Governor and organized his own militia with White and black soldiers and enslaved black people who attacked for their freedom (Breen, and Stephen 19). Bacon’s militia captured Jamestown and burned it to the ground. Although Bacon dies a month later, and the rebellion stopped, it had an effect on Race and Slavery. The wealthy planters in Virginia were shaken by the multicultural alliance and wanted to maintain their superior dominance.  They, therefore, set up laws making distinctions between “white” and “black” and permanently enslaving the blacks. They gave some new rights to the white farmers who made them superior to the Africans. 

Why were Africans ultimately chosen as the preferred slave population for both Spanish and English colonies, instead of Indigenous slaves or white indentured servants?

The Africans were selected for the role of Slaves based on their physical nature, and the propaganda spread about the continent. Since they were different in color, compared to the English and Spanish, they were considered inferior and less human, and this made them a good target for Slavery. Race, therefore, determines the Africans to be less intelligent, subhuman, and savage. They, therefore, couldn’t be placed in the same position as the whites. The slaves collected from Africa were the stronger and bigger people, and therefore there was the stereotype that they would fit the roles because of their better physical abilities. The propaganda spread about Africa was also that it is a dark continent and produced everything monstrous. Knowing that these people were backward encouraged the whites to see them as inferior and, therefore, only use them for slave labor. The Race was, therefore, a bigger factor in the preference of Africans for Slavery.

What is the difference between the monogenist and polygenist perspectives on racial origin? What are the theological and scientific implications of each of these two perspectives for the meaning of Race? What were the racial categories and main ideas presented by the major monogenist scholars: Tyson, Linnaeus, Comte de Buffon, and Blumenbach? What were the racial categories and main ideas presented by the major polygenist scholars: White, Morton, Nott/Gliddon, Agassiz, Comte de Gobineau, Spencer, and Chamberlain?

Monogenist Racism Origin

Monogenists believe that the whole human race descended from one person then the rest of the races split from this origin one. The theory has been supported by many scientific and religious forms. In Abrahamic religions, there is the belief that all humans came from Adam (Christianity, Islam, and Judaism).  The Christian Monogenism has played an important role in understanding African American Literature on Race through theology and not science. The Adamic generation is therefore perceived as Caucasian, and it provided the superiority given to the whites. The scientific side also has made a monogenist claim by using the DNA and fossils as the Evidence (Rahner 235). One Evidence used is the fact that Humans are able to interbreed and produce healthy offspring; Animals of different species cannot do this.  Therefore, the explanation they give for different races is that of evolution and natural selection. By people living in different environments, genetic mutations have aided the differences. Defining the original Race has been the problem. Blumenbach, a scientist, claimed that Caucasians were the original Race because they are the most advanced and evolved. Other scientists such as Tyson, Linnaeus, Comte de Buffon have proven that the original person was from Africa based on fossil evidence. Changes in the environment created different levels of melanin and, therefore, the changes in the races. Trying to rank races based on the perceived weaknesses is, therefore, subjective and unscientific, as Blumenbach did.


Polygenism is the belief that human races have different origins. Taking from the Christian Monogenist argument, the polygenists claim that the bible is incomplete, and it needs to add the Pre-Adam period, Co-Adam, and addition to the table of Nations in Genesis 10. The pre-Adam argument claims that there were already humans existing on earth before Adam. Co-Adam claims that there was more than one Adam spread across the world who later produced different races.  Charles white argues that refuted the French theory than only the same species can interbreed, pointing on to foxes, wolves, and Jackals interbreeding.  Samuel Morton also supported the claim with Evidence that the bible could support different Adams; he, however, claims that the different species were placed in order of their intelligence, with the whites being places first (Caspari 2).  Colenso, George Gliddon Josiah Clark Nott Louis Agassiz, and supported the polygenist theory by claiming that the table of Nations was not complete in Genesis 10 (Gliddon 241). Their argument was that the table was written by someone limited to their region. Nott further claims that there are no verses within the bible that support monogenism.

Polygenic scientists theorize human racial difference as that one of being in different species. They claim that different lineages exist of human beings and that the chain of being has the Africans closest to the Primates. Modern scientists had, however, disapproved of these theories when they traced back the human lineages to show a convergence 57,000 years ago and that they, therefore, share a common origin. Humans have very limited differences and, therefore, couldn’t be supported to exist from different species.

