Anatomy: Endocrine System

Hormone Chemical Classification Function
Epinephrine Modified Amino acid Play a role in the fight and flight response of a person
Oxytocin Modified Amino Acid Contraction of the womb during childbirth

During lactation

Insulin Protein hormones promotes glucose uptake, glycogenesis, lipogenesis, and protein synthesis
Gonad stimulating hormones Protein Hormones It stimulates the testes in males and the ovaries in females
Estrogen Steroid hormone maturation and maintenance of the vagina and uterus, and are also involved in ovarian function
cortisol Steroid hormone It regulates metabolism and the immune response
  • Identify the location and purpose of each endocrine gland.
Endocrine Gland Location Purpose
Pineal Between the two celebral hemispheres Secretes melatonin
Pituitary In a depression of the sphenoid bone below the hypothalamus of the brain Provides hormones guiding the functions of testes, ovaries, adrenal cortex and thyroid gland
Thyroid and Parathyroid Right and left sides of the trachea and thyroid cartilage below the larynx Produces thyroid and parathyroid hormones
Adrenal They are found at the top of each kidney Produce flight or fight hormones, Adrenaline and noradrenaline
Testis Within the scrotum Produce testosterone
Thymus In the mediastinum behind the sternum between the two lungs Produces thymosin
Pancreas Behind the stomach Produces insulin
Ovary located on either side of the uterus within the broad ligament below the uterine (fallopian) tubes Produces estrogen and progesterone


Part 2: Pathology

  • Explain the difference between insulin dependent and non-insulin dependent diabetes. Identify causes, signs and symptoms, as well as treatments.

Insulin dependent diabetes starts at a young age which is caused by the body immune system destring the insulin producing cells thus eliminating its production in the body. Without insulin cells are unable to absorb sugar for production of energy.

Insulin independent diabetes comes in adulthood in which the body is not able to produce insulin in the right way and gets worse making the pancreas to produce less and less insulin.

  Insulin dependent Diabetes Insulin Independent Diabetes
Causes Body immune system fighting insulin producing cells


Virus attacks

·         Being overweight or obese is a main risk.

·         Fat distribution along the abdomen

·         Inactivity.

·         Family history

·         Race and ethnicity.

·         Blood lipid levels. An increased risk is associated with low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol — the “good” cholesterol — and high levels of triglycerides.

·         Age. The risk of type 2 diabetes increases as you get older, especially after age 45.

·         Prediabetes.

·         Pregnancy-related risks.

·         Polycystic ovary syndrome.

·           Areas of darkened skin, usually in the armpits and neck

  • Weight loss or poor weight gain, even if eating large amounts of food.
  • More thirst than usual.
  • Enuresis (bed wetting)
  • Frequent urination.
  • More urine than usual.
  • Feeling tired all the time.


  • Increased thirst
  • Frequent urination
  • Increased hunger
  • Unintended weight loss
  • Fatigue
  • Blurred vision
  • Slow-healing sores
  • Frequent infections
  • Numbness or tingling in the hands or feet
  • Areas of darkened skin, usually in the armpits and neck
  • Taking insulin.
  • Carbohydrate, fat and protein counting.
  • Frequent blood sugar monitoring.
  • Eating healthy foods.
  • Exercising regularly and maintaining a healthy weight.


  • Healthy eating.
  • Regular exercise.
  • Weight loss.
  • Possibly, diabetes medication or insulin therapy.
  • Blood sugar monitoring.




Cushing’s disease occurs when the body is too exposed to hormone cortisol for an extended period, when the body produces much of it or is ingested in excessive quantities.

Graves disease is an autoimmune system that stems from the immune system attacking the thyroid system thus producing more thyroid than the body requires. The resultant case is hyperthyroidism or overactive thyroid.




Martini, Frederic. Anatomy and Physiology’2007 Ed. Rex Bookstore, Inc., 2006.

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