You have got a ticket in your hand- Where will you go? What will you do? What will happen when you get there?

I have always had a low obsession for the city of San Francisco since I was about 12 or 13. Being a great fan of the Movie Series, Terminator, I always admired the city within which the movie was based.  The movie created a beautiful depiction of the scenic beauties, the diverse communities and the amazing infrastructure in their bridges and cable cars. Therefore, my ticket will first lead me to this “Everybody’s favourite town.” Upon landing, I hope to take a drive, ride a bike and take a cable car traversing through the city streets from the Italian flavoured north beach, Japan Town, Fisherman’s Wharf and Mission District before finishing up in the Union Square with some shopping. I will also walk over the Golden Gate Bridge and dine at Al’s place. The view of the Pacific Ocean on all sides and the San Francisco Bay would the crowning of the journey. It will also be heart-warming to experience the unpredictable climate of the town and visit Alcatraz Island.

After this, I would take the Highway 1 down to Los Angeles not wanting to miss out on the fun stopovers and the scenes on the way. I would stop over at San Jose and see the so-called centre of the technology, Silicon Valley and swing by the Winchester Mystery house. The next stop will be the Santa Cruz town to explore its Beach Boardwalk and explore the beach lighthouse. I would then stop at then go to the Monterey Bay to have the evening drink along the Carmel-by-the-sea and if I have time, participate in Whale watching. The journey is important than the destination, Therefore I will also make stopovers in Big Sur via the Bixby Bridge.  In this town, I hope to check out the McWay falls, Pfeiffer bridge and the ragged point. Satisfied that I had navigated Big Sur completely, I would then head straight to the Hearst Castle on the enchanted hill in San Simeon. Before hitting the craziness of Los Angeles, I would finally stopover at Santa Barbara. I will use the opportunity to hug the coastline, have a meal facing the pacific and stroll along the beach.

While Los Angeles would be an idea for me to experience its nightlife, popular sites and scenes, the crowning of it all would watch the Los Angeles Lakers Games. I am a big fan of Basketball and an ardent supporter of the L. A. Lakers. I have loved playing basketball since I was a child, but this love was coupled with that of watching the same game. To keep at per with the information of the NBA, I have watched all the NBA games since the start of the 21st century. It will be therefore an indelible experience to see the matches live.  In L. A. therefore, I would love to watch their games, experience the energy, cheer with every point gained, and shout out to any offence. I was also a great fan of Koby Bryant before his sudden demise in an accident earlier this year. Therefore, I would relish an opportunity to view some of his monuments, galleries and experience where he used to play.



Dealing with Bullying using Trauma-Informed Care

Trauma informed social work identifies the prevalence of adversity within the lives of clients as a coping mechanisms of some form of trauma. Early trauma reshapes a child’s worldview affecting them further within their psychosocial aspects of their life. In this type of social work, therefore, the professional integrates safety, trust, empowerment and choice within their service to avoid firing up unhealthy relational dynamics (Levenson, 2017).  Child traumatic stress is prevalent and is caused by an event or a series of even that make the child experience emotional or physical harm.  Children who have experienced trauma and violence have a high likelihood to be bullied or bully others. Trauma in some cases makes the children to develop social difficulties making them targets of bullying.  Further, the children who have trauma may be more distressed or desensitized about bullying. In these cases, therefore, the social worker approaches the cases with a trauma informed manner.

In the cases of bullying or getting bullied, he social worker starts working with the child with an assumption that they have a history of trauma. Therefore, the worker seeks out the full picture of the child’s life. It is done by first analysing the symptoms of trauma within the child’s life and acknowledging their importance in shaping the child’s behaviour (Corcoran & Roberts, 2015).   Once these are identified, the worker will create an environment of safety, and trustworthiness. It helps the child to share about their experiences. The worker will then lead the child into a phase of helping them to make a choice about their behaviours and work in collaboration towards improving their condition. The worker would also empower the child in the face of future bullying or getting bullied.

In this procedure, the trauma based social worker look into what happened o the child and not what is wrong with the child. Therefore, they will not treat the bullying or getting bullied, as these two are assumed to be a symptom of past trauma. It also requires to create an environment of safety and trustworthiness to prevent triggering the trauma by creating a situation that resembles the initial traumatic event (Levenson, 2017).  For example, if a child experienced trauma from being shouted at constantly at home, then he becomes a bully, shouting or quarrelling the child will traumatize them.  Social worker than works in collaboration with the child to develop better ways of coping with their problem. Solutions are not forced unto the child but initiated through collaboration (Corcoran & Roberts, 2015).

Trauma based care for children has numerous benefits. It allows for the child to open up more because of the environment of safety and trust. Better sharing helps to solve the problems extensively and create long term healthcare outcomes. Trauma based care deals with the root problem facing the child instead of dealing with bullying or getting bullied, which is just a symptom of trauma (Corcoran & Roberts, 2015). The method is also better placed in dealing with the trauma that arises from bullying.