How and why did the scientific fields of anthropology, psychometrics, phrenology, and psychology emerge? Explain what each of these disciplines study and what methodology they employ. Why is the premise of each of these fields inherently racist?

Psychology dates back to the Ancient Greeks as a study of the human brain and behavior. It developed into a full-fledged scientific enterprise in the 19th century with the start of the experimental design. Since then, it has taken a commitment to natural science with the methodology of the experiment. The Race is not discussed much in the psychological study and when it is discussed it and edited by white scholars, and this, therefore, limits its studies to mostly the Caucasians.


It traces its roots into ancient Greek historical and philosophical writings that dealt with human nature. Anthropology applies research design involving data collection methods such as interviews, observation, and focus groups.   Among the first scholars of this profession was Herodotus, who regarded the Greek as the dominant Race and culture (Allen 210).  It was a battle for superiority between the white people and those of other descent. Because of the origin of human enlightenment that happened in the European region, it made the whites get referred to as the master religion.

Psychometrics studies the

Psychometrics designs have been used from the 19th century and were based on gauging the participant’s intelligence by examining deferent aspects of the persons. It was initially used to analyze the ability of soldiers and determine the people competent in different fields within the society. The field has, however, been inherently racist because the tools have been based on the previous basis that the white Race was more intelligent than the others. This discriminated against these other races.


Phrenology uses the study of measuring the bumps on the skull to measure the level of mental ability and traits.  The basis of this science was that the mind is a function of the brain, and thus localization of some brain sections would improve some functions. The racist scientists looked to phrenology as their form of justification for their superiority. The comparison of skulls places them at the top of the ranking of races.


Work Cited

Allen, Theodore W. The invention of the White Race. Vol. 2. Verso, 1994.

Breen, Timothy Hall, and Stephen Innes. ” Myne Owne Ground”: Race and Freedom on Virginia’s Eastern Shore, 1640-1676. Oxford University Press, 2004.

Caspari, Rachel. “Polygenism.” The International Encyclopedia of Biological Anthropology (2018): 1-2.

Gliddon, George Robbins. “The monogenists and the polygenists: being an exposition of the doctrines of schools professing to sustain the unity or the diversity of human races dogmatically; with an inquiry into the antiquity of mankind upon the earth, viewed chronologically, historically, and paleontologically.” Indigenous races of the earth; or, new chapters of ethnological inquiry (1857).

Levin, Michael. “The race concept: a defense.” Behavior and philosophy (2002): 21-42.

Rahner, Karl. “Theological Reflexions on Monogenism.”.” Theological Investigations 1: 229-96.

Smedley, Audrey, and Brian Smedley. Race in North America. Perseus (Hachette), 2011.

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The Problematic use of Santa Claus by Coca-Cola

The origins of Santa Claus are from a line of Saints who loved children and evidenced it by gifting them for their good deeds. The physical image is Santa Claus has changed over time and is refined in the modern world to represent a fat and big man with a red coat riding in a sleigh going around giving children gifts during Christmas eve. Despite all these changes, what has been consistent is the fact that Santa has always appealed to the children and is their icon especially during the Christmas period. Coca-Cola adopted the use of Santa Claus in its advertisements in 1931 and it has increased its sales during the winter but that has come with the challenge of a problematic appropriation of the tradition of Santa Claus. The use of Santa in Coca-Cola advertising has promoted the unhealthy drink to the children despite the commitment of the company not to advertise to children under 14 years.

Inspiration Behind Santa Claus

The lineage of Santa Claus is traced back to a monk named St. Nicholas who was born around 280 A.D. His stories are centered around giving and kindness to children. He had a feat day on December 6th that was considered a good day to have a feast or get married. He lived in present-day Turkey and at one point was the most popular saint in Europe (Bowler35). Contrary to his depiction today, St. Nicholas was a thing, had a short beard, and wore priestly robes and not red. The other source of inspiration for the story was from St. Nick who was popular in Holland and got the nickname, Sinter Klaas (Bowler35). He also wore bishop robes and went around the country seeking out the children who had been good. After the protestant reformation, the gift-giving date changed from 6th to Christmas eve. Sinter Klaas crossed the Atlantic to celebrate the feast in New York and Pennsylvania and this was where the tradition was born in the USA. In New York, Sinter Klaas was described to wear a blue hat, yellow stockings, and has a broad-brimmed hat with Flemish trunk shows. In this case too, not similar to Santa Claus. 

