- Explain the functions of the lymphatic system. Specifically discuss the functions of the tonsils, the spleen, and the thymus gland.
Lymphatic system – maintains the fluid levels in the body and functions to keep the immune system and the general functions okay. The lymph nodes produce antibodies and cells that protect the body from infection
Tonsils – they form a protective ring of reticuloendothelial cells against the harmful microorganisms that may get into the oral or nasal cavity. They filter bacteria and viruses, can also produce antibodies against pathogens
The Spleen – the spleen filters blood at the splenic artery and vein. It phagocytizes bacteria and worn out platelets and red blood cells. It also produces lymphocytes and plasma cells. It stores blood and also acts as a blood reservoir and releases it into the body during hemorrhage.
Thymus gland – it produces T-cells which destroy infected and cancerous cells. The T-cells also help other cells to grow well
Humoral immunity is an immunity provided by B lymphocytes and work effectively against bacterial and viral infections.
Cellular immunity is the immunity provided by T lymphocytes and is effective against fungi, parasites, intracellular viral infections, cancer cells and foreign implants.
Part 2: Pathology
- Discuss AIDS. Identify the cause, signs and symptoms and treatments.
It is caused by an infection from Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The virus attacks T-Cells thus compromising the immune response
Initial Symptoms; weakness, fever, night sweats, weight loss, swollen lymph glands in neck region
The full-blown period has the onset of opportunistic infections such as pneumonia, skin cancer, diarrhea, tuberculosis, toxoplasma and fungal infections.
Older drugs such as AZT
- Choose one other disease from this chapter and discuss it in detail.
It is caused by klebsella pestis bacteria that is transmitted to humans by the bite of the Asiatic rat flea Xenopsylla cheopis. The bacteria grow in the lumph nodes causing them to grow forming dark swellings called buboes.
The bacterial also get into the blood to cause septicema
Buboes developing in the groin, armpit, and neck the size of a chicken egg which are tender and firm to touch
Sudden fever and chills
Antibiotics such as penicillin