- Classify 6 hormones into their major chemical categories. Explain the function of each of the hormones.
|Epinephrine||Modified Amino acid||Play a role in the fight and flight response of a person|
|Oxytocin||Modified Amino Acid||Contraction of the womb during childbirth
|Insulin||Protein hormones||promotes glucose uptake, glycogenesis, lipogenesis, and protein synthesis|
|Gonad stimulating hormones||Protein Hormones||It stimulates the testes in males and the ovaries in females|
|Estrogen||Steroid hormone||maturation and maintenance of the vagina and uterus, and are also involved in ovarian function|
|cortisol||Steroid hormone||It regulates metabolism and the immune response|
- Identify the location and purpose of each endocrine gland.
|Pineal||Between the two celebral hemispheres||Secretes melatonin|
|Pituitary||In a depression of the sphenoid bone below the hypothalamus of the brain||Provides hormones guiding the functions of testes, ovaries, adrenal cortex and thyroid gland|
|Thyroid and Parathyroid||Right and left sides of the trachea and thyroid cartilage below the larynx||Produces thyroid and parathyroid hormones|
|Adrenal||They are found at the top of each kidney||Produce flight or fight hormones, Adrenaline and noradrenaline|
|Testis||Within the scrotum||Produce testosterone|
|Thymus||In the mediastinum behind the sternum between the two lungs||Produces thymosin|
|Pancreas||Behind the stomach||Produces insulin|
|Ovary||located on either side of the uterus within the broad ligament below the uterine (fallopian) tubes||Produces estrogen and progesterone|
- Explain the difference between insulin dependent and non-insulin dependent diabetes. Identify causes, signs and symptoms, as well as treatments.
Insulin dependent diabetes starts at a young age which is caused by the body immune system destring the insulin producing cells thus eliminating its production in the body. Without insulin cells are unable to absorb sugar for production of energy.
Insulin independent diabetes comes in adulthood in which the body is not able to produce insulin in the right way and gets worse making the pancreas to produce less and less insulin.
|Insulin dependent Diabetes||Insulin Independent Diabetes|
|Causes||Body immune system fighting insulin producing cells
|· Being overweight or obese is a main risk.
· Fat distribution along the abdomen
· Family history
· Race and ethnicity.
· Blood lipid levels. An increased risk is associated with low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol — the “good” cholesterol — and high levels of triglycerides.
· Age. The risk of type 2 diabetes increases as you get older, especially after age 45.
· Pregnancy-related risks.
· Polycystic ovary syndrome.
· Areas of darkened skin, usually in the armpits and neck
Cushing’s disease occurs when the body is too exposed to hormone cortisol for an extended period, when the body produces much of it or is ingested in excessive quantities.
Graves disease is an autoimmune system that stems from the immune system attacking the thyroid system thus producing more thyroid than the body requires. The resultant case is hyperthyroidism or overactive thyroid.
Martini, Frederic. Anatomy and Physiology’2007 Ed. Rex Bookstore, Inc., 2006.