The connection to the sleigh driven by Santa Claus is derived from the story of the German God Odin. The legend has it that he rode across the sky on an eight-legged horse. The concept was carried along when Germany was Christianised but the god Odin was left behind. However, the sleigh is not similar to present-day Santa’s (Bowler35).

Americans accepted this folklore as their own in the 19th century as evidenced by the poem by Clement Clarke Moore titles “Twas The Night Before Christmas” in 1822. It was about a visit by St. Nicholas and gave the modern description of Santa Claus. It became popular and gave Americans an icon to believe in. In the poem, Santa was portrayed as a portly elf with eight reindeers pulling his sleigh. This poem inspired the depictions of Santa Claus by Thomas Nast in 1863 (Bowler41). Thomas Nast created what is seen as the modern-day Santa Claus, He gave Santa the red suit, beard, potbelly, and a pipe.

The Entry of Coca-Cola in the Picture

Coca-Cola started using Santa in their adverts in 1931 with its lead artist Haddon Sundblom.  Coca-cola was looking to improve its sales in the winter, which was a slow period for the product (Balakrishnan). The artist made one major change to the image by replacing the pipe with the Coca-Cola bottle. This new Santa Claus created also looked less strict and was more into children and family. While the image of Santa Claus was not created entirely by Coca Cola, it was however reinforced and popularised by Coca-cola. This figure was reinforced and used all over the country until it became associated with the company. Years after its first use, Santa-Claus became synonymous with Coca-Cola until people speculated that they had originated the idea or owned the rights to the image (Balakrishnan). Coca-cola has been using the image every year to appeal to the sale of Coca-cola during the summer but more so appealing to the children. Eventually, it has made the children and younger people a major market for soft drinks especially Coca-Cola.

The Problematic Use of Santa-Claus by Coca-Cola

The biggest problem with the use of Santa Claus in the Coca-Cola advertisement is that it breaks its marketing policies because of this. Santa Claus is synonymous with children and younger people because of the original ST. Nicholas was a gift-giver to the children. This image of Santa-Claus is closely associated with children under the ages of 13 in the country and all over the world.

Coca-Cola, on the other hand, sells a fizzy drink that contains lots of sugars that are associated with weight gain, tooth decay, heart disease, and diabetes. The company is intended to increase its sales has therefore adopted a celebrity that appeals to children (Jacobson 24). The media that it has used to advertise such as the internet, billboards, games, sports events television among others are the media easily accessible to children (Crawford 59).  Further, Coca-Cola has continued to sponsor and endorse toys, films, and sports teams which are children’s favorites. Therefore, in their advertising, it is clear that they are targeting to get the market of younger children.

Coca-Cola marketing policies bar marketing of their products directly to children under 12 years. The company recognized the negative effects of its products on children and wanted to stay away from causing children harm. The reality in using Santa in the adverts goes opposite to the company’s commitment. The company has also committed to not using celebrities who do not directly appeal to children under 12 years (Jacobson 12). The reality is however that the majority of the Santa Claus fans are children under the age of 12.  Santa Claus is advertising to younger children all over the world and it makes the company go against its pledge. One more policy within Coca-Cola marketing is that it wouldn’t favor advertising the drink within school premises especially the primary schools. The reality on the ground is that Coca-Cola Adverts are in or close to primary schools all over the world (Crawford 59). Coca-Cola is even sponsoring primary school sporting events and sells some of the drinks inside the schools though not in the US.

Such kinds of similar complaints have been reported in the past by a coalition of 21 public health organizations in Auckland. They made a petition to the Advertising Standards Authority about a billboard showing Santa with two coke bottles and a peace sign. The billboard was located near two schools. The Advertising board agreed that Coca-Cola is an occasional food and should be targeted to the younger children (Jacobson 24). The coalition was also against the fact that Coca-Cola was using a celebrity who appealed greatly to children and younger people despite the negative effects of the drinks on them.

It is therefore clear that Coca-Cola has taken a delightful tradition that was used for kindness and gifts to good children and commercialized it for the wrong. The intention for St. Nicholas was to ensure that well-behaved children received gifts and this meant that they are well behaved even with their diets. Coca-Cola therefore has broken this tradition by introducing the children to a fizzy drink that has negative effects on their bodies and health. Effectively, the company has problematically appropriated this tradition.