A trauma informed social worker would not just end the session with just the child, they go further to develop a trauma informed school culture (Blitz & Lee, 2015).  When the students, teachers, parents and policy makers are integrated, there will be change in the general outlook and reduce unhealthy ways of dealing with bullying. There will be a keen focus in behaviour patterns and it will be easier to empathize with the child’s situation. Teachers and parents would act as better mediators to help the children produce better results.



Blitz, L. V., & Lee, Y. (2015). Trauma-informed methods to enhance school-based bullying prevention initiatives: An emerging model. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma24(1), 20-40.

Corcoran, K. J., & Roberts, A. R. (Eds.). (2015). Social workers’ desk reference. Oxford University Press, USA.

Levenson, J. (2017). Trauma-informed social work practice. Social Work62(2), 105-113.

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Sexual Harassment and Assault in the U.S. Army

Sexual Harassment and Assault in the U.S. Army

Sexual assault cases have been an underlying thorny issue within the United States Army since 2004, drawing attention from all stakeholders. Statistics from the Newsweek report show that one out of fifteen males and one out of five females have been sexually assaulted within the service. While the reported cases have reduced over the years, the Secretary of Defence states that the unreported cases are increasing on the flip side, making the problem even more complicated.

The first public scandal regarding sexual assault in the U.S. Army was reported in 1996 in the Aberdeen Scandal. It involved twelve drill instructors who were later charged with sex crimes and received prison sentences and non-judicial punishments (Noah & Newman, 1996). After this incident, progress to training staff of sexual harassment and assault halted as the public eye shifted from them.  Strong institutional reformations started in the year 2004 when the Secretary of Defence created a task force to check on the reporting and handling of sexual assault issues. The body was termed as Sexual Assault Prevention and Response (SAPR) (Andrew, 2013). It was the first step towards making a real response effort. However, it had the shortcoming of lacking a proper reporting procedure and having a shallow education process. The system was later updated to Sexual Harassment and Assault Response and Prevention (SHARP). It was an improvement from the earlier system as it introduced tactics to prevent the cases from happening and proper training curriculums for all ranks. Despite operating for twelve years within the service, SHARP has had its shortcomings in the service (Andrew, 2013).

The topic of sexual assault and harassment is still an important one to analyze because there are still many loopholes within the measures used to reduce the cases. The Assault cases are ironic because the military has been an institution that prided itself on values of morality, justice, equity, and protection of their servicemen and women. Sexual harassment and assault violate the core principles and values on which the military is based upon. Sexual harassment and assault have been downplayed within the military but have had a negative impact on soldiers spreading fear and vulnerability expressed in different forms of expressions; these acts have presented the military in an unethical act, and there is a need for reforms within the SHARP program to help deal with the problem.

Analysis of Humanities

Human Behaviour

The human response to the assault actions and harassment went mostly contrary to the expectations. According to research by Skopp et al. (2020)., only 25% of the soldiers involved in such cases reported the incident or made an outcry about it. The department of Defence also provides a report to support these claims. The reason for the silence was mostly because they were too embarrassed to report, or they feared that reporting would have a negative impact on their military career (Skopp et al., 2020)). The situation was worse for the female soldiers as they were the ones who mostly hid their sentiments. Because the military was a dominantly male field, they feared that if they reported, it would result in a backlash.

There have been protests and marches by the public in response to cases of sexual assault in the military. In July 2020, there were dozens of protestors outside fort Campbell raining awareness on military sexual assault (Philipps, 2019).  The group consisted of veterans, women groups, and sexual assault survivors voicing their concerns over a sexual assault incident at Fort Campbell. The protests on the same topic have also gone online with the trending hashtag #Metoo going online on Twitter, Instagram, and Facebook of people narrating their assault stories.

The political class has not been left behind in their response to the cases. Congress has been instrumental in legislating and monitoring the cases under the SHARP program. The congress in 2013 also dealt with the issue publicly after the sexual assault and battery of an air force officer. The issue caught the attention of President Obama, which resulted in The Secretary and Air Force General testifying on the case. In 2017, Senator Martha McSally confessed her case of sexual assault while in the military and reopened the debate on how to deal with the problem (Steinhauer & Jr,2019).

Human Expression

Literature has also been a keen influence in passing on the feelings on the cases of assault. Several books have been written on various subjects related to sexual harassment in the military.  Important mentions include Surviving Military Sexual Trauma (In My Own Words): A Memoir by Michelle F. Capucci, and For Love of Country: Confronting Rape and Sexual Harassment in the U.S. Military by Terri Spahr Nelson. Online public libraries have been a good place where military sexual violence survivors have shared their stories. The most popular one is the VAWnet, which was a project of the National Resources Centre on Domestic Violence. It contained numerous anonymous stories of different people who had experienced the same. Other popular platforms include Survivors into transition, Survivors Write-In, and Different Hashtags within the internet have attracted people to also share their stories on social media platforms and thus create awareness of the problem.

