The major liquid waste in my school include waste water (wash water, dirty water), grease, oil and sludges
Waste water is collected in drains with meshes which segregate any form of solid waste in it. It is the transported in drainage pipes which connect to the main septic tank. Once the septic tank is filled, the waste is transferred to the Nairobi Sewerage lines through lorries. Here it is treated and disposed.
Waste grease, oil from the machines and automotive labs and the catering department is collected in tanks and containers respectively. It is left to cool and sedimentation to take place. The oils are then cleaned and recycled for other uses. The unusable oils wastes are placed in sealed cans and sent for disposal by the waste collection agencies.
Collection of Solid waste can be done using specially labeled bins that classify them according to the major types. They can be classified as ceramics and glass, plastics, paper rubbish and metals and tins. The specialized bins are where the segregation take places.
Once collected, they are transported to a major sorting our station where the recyclable pieces are taken out. Plastics, ceramics and glass, metals and papers are all easily recyclable and therefore some recycling can be done in the school. Complicated items can be placed in a transport vehicle and taken to scrap yard who do large scale recycling.
These can be collected in their specialized bins and segregated before being disposed in a composite pit or landfills that would be used further as manure.
These include items that can be converted into other forms of use. Yellow recycle bins can be created for these items for collection. They can also be produced from the segregation stage of the other wastes (solid and organic). Once they are collected, they can be transported in bags to a recycling site, cleaned and treated before finding new uses for the products.
The common hazardous waste in my school include circuit boards, batteries, paints, fluorescent bulbs etc. They can be collected in the hazardous labeled bins. Filled bins can be collected to a sorting center where the waste would be sorted into reusable ones, recyclable ones and those that require disposal. The recyclable and reusable ones can be treated and used for other applications. The disposable ones should be collected into incineration chambers or disposed into a landfill.
Q2. At your workplace identify how you would handle the 3 types of hazardous wastes from identification to disposal, ensure you outline all the steps involved.
All the hazardous waste should be collected within central place for identification and determination of the proper ways of disposal.
The identification process for the waste will classify them according to their nature of hazard. They will be classified according to the listed wastes, characteristics waste and mixed radiological wastes. The characteristics wastes would be classified further according to ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity and toxicity.
Once the type or nature of waste has been identified, they will then be segregated into different packaging material depending on the nature of disposal they each require.
Liquid wastes and other hazardous wastes can be detoxified before being disposed to reduce the risk of toxic gases e.g. during incineration
Landfills for Hazardous Material
For the non-liquid hazardous material, they will be placed in the specialized landfills. These landfills are lines with a double layer of clay to prevent the material from leaching into the ground. The land fill is the covered.
Here the hazardous waste is going to be burned into incombustible residue. The incinerators are enclosed and reduces the threat of toxic gases or fire spreading
Q3. Identify 5 different PPEs used by firefighter and address the following areas for the 5 types identified
- Materials used
- Safe usage of the PPEs
- Where and when they are used
- How to safely store them
- Safe disposal of the items after their useful life
- Head Protection – Fire fighter Helmets – Made from thermoplastics or fiberglass materials. The firefighter helmet is only required during structural firefighting activities. They are not designed for crash protection and should not be worn when driving or in a fire service vehicle. After activity, they are to be inspected, cleaned, dried then hang in a well ventilated, dry and clean shelf. Once they have become obsolete, they can be disposed of by incineration, and the plastics parts can be recycled
- Hood and Face protection – they are made up of fiber s such as Nomex, PBI, P84, Basofil, Flame Retardant Rayon. Protective hoods are only worn when there is the risk of injury from heat or flame to the exposed skin. They are therefore appropriate in firefighting activity. After activity, they are to be inspected, patched or repaired, cleaned, dried then stored dry and clean bag. Once they have become obsolete, they can be disposed of by incineration.
- Goggles and safety glasses – they are made up of a thick polycarbonate lens that is hard coated and anti-fog treated inside and out. After activity, they are to be inspected, patched or repaired, cleaned, dried then stored dry and clean container. Once they are obsolete, the glasses can be recycled for other uses.
- Gloves – they have several layers outer later made of leather, inner layer Nomex, Kevlatr, and silicon carbide. They are appropriate in the firefighting activities always worn to prevent exposure to hazard on hands. After activity, they are to be inspected, patched or repaired, cleaned, dried then stored dry and clean bag. Once they have become obsolete, they can be disposed of by incineration.
- Firefighter boots – they are made of a nomex lined leather. The toe protection is made of steel or composite. Can be worn before during and after the fire activities to reduce risk of injury on legs. After activity, they are to be inspected, patched or repaired, cleaned, dried then stored dry and clean shelf. Once they have become obsolete, they can be disposed of by incineration or recycled to make other products or shoes.