Remedies to the Problem

In light of the problematic appropriation done by Coca-Cola, some recommendations will help them from decolonizing our young generation. The company should immediately stop selling or advertising its sugary drinks within secondary and primary schools. It should also include resistance from sponsoring these school events, creating vending machines, and giving rewards (Jacobson 37). It should also extend its advertising in media sources which have an audience of 25% or fewer children under the ages of 14. Next, they should remove all their billboards, posters, and other forms of adverts in children’s parks, recreation centers, boys and girls clubs, and other places that have a majority audience of children.  The company should also stop selling their logo-emblazoned clothing, toys, and other children merchandise (Jacobson 35). And more so, they should desist from using Santa Claus who is a celebrity that most appeals to the younger children. It should further speak to any other celebrity with good followership of children.


Santa-Claus is American folklore that has transcended time and generations. It is a popular narrative in media, literature, and reality. It is inspired by a season of giving and appreciating disciplined children. However, since it was adopted by Coca-Cola for advertising, it has promoted the fizzy drinks to children. The Coca-Cola drink is associated with unhealthy children and other heart and diabetic conditions. While Coca-cola have committed not to directly advertise their drink to children under the ages of 14, the use of Santa Claus appeals to children and makes them fail on their promise.




Balakrishnan, Ravi. “From ‘Open Happiness’ to ‘Taste The Feeling’: Why Coca-Cola Changed Its Strategy.” The Economic Times, 2016,

Bowler, Gerry. Santa Claus: A Biography. McClelland & Stewart, 2011.

Crawford, Robert. “4 Coke and the media.” Decoding Coca-Cola: A Biography of a Global Brand (2020): 59.

Jacobson Michael. Marketing Coke to Kids: Broken Pledges, Unhealthy Children. Centre for Science in the Public Interest, 2016.

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My quest to become a pharmacist started when I took health sciences classes in 9th grade. At this moment, I had already carried out a thorough soul searching and decided that pharmacy was the course that suited me well. It was, therefore, a mind-blowing experience for me taking the health science classes especially in the second year where we participated in clinical rotation to shadow physicians and get the feel of the careers we aspired. At one point, I was fascinated when I was able to bring back to life and “almost dead man” through the administration of CPR. My last rotation was in the pharmacy where I was privileged to have lengthy conversations with the pharmacist who was very welcoming and inspirational. The conversations served as the confirmations that I had selected the right course.

I was later privileged to take the Pharmacy technician course in 12th grade after waiting for a whole year to be accepted to the program. In this role, I enjoyed working with pharmacists daily and see how the role made an impact on people’s lives. I witnessed pharmacists save a patient from a bad allergic reaction and this made me want to serve in that capacity in the future.  After the course, I was unable to do the pharmacy test because I was 16 and below the age requirements. I took a prerequisite for a major in biology at junior college in hope of coming back to take the test. This dream was actualized two years later and I am currently living my dream in pharmacy school.

My inspiration for pharmacy is my endearing desire to treat infections and diseases through the understanding of the entire being. It will also place me on the frontline of the healthcare industry where I will interact with patients directly and understand the public health challenges within the community. My experience working as a pharmacy technician has proved that the role is fulfilling and it is one that I seek to pursue after completing school.

After completion of the school, I hope to start in an entry-level position as a clinical or community pharmacist. It will be an opportunity for me to interact with the job and the community and get the necessary experience to advance in my education and roles. Eventually, I hope to rise into pharmacoeconomics and deal with a wider population, study their public health, and provide an advisory role in public health policies.

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PERSONAL ETHICS PAPER (What Ethics Means to You): Write a 10 page, single spaced paper setting out your thoughts and views on what it means TO YOU to be an ethical professional. Use your answers and thoughts from Checkpoints 1-3 in writing this. Please use your answers to the questions asked in those checkpoints as well as the following points as you write this final assignment:

How do you currently see yourself in terms of the ethics theory we have studied this semester?

What values do you hold dear? (Checkpoint #1)

Who, if anyone, or what events in your life have led you to who you are today? Is there a mentor in your life that helped you to develop these values? (Checkpoint #1)


What values would you like to add to your life in the future? What steps do you plan on taking to become the person you want to become? Or is there someone that you identify with and admire that embodies your ethical standards?  (Checkpoint #2)

Upon becoming a CPA, what obligations are you undertaking and to whom are they owed? What values will underlie your approach to professionalism and how will they be manifested in the practice of your profession. What are the most important characteristics of the professional and by what standards have you determined those?  (Checkpoint #3)

What do you see for yourself as a person and as a professional in the next five years? Ten? Twenty? (Checkpoint #3).  Expand on this section, give it plenty of thought, measureable goals, and create the future road map of your career and also personal goals if you choose.