Poetry has also been a polar way of expressing the emotions and the feelings of the survivors of the assault cases. A popular one is “What I Was Wearing “by Maty Simmerling, which speaks of her rape and the doubts that people had when she reported her incident. Popular CNN presenter Olivia Gatwood reported several cases of sexual assault in the military among women and decided to write a poem in reference to their plight.

The Invisible War is a 2012 documentary film that was produced to uncover the rot within the military in the case of sexual harassment and assaults. The film was applauded by lawmakers, advocates, and journalists because it had a significant impact on influencing policies and opinions about the topic. Justice denied is also another movie produced in 2013 that featured the horrific stories of rape and assault within the Army. As a resolve, the movies recommend coming forward to report the cases, offering treatment alternatives to the causalities, and changing reporting procedures for these crimes.


Analysis of the culture within the military presents a case that the military culture fosters an environment for assaults and harassment. The military training sets the stage because of the toxic and harassing command cultures. Therefore, from the entry-level, the soldiers are exposed to a culture of continual harassment from their superiors, which makes them vulnerable (Andrew, 2013). While their superiors may have their safety at hand, the mid and junior levels do not exhibit the same behavior and this, in turn, fosters improper behavior. Since the culture is based on harassment, it makes them turn a blind eye towards these cases. Further, since the authority figures are harsh to the juniors, it is hard to report the cases to them. There is, therefore, the ethical dilemma of whether to foster the same culture, which produces better respect for command but also fosters harassment, which leads to sexual assault.

Within the military, the soldiers develop the ego threat, which may also cause ethical dilemmas within their characters. The military provides an environment where members get the pride, martial spirit, gusto, or machismo and at the same time experience new adult freedoms. The rankings within the organization also extrapolate the egos further. Ego threat has been seen by various psychologists to be a great factor contributing to people getting involved in crime (Andrew, 2013). It is also because of the same ego that the members rarely report when the incidents happen to them. The military as a whole also has an institutional ego based on its position and the respect with which it draws from the citizens. It is therefore difficult for them to come out right and agree about their flawed systems and often times suppress these cases from reaching the public light.


Critical Analysis of Sexual Assault and Harassment in the Military

Sexual harassment has become a bigger problem that is seen from the outside. The role of SHARP within the forces has not been effective enough.  Many still think of sexual harassment as a usual banter, and even soldiers use the term SHARP to sarcastically describe their sexual innuendos. The situation is downplayed but is at a critical point. Almost 30% of all military ladies and 8% of all dynamic segment men in the Army are assessed to encounter sexual harassment, to a great extent because of rehashed events of sexual jokes or, particularly for ladies, being informed that a man would be more qualified for specific work or being dealt with contrastingly at their work environment (Sadler et al., 2018). Especially on account of male fighters, detailing can be seen as frail and unmanly—an apparatus utilized by ladies, not men, further implementing gendered standards (Abueg, 2016). The act of disregarding or getting over gendered remarks or sexual harassment propagates the way of life that permits rape to persistently happen.

The continuation of this standard is particularly hurtful because of the way that about 35% of rape casualties revealed being explicitly sexually harassed preceding their attack. Another 35% detailed inappropriate behavior after the attack had happened. For the large number of soldiers assaulted, sexual harassment preceded the sexual assault. While SHARP addresses sexual harassment by instructing troopers on what might be viewed as harassment (going over terms, likely activities, and so forth), the preparation should be more close to home to get soldiers to tune in (Woodham, 2014). The program is, in this manner, not viable in managing the issue of inappropriate behavior.

The high rate of sexual assault happening to the females is an indication of gender inequality within the army society. Not so long ago, rules and guidelines restricted females from being set in branches whose immediate reason for existing is battle (Spivak, 2017). Regardless of solicitations for coordination, the proceeded with constrained sexual orientation division was a limitation of ladies’ negative liberties. It makes outside weights that unequivocally disallow ladies from settling on the decision to turn into a warrior in explicit callings while men are allowed to settle on that decision to be possibly positioned in the battle arms branches (Shaw, Hegewisch, & Hess, 2018). And keeping in mind that this has as of late changed, there still can’t seem to be full-scale reconciliation where ladies feel socially acknowledged to join these branches in enormous numbers. Furthermore, of the almost 200 PTSD programs all through the nation, just six are intended to explicitly deal with traumatized ladies (Spivak, 2017). While a lot more cases of sex imbalance keep on happening in the Army, the most hazardous is by all accounts rape, and the Army’s way to deal with resolve the institutional standards encompassing the issue.