Please use single line-spacing/Arial 12 point font/1” margins and, again, YES, you can use your three checkpoints to write it.


Checkpoint #1: Write a two to three page typed, single spaced paper on what ethics means to you, and what or who has had influence over your ethical values. This assignment, as are Checkpoints #2 and #3, is about YOU, so please talk in the first person and do not tell me what the book says. I want to know about YOU and what YOU think.


What ethical theory fits you best and why? Do you see yourself as an Egoist, Utilitarian, Deontologist, etc.? Why? Give examples. Have you always been this way or have you changed over time? If you have changed, which ethical theories did you transition between? Give examples. Have you had any significant positive and/or negative influences in your life? What did you learn from them? What does ethics mean to you?


Checkpoint #2:   Write at least a two to three page typed spaced paper based on the following criteria:


1)    Choose a specific VIRTUE (see the Mintz book if you are not sure what a virtue is – the one you pick does not have to be one of Aristotle’s Cardinal Virtues) you would like to develop in yourself. Explain what the virtue means to YOU and why YOU want more of that virtue in your life.


2)    Design a Service Project you COULD do this Semester, which would help you develop this particular virtue. Demonstrate you know where and how to secure this volunteering opportunity. Be as specific as possible. Name the place, time, hours, and what you would be doing, for whom and under what supervision.


3)    Explain How and Why your proposed service learning internship would change your personality, improve your habits, and result in your acquiring this virtue in YOUR life.



Please  see the attachment for more details regarding the assignment. It’s going to be 10 pages (single spaced) and please put headlines for each checkpoint.


Topic:Personal Ethics Paper (What Ethics Means to YOU)


Sources: 20

Style: APA

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Medical Access in Remote Areas

Medical Access in Remote Areas

Ways of Increasing access to treat diseases or disorders related to the integumentary system in remote area medical clinics.

One way of increasing access to medical care for the integumentary system disorders is by providing permanent specialists within these locales. The local healthcare providers within the remote regions need to invest in permanent specialist staff who will be present and provide these services. The governments could provide incentives to health workers to stay and provide services within such a remote region (Rechel et al., 2016). Because the majority of the people within the region cannot afford insurance schemes, public hospitals and mission hospitals are a good fit for the area (HealthLeaders, 2018). Government sponsored Medicare schemes such a Medicare and Medicaid would also be important to cover people from this region to ensure that that can access proper services (Rechel et al., 2016). Expansion of Medicaid within this region would specifically be beneficial because it will cover more people and increase the diseases and conditions to cover. In the case that these medical services and professionals are far, Telehealth is also a good option for the people. Within the local hospitals, they can set aside resources to set up the technology and help the patients with these diseases (Seto et al., 2019). While it doesn’t offer much support, it is good enough for consultation services, video checks and recommendation of treatment options. With the presence of a proper pharmacy, then patients can easily get the integumentary system solutions.


Discuss at least 2 diseases/disorders in the discussion

Major disorders discussed within the video are dental and visual issues. Wise county residents have many dental health issues for both the young and the old. Majority of the patients do not visit the dentists after every 6 months as is the policy. The opportunity therefore is provided for them to access the x-rays, filings, dentures and cleaning. The people of the country also lack affordable proper visual health services. The free medical camp therefore offers many a chance to get a check up and get medicine and glasses. These two conditions are majorly highlighted within the video.





ABC NEWS (2013). Remote Area Medical: Serving the Undeserved. Video. Accessed from

HealthLeaders. (2018). 3 Ways Providers can Improve Healthcare Access in Rural Areas | HealthLeaders Media.

Rechel, B., Džakula, A., Duran, A., Fattore, G., Edwards, N., Grignon, M., … & Ricciardi, W. (2016). Hospitals in rural or remote areas: An exploratory review of policies in 8 high-income countries. Health Policy, 120(7), 758-769.

Seto, E., Smith, D., Jacques, M., & Morita, P. P. (2019). Opportunities and challenges of telehealth in remote communities: case study of the Yukon telehealth system. JMIR medical informatics, 7(4), e11353.

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MBA Answers

Question 1:

In order of importance to you, list significant extracurricular activities, professional associations, and civic organizations in which you have participated in school, work, or the community. Also please indicate years of participation and any leadership positions you held.


At the age of 15, I started studying in Taras Shevchenko phys-math lyceum, that was my 9th grade. For all 3 years that I’ve spent there, I was responsible for organizing chess tournaments at the school and I represented my lyceum in Kyiv chess tournaments.


While studying Computer Science at Kyiv National Taras Shevchenko University, I volunteered at a charity organization ‘May’ as a teacher for mathematics and physics to children at an orphanage. I used to accept donations from my co-workers for orphan children and buy food, toys, and books for them.


In the US, I’m one of the lecturers for online school PASV, where I teach immigrants the basics of Quality Assurance and JavaScript, SQL programming.




1000 chars


Question 2:

Describe any significant cross-cultural experiences you had outside your home country, including study abroad, exchange programs, extensive international travel, or residence in another country (include dates).


In 2015, by decree of fate and coincidence, my wife and I ended up in the USA, Florida. Not having at that time the slightest experience of living abroad, except for naturally resting in Turkey and Egypt, we, relying only on ourselves, without outside support, managed not only to get on our feet, catch on, but also give birth to a son here and give him everything he needed , including education. It was hard, and we went through a lot, but I believe that this decision was right and this experience hardened us, gave us confidence and the desire to grow and add more. I hardened my spirit, became mentally more mature, more resilient, and now I clearly see my goals and ways to achieve them. I know exactly what I want to do in the future, how I can help others and how to live my life for a reason.




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Question 3:


List below any other interests, hobbies, or recreational activities you currently pursue in your free time.


Not that I have a lot of free time. Nevertheless, when I have a few free hours, I spend it with benefit. First of all – with my family. I am a husband and a father, and I will not have a second life, and I will never turn back time, so I try to spend time with my wife and son as much as possible. We ride bicycles, play tennis, football, swim, play chess with our son. I am a huge Jiu-Jitsu fan and try to practice at least three times a week, thereby setting an example for my son. Since my son is still young, he is only 5, he often asks me to play with him, which I willingly do. I do not forget about my own development – I read a lot of business literature, books on self-motivation, and personal development.



1000 chars


Question 4:


Please describe any academic, professional, or civic honors or awards you received, patents you’ve been issued, books you’ve authored, or any other significant accomplishments you would like the admissions committee to consider.


Of my great achievements, I can single out a few – at school, I won prizes at the Olympiads in mathematics and physics.

During my professional career, I have been repeatedly recognized as a top performer in such companies as Luxoft, Ukraine, and Florida Blue, Florida, USA.






Question 5:


Explain the primary factors that influenced your decision to apply to the UF MBA Program.


Despite my master’s degree in information technology and my 13 years of experience in IT, I still believe that I have achieved very little and I have a lot to learn. I have experience in team management and have dozens of successfully completed projects on my account, but I believe that my management skills are far from perfect. I feel like I need to improve my communication skills. My knowledge of building a business is minimal. I know where to start, but I have neither the knowledge nor the experience to enable me to do it right. I have no acquaintances who own their own businesses, with whom I could consult. I hope the MBA program will give me both acquaintances and skills and knowledge that I can use to achieve my goals.

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Making Aircraft Engine Image

Prepare end rings of Combustion chamber
4 Student 5



Makethe End caps of the combustion chamber
6 Student 1






Create Design and Modifications
1 Student 15


Select Engine Components
2 Student 5


Get turbo charger and good garage building
3 Student 1


Make the Flame Tube
8 Student 5





Weld End rings of combustion chamber
5 Student 3


Carry out plumbing of the oil and fuel system
9 Student 2





Bolt the combustion engine together
7 Student 2


Assemble the Flame tube, Oil and field system and the combustion chamber
10 student 5


Testing of the Engine
11 Student 10

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legal process

  1. What is a no contest plea? What are the benefits of this type of a plea? What are the detriments?


A no contest plea is used in criminal proceedings in the case where the defendant neither disputes nor admits the crime. It is not an admission of guilt but is treated as an agreement with the facts in the indictment. It is commonly used in plea bargaining in a criminal case. It is advantageous because the no contest plea cannot be used as evidence of admission of guilt in the face of civil action in the future (Beattey, 2016).  It also comes with the advantages such as avoidance of costly attorney’s fees in a case, it also reduces the publicity associated with a lengthy trial especially for the popular people. It can allow someone the to take the blame for someone else to avoid investigation. It also allows for the judge to give a lesser charge rather than in the cases of being found guilty. The disadvantage of the plea is that one still gets similar punishment just as in the case of being found guilty.