SHARP should expand the education sessions where fighters have an occasion to genuinely interact with casualties and feel for what they experienced. It would help them better comprehend the impact of harassment. This would permit fighters to see inappropriate behavior past being a joke and impact more casualties of harassment to be eager to report guilty parties before it can possibly transform into an attack (Abueg, 2016). By lessening provocation, a huge number of instances of attack can be forestalled. Nonetheless, the inability to police badgering inside the positions has driven numerous to feel that they can pull off their conduct and even attack. SHARP also needs to focus on Prevention instead of interventions. The focus should be on changing the culture to one that would admonish sexual harassment and assault and not deal with the reported cases. They should make sexual foul language a taboo within the ranks impart this standard in the Army—and keeping in mind that it is centered around changing the way of life, many trust it

SHARP needs reforms. Notwithstanding, this doesn’t imply that it is a disappointment. In spite of the fact that the program has been persevering in continually providing training, it has picked up little ground in achieving expansive changes. One method of dealing with the gendered standards that impact rape and badgering is through teaching with small discussion groups (Woodham, 2014). There should be a more noteworthy responsibility by pioneers to guarantee small group conversations are encouraged. Authorities should utilize their insight as pioneers to organize SHARP preparation to fit in with their preparation timetables and, similar to any remaining preparing necessities, guarantee that the standard is as a rule appropriately met. Beyond the smaller teaching groups, the content of the syllabus should also change. There should be a better focus on the army culture and its contribution to developing the rape culture (Abueg, 2016). The conversation should be fluid and allow the input of the trainees to effect change. Further, SHARP focuses on the culprit and attempts to advise them to stop. In any case, the Army needs to zero in getting the soldiers to understand the influence behind their actions and help them progress towards change or prevent severe assault cases.

Finally, the Army needs to reduce gender inequality within its systems. The notion that the military is male based because men are the stronger ones should be scrapped off. When women get a role to play within every sector of the military, it will get them to be at a better place regarding harassment (Spivak, 2017). The training materials should also help the soldiers to underpants equality and not see any gender as weaker or more vulnerable. The effect of this would also be to improve the reporting percentages of women.


Statistics and numbers of sexual assault and harassment within the military have been devastating over the years. It is clear that it is a serious issue that is affecting the soldiers within their factions.  SHARP was created to legislate policies and create training programs to help deal with the problem. There is, however, an alarming statistic because the cases have not reduced, and the population that is not reporting the cases is increasing. It, therefore, indicates that the human behavior created by the act is that of fear and embarrassment. Female soldiers also hide their cases because of the gender inequality present within the university ranks and would result in a backlash. Several protests, both online and physical, have occurred to address the sentiments. The political class has not been left behind either, with even senators coming out to bring their testimonies and call for reforms. Stories, poetry, and movies have been good resources explaining the problem to the general public and influencing policy setting.

The culture within the military has been the biggest promoter of unethical behavior. The training sessions are toxic because of the harassment presented by the instructors; therefore, it replicates in the same way to other sectors of their life. The military as an institution has also had the ego problem and therefore have been on the front in hiding these cases from the public. Ego threat among the soldiers also makes it hard for them to report. 

The underlying problem behind the assault is persistent sexual harassment cases. The foul language, groping, and many more is what develops into full-blown assault. It is clear that many of the assaulted victims had initially experienced harassment. The secret to therefore dealing with assault is preventing it by coping with harassment. Harassment can better be dealt with through a comprehensive training program by SHARP. Sharp needs to properly address harassment and even give real-life cases to help the soldiers get a good perspective. Further gender inequality has progressed the problem even further as women are more marginalized in roles. It, therefore, presents them as more vulnerable and weaker, which makes them a target. Inequality should be addressed within the policy and in the training modules.




Noah, T., & Newman, R. J. (1996). Dishonoring the U.S. uniform. U.S. News & World Report, 121(21), 40

Spivak, R. (2017). Undue Sacrifice: How Female Sexual Assault Victims Fight the Military While Fighting in the Military

Woodham, S. (2014) Sexual Assault in the Military: Analysis, Response, and Resources. Nova Science Publishers, Inc

Abueg, J. R. (2016). The influence of the Sexual Harassment and Assault Response and Prevention Program on norms and society in the United States Army (Doctoral dissertation).

Andrew, A. (2013). Leading Change: Sexual Harassment/Assault Response and Prevention (SHARP). ARMY WAR COLLEGE CARLISLE BARRACKS PA.

Skopp, N. A., Roggenkamp, H., Hoyt, T. V., Major, H. M., & Williams, T. J. (2020). Army Sexual Harassment/Sexual Assault Response & Prevention Program (SHARP) Tiger Team: A Model to Inform Prevention. Military Behavioral Health, 8(1), 64-73.