  1. Describe the different types of plea bargains. How do these relate to the law in the books versus the law in action?


Plea bargains in a criminal case is an agreement between the prosecutor and the defendant which involve convincing the defendant to plead guilty to a lesser or original charge with the hope of getting a lighter sentence (Rosett, Cressey, & Ruth, 1976). It helps skip the lengthy court trial process and avoiding conviction of a stronger charge. The three types of plea bargains are:

Charge Bargaining – It happens when the defendant leads guilty to a lesser serious crime than the one originally imposed on them

Count Bargaining –  It is used when the defend ant leads to a fewer number of offenses or charges

Sentence bargaining – It happens when the defendant pleads guilty knowing the sentence that will be given.


Research in USA shows that defendant who plead guilty or take a plea bargain receive less severe sentences compared to those who exercise their full trial. It means that the benefits of the bargains are the same from the law books as in real life. The agreement between the prosecutor and the defendant is legally binding although done in private




Rosett, A. I., Cressey, D. R., & Ruth, H. S. (1976). Justice by consent: Plea bargains in the American courthouse (pp. 128-32). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott.

Beattey, R. A. (2016). What You Should Know About Pleading “No Contest.”

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Lean Methodology in John Deere

Why I selected the Company

John Deere company has adopted the lean system within its production unit, Supply chain and IT operations. The production area approaches the system by using the Deere Production System (DPS) to produce low volumes but with great quality (Works, 2018).  Since they produce different types of products such as combines, tractors, sprayers and planters, they make these products on demands basis but with a constant update of the production technology therefore becoming a leader within this field and increasing productivity gains by 8-9%. The supply chain also employs the lean system. The suppliers and the quality department are integrated into this system and provide the necessary materials and tools with demand while the company uses lean purchasing methods (Sanz Fernández, 2016). Suppliers maintain the consistency of the quality in their products through a proper quality assessment system. The Global It Operations at John Deere use the lean system to ensure quality services when controlling the service management with the customers, and aligning the wholesalers and retailers with good delivery cycles using metrics.

Contribution of John Deere to Lean Methodology

In the process of adopting the Deere Lean Production system, John Deere introduced the standard of every lean manufacturing process. They looked for compactness, machining efficiency and flexibility (Works, 2018). The factory process therefore involved creating a drivetrain that was flexible with changeovers, used technology for the future, less time consuming and stronger. Further, the machine builders selected for the installation of the new lean factory structure were judged based on their knowledge of the process and their reliability. While this new system reduced the staff required in production, it ensured that there was savings in terms of cost. The technology also required minimal operator invention. From these three qualities of the John Deere system, was the basis of new technology within the manufacturing industry up to date.

John Deere introduced the Lean system adoption method with the company suppliers.  Because the company uses lean system in adoption, it would also mean that they have to convince their suppliers to adopt their system. Therefore, John Deere created an audit system to identify the suppliers and gives each of them a scoring and a plan for improvement.  The process thus ensured that these suppliers maintained consistency in the quality of products they produce by creating an internal quality assurance system (Sanz Fernández, 2016). With such a scoring system, each supplier, (big or small) would want to fit in within this audit system to ensure a supply tender to the company. Therefore, they slowly fit in with the lean supply chain model. The company is therefore assured that no matter the location or size of the supplier, they will still supply good quality products.

John Deere also introduced the application of Lean system within the IT operations. Before the introduction of Lean, the IT services were specific to the site and thus became inconsistent within different locations. The company therefore consolidated its IT system but it came with the problem of diversity and uncommon culture. The new system integrated the customers with automated services and also coordinated the SAP factory functionalities. The new system needed to align quality within their retail, wholesale, and delivery cycles. Therefore, the system need to use the lean approach based on proven systems, good quality IT teams and creation of quality products and services.




Works, J. D. D. (2018). Designing and Implementing Lean Manufacturing at John Deere Dubuque Works.

Sanz Fernández, Á. S. F. (2016, December 13). How John Deere Iberica is developing a lean supply chain. Planet Lean.

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