Sadler, A. G., Lindsay, D. R., Hunter, S. T., & Day, D. V. (2018). The impact of leadership on sexual harassment and sexual assault in the military. Military Psychology, 30(3), 252-263.

Shaw, E., Hegewisch, A., & Hess, C. (2018). Sexual harassment and assault at work: Understanding the costs. Institute for Women’s Policy Research Publication, IWPR B, 376.

Steinhauer, J., & Jr, R. A. O. (2019, March 8). Senator Martha McSally’s Revelation of Assault May Reopen Debate (Published 2019). The New York Times.

Philipps, D. (2019, May 2). ‘This Is Unacceptable.’ Military Reports a Surge of Sexual Assaults in the Ranks. The New York Times.

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The study of living organisms,

The study of living organisms, and particularly humans, has been a major preoccupation of science from pre-modern times to the present.  Trace this particular trajectory of science from its pre-modern origins (our first textbook) to the emergence of Biology and Evolutionary Theory in the 19th century (chapter 7 in A History of Science in Society ), Cellular Biology and the New Synthesis, the DNA & the Human Genome Project (chapters 10 & 12 in A History of Science in Society).   


Evolution and Classifications

The pre-modern period added into modern biology through classification and naming of organisms. Alexander von Humboldt (1769–1859) started the classification or flora and fauna and the study was picked up by other scientists. Taxonomy then followed through the identification of organisms in form of species. The travels brought about by the Imperial British help with the identification of new species from different regions in the world. Human beings were also not left behind, Linnaeus also classified humans into different races of Asians, Europeans, Africans and the New World Race. The Caucasian Race was later brought in by Johann Friedrich Blumenbach.

As the science into taxonomical classification continued. Geology was another field that was growing immensely. Geologists in the enlightened Europe continued to discover fossils and remains within the earth and through reconstruction developed the whole structure of the organisms. There was a comparative anatomy between the fossils and the organisms within the present time and several differences chipped up. For, example there were differences in species between the fossil remains of elephants and those of the modern day. Several extinct organisms were also found and catastrophists defined the ways in which these species were wiped out.

Study of species and extinct organisms sprang up the most pertinent question of the pre-modern times, what is the origin of species? Lamarck was the first to explain the phenomenon by claiming that the animals underwent evolution influenced by their environments determining the different characteristics. His most influential statement was that there was no extinction and evolution was the only way of transitioning to new forms of animals. His principles were supported by Erasmus Darwin and Robert Chambers before the coming of Charles Darwin. Charles Darwin lived among the elite social and scientific society. He invented the theory of evolution and natural selection to explain the origin of species. He argued that variations occurred in beings and some of them were favoured by the environmental conditions and thus people with these variations survived and passed them to the newer generations.

Darwin’s ideas were very popular within the British educated who used it to explain social societies progress through history. Herbert Spencer used Darwinism to explain social growth and development. It was influential in explaining how the best societies lasted and gained control for a period before they were later phased out. It also justified capitalism and manipulation of human societies by the elites.

Discovery of Genes and DNA

The period after the world war provided another revolutionary time for scientific revolution. The field of biology received a great boost because of the discovery of genes and chromosomes by Mendel. These were the new basis of the study of evolutionary change. William Bateson showed that human characteristics are blended and Clarence McClung showed that the chromosomes of the females as X and the males and X and Y. here was a discovery of inheritance of genetic characteristics. Biometricians showed that human characteristics revolved around a mean and this mean would shift regularly according to Darwinian theory. T.H. Morgan proved evolution through the fruit flies experiment which he showed the transfer of a mutation to several generations after that.

From the work of Darwin, Mendel and Morgan, came the new synthesis in to the understanding of the human development and origin. The new synthesis therefore explains discontinuous and continuous variations in the form of calculus like terms that explained the processes of heredity. It brought a solution to the problems with the Darwinian Continuum. There were further chromosomal studies that narrowed down the analysis of to the microscopic level to understand how the gene functioned.

The next discovery into the human organism was that of the DNA. The shift from genetic population patterns to genetic material happened after world war 2. Before this, there were parallel studies by Friedrich Miescher who proposed that genetic material was transferred through either nucleic acid or proteins. Inspired by experiments by Fred Griffith, a team from Oswald carried out experiments which showed that there was nucleic acid, deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA that was responsible for transfer of genetic material. Martha Chase and Hershey traced a phage virus in the gene and discovered that it left some protein coats on the DNA meaning that it would be transferred to the next generation offspring. It was clear that to understand inheritance, it was paramount to know about the DNA molecule.

Francis Crick and James Watson were physicists who created the model structure of the DNA. They based their findings on the diffraction data produced from X-rays. They created a double helix twisted ladder with two spines with base pairs programmed in form of rungs. It became the model that explained the storage of genetic information. It won them a Nobel prize

Human Genome Project

The control of living organisms and corps and foods has continually inspired biological sciences even in the 21st century. After the structure of Watson and Crick, there was now research to try and manipulate the DNA and provide an organism with different characteristics. Brenner, François Jacob discovered a component of DNA known as RNA. There was also the mRNA which was a messenger that would send signals to the ribosomes for protein production. Meaning that the DNA controlled everything with the body through determining all that was produced within the body.

The next phase on the discoveries was to be the complete mapping of the human genome. The benefits would be immense including getting cures for all diseases and extending life. 1988 was when the Human genome science project started. They employed modern technology, proper financing and integrated system of research because genetics was a complicated study and would require much resources.  The project continued to absorb much finances and by 1999 it had hit the $1billion mark. I however produced its first working draft in 2001. After mapping most information on genetics, they were able to tart cloning and producing mass organisms.  They could also turn bacteria into beneficial products. There were however great concerns over the ethical issues that came with genetic manipulation which slowed down any further progress



Work Cited

Ede, Andrew, and Lesley B. Cormack. A History of Science in Society, Volume II: From the Scientific Revolution to the Present. University of Toronto Press, 2016.

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The Structure of Scientific Revolutions

Chapter 1

Kuhn introduces the idea that science is a progression based on accumulated innovations, discoveries, and inventions all contributing to its body of knowledge. Science students are therefore introduced to these things through study and the mature ones get a chance to establish paradigms and make scientific discoveries that are later used in the field. Scientists are built in a way that they wouldn’t tolerate anomalies and when the anomalies accumulate, through suppression they start an extensive study called a scientific revolution.

Chapter 2

Kuhn states that normal science is based on prior scientific knowledge (called Paradigms) giving an example of how Aristotle physics and Ptolemy Almagest served as paradigms for physics and astronomy respectively. Paradigms unify works in a specific field and make it coherent and progressive.  The groundwork for a particular study defines problems and makes unprecedented achievements that are inherited by students of the field creating a community. Adherents of the field develop it and remove the rival theories and eventually create a discipline or a profession that researches and develops the field further.

Chapter 3

Paradigms create normal science because they initially are limited in information and they need much clarifications and works and a mop-up through an attempt to force nature to fit within the inflexible box supplied by the paradigm. Normal science doesn’t uncover new anomalies, and when they occur they are either ignored or discarded and even when they are explained, adherents reject it.  Normal science is therefore committed to “mopping up” through focusing on only the class of facts revealed by the paradigm, the class of facts that compare directly with the paradigm, and any empirical work that would develop the paradigm.

Chapter 4

Normal science solves puzzles meaning that the research of scientific research is known before the solution. The path towards solving the puzzle is not usually apparent but is worth it because they bring the paradigm clarification. Scientists believe that nature is orderly and so there are no discoveries within normal science; discovery is, therefore, part of a paradigm shift.

Chapter 5

A scientific theory has conceptual, observations, and instrumental applications which are the paradigms revealed in textbooks, lab exercises, and lectures. Paradigms in mature science are concrete achievements but do not have a specific set of rules towards achieving the solution it is therefore not reducible to a set of rules. The rules are learned through application and mostly hard to articulate them abstractly. When disagreements occur, the need or rules gets pressing, but Kuhn asserts that we should not prioritize rules over paradigms.

Chapter 6

Paradigms can change through the discovery of by introduction of new facts or theories. An anomaly begins when nature violates the expectations of a paradigm and a puzzle that resists a solution. A novel discovery example is that of oxygen; initially, people thought that burning released phlogiston but the discovery was that carbon and oxygen combine to produce energy for combustion. Such novel discoveries caused the paradigms to change and this shift calls for an adjustment in the scientist’s perspective.

Chapter 7

With new facts and theories coming into play, the paradigms can absorb them in different ways through modifications of the original one. The modification can however fail in the case the paradigms experience several new anomalies.  When accepting modifications, also, there is a problem when the theories do not go according to the facts or the cultural changes. The anomaly needs to be significant enough to be worth the huge investment in resources in further research and support. A period of pronounced insecurity over a paradigm is a crisis. Examples of crises include the phlogiston theory being replaced by the oxygen theory, the geocentric world view being replaced by the heliocentric view, and the luminous ether theory being replaced by the Einsteinian theory. Once a theory is not able to solve its problems, a new paradigm is brought forth.

Chapter 8

Crises occur when a theory has many anomalies and becomes complex thus creating a chance for competing theories to resolve the complexity. The original rules do not apply anymore and scientists need new creativity to resolve the problem and provide a new proposal until they come to a valid proposal. Anomalies become the center of attention when they question fundamental generalizations of the theory, when the science transforms the anomaly into a crisis, or when the paradigm is unsolvable in the face of the anomaly. Several solutions are brought forth to resolve an anomaly and when there is disagreement and confusion, a crisis starts. Crises are managed by addressing them, differing them or a new candidate emerges to compete.

Chapter 9

The chapter looks into scientific revolutions and their function in scientific development. A scientific revolution is a noncumulative development involving replacing a paradigm with one that is incompatible with the old one. A scientific revolution is analogous to a political one where people feel that the current leadership is unable to solve their problems or have created the problems and therefore want them out. In a scientific revolution, an old paradigm has no longer a shared discourse and is replaced with a new one that has successful predictions but cannot be assimilated into the old one.

Chapter 10

After a revolution, scientist’s perspectives change, things become unfamiliar once again. The word remains the same but the perspectives have changed with the new paradigm and they have to interpret things differently from previously. The new perspectives are used to reinforce the new paradigm. Kuhn uses the duck-rabbit analogy to explain the changes that happen depending on how someone sees somethings; it works this way, before the revolution they couldn’t see either but after the revolution, they see both the rabbit or duck representing the old and new paradigm.

Chapter 11

A shift in the paradigm is not a revolution but just an addition to the body of science. Textbooks gather all information within a science showing the accomplishments but do not indicate the scientific revolutions behind them. Textbooks are very significant to the student or layman because they explain in detail the activities of science or scientists and thus are the pedagogical vehicle to advance normal science. Changes in paradigms initiate the rewriting of textbooks to accommodate the developments. They however do not record the nature of revolution and the roles of the scientists

Chapter 12

In this chapter Kuhn focuses on the steps in between a proposal and a new paradigm. The process involves getting people to shift to the paradigm. The process involves the development of anomalies, which develop into crises, research is then conducted and new theories are developed to explain it. During the process, normal science is not continuing and people work outside its scope. There is also resistance to change from the adherents of the old paradigm. Supporters of the paradigm have to make it more viable by improving on it through more research, experiments, and production of books and articles.

Chapter 13

Kuhn suggests that science doesn’t progress but only changes occur in paradigms. Working in any science field involves having a unified set of values, culture and insular, Research is based upon areas of interest rather than pressing matters in the society. Mature sciences experience more changes in their paradigms unlike the ones of art which no paradigm suffices.



Work Cited

Kuhn, Thomas S. “The structure of scientific Revolutions. 50th anniversary.” Argument: Biannual Philosophical Journal 3.2 (2013): 539-543.

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The Development of Plantation Slave Society in the Caribbean – Sugarcane Slaves

Origins of Slavery

The African Economic climate was booming before the 1500s. The economies had enough gold, diamond, and food for the region. There were great kingdoms within the West and northern African regions. The most prominent being the Egyptian Kingdom and the Ethiopian system. The Western African region also enjoyed prominence with Ghana, Songhay, and the Mali kingdoms which prospered economically in the 13th and 14th centuries[1]. The prosperity of these kingdoms invited the presence of the Europeans to the region.

As they did in Asia, the Portuguese went to Africa to participate in economic activities. From the start, they kept up inviting relations with the Africans. Christian teachers needed to convert the Africans into the new Christian religion. Cordial relations before long crumbled because the financial interests of the Portuguese—in gold and, after some time, in slaves—became self-evident.

Regardless of the way that Europeans themselves had been slaves in the Byzantine, Arab, and Turkish Empires, during the 1500s they started to utilize Slave work in their abroad domains. Europeans had a go at oppressing Native Americans, however, the framework didn’t function admirably because of the annihilation of the Native American populace brought about by illness and the troubles of enslaving individuals in their own property. Rather, the Europeans started to depend on all the more vigorously on oppressed Africans.

The slave exchange developed immediately when the Portuguese set up sugarcane ranches on islands off the shoreline of Africa. The Europeans wanted to increase their profits, they therefore sourced enormous numbers of slaves. Estate proprietors got these slaves from the African terrain. Afterward, the Dutch, English, and French likewise got dynamic in the slave exchange. By the mid-1600s the slave exchange was the main focal point of European relations with Africa.

The Caribbean

Before Colonization

The Caribbean region was occupied by game hunters, fishers, and foragers before the beginning of the Holocene. The people lived in primitive homes and semi-permanent campsites and lived nomadically.  Most of these regions were not occupied until after 600AD. Trinidad was first colonized as it was the originally most occupied Island in this region. After colonization, the Caribbean region experienced much social, ritual, and cultural transformations because of the Saladoid interactions.  The population increased and the smile camps were converted into larger villages. There was also a climate change that consisted of a more dryer pattern and this forced the people to stop depending on gathering. They ventured into small scale agriculture. After 1200 AD, society became more structured, with hierarchies and with differentiation in different economic activities. Therefore, at this stage, there was the restructuring of the socio-political structure. At the time of the European entry into the Caribbean, there were three major communities settled within the area, they were the Taino, Coboney, and the Galibi forming the Amerindian Indigenous people.

Discovery and Colonization

Christopher Columbus in his travels on the Atlantic Ocean discovered the Caribbean region and claimed it for the Spanish[2]. He brought home some of the people from this region and they found many gold ornaments among them and they saw an opportunity. Soon after that, the Portuguese and the Spanish ships came down to the region and started claiming the territories. The two nations set to establish economic colonies within the region. They set up several economic activities within the region. They also set up coastal trade where they brought in good and exchanged it for sale back in their home countries. The Spanish claimed the regions of Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, and Jamaica.

Growth of Labour Intensive Agriculture in the Caribbean

The arrival of the Spanish was to develop gold mining within the region, they started by forcing the nationals to mine for gold. Christopher colobus then noticed the region was prime or sugarcane plantations and wrote back to Spain. Therefore, the start of sugarcane production was closely related to the colonialism of the region. The Portuguese introduced sugarcane on the Caribbean region off the shores of Brazil.

Sugarcane plantation in Brazil started as Jews and New Christians in Portuguese West African coast provinces moved to Brazil in view of social abuse and an unfavorable atmosphere. The Portuguese and Spanish unions within the Caribbean region escalated the expansion of sugarcane production within the regions[3]. Brazil initially had no particular cash crops, so new pilgrims in Brazil began to develop productive sugarcane in Brazil. Portuguese government likewise advanced it by building an illustrious government in Brazil and giving tax exemptions to planters of sugarcane ranches for certain time spans. Two principle places of sugarcane estate in Brazil were Pernambuco and Bahia. They had rich soil, satisfactory rainfall, and favorable soil in addition to nearness to significant ports like Salvador and Recife. Since there were no sugarcane processing plants in Brazil during the colonial time frame, individuals utilized mud to refine sugarcane.

Sugarcane estates in the Caribbean islands had started in 1493 when Spanish King urged ranchers to move to a new area. By 1520, it was a productive industry with a least 28 sugarcane factories working on Hispaniola. It was enormously extended when Jew and New Christians, administrators, and specialists of sugarcane ranch moved, moved from Portuguese Brazil to Caribbean islands, for example, Barbados, Martinique, Guadeloupe, and Saint-Domingue. Sugarcane creation in these islands before long outperformed that in Brazil and turned into the biggest sugarcane makers on the planet.

Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade

The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade was a maritime exchange for African men, ladies, and youngsters who kept going from the mid-sixteenth century until the 1860s. European dealers stacked African hostages at many ports on the African coast, from Senegambia to Angola and around the Cape to Mozambique[4]. The incredible dominant part of the slaves was gathered from West and Central Africa and from Angola.

On the first section of their three-section trade, frequently called the Triangular Trade, European boats brought made products, weapons, even alcohol to Africa in return for slaves; on the second leg, they moved African men, ladies, and youngsters to the Americas to fill in as slaves; and on the third leg, they sent out to Europe the sugar, rum, cotton, and tobacco created by the slave labor.

The exchange was started by the Portuguese and Spanish particularly after the settlement of sugar ranches in the Caribbean. European growers spread sugar, developed by oppressed Africans on plantations in Brazil, and later Barbados, all through the Caribbean. In time, farmers tried to develop other productive crops, for example, tobacco, rice, espresso, cocoa, and cotton, with European obligated workers just as African and Indian slave workers. Almost 70% of all African workers in the Americas took a shot at estates that developed sugarcane and created sugar, rum, molasses, and different by-products for transit to Europe, North America, and somewhere else in the Atlantic world.

Before the main Africans showed up in British North America in 1619, the greater part 1,000,000 African hostages had just been shipped and enslaved in Brazil. Most of the African hostages were conveyed by the Portuguese, Brazilians, the British, French, and Dutch. English slave merchants alone moved 3.5 million Africans to the Americas.

Europeans utilized different techniques to arrange the Atlantic exchange. Spain authorized (by Asiento arrangements) different countries to gracefully service its Spanish American and Caribbean provinces with African prisoners. France, the Netherlands, and England at first utilized imposing business model organizations. In time, the interest of African workers in the Americas was met by the more open exchange which permitted different dealers to take part in the exchange with Africans. In this manner, considerable private exchanging organizations developed, for example, Britain’s Royal African Company (1660–1752) and the Dutch West India Company of the Netherlands (1602–1792).

Such organizations worked in significant ports to build, account, safeguard and arrange slave ships and their cargoes. The benefits produced from the Atlantic exchange financially and politically changed Liverpool and Bristol in England, Nantes and Bordeaux in France, Lisbon in Portugal, Rio de Janeiro, and Salvador de Bahia in Brazil, and Newport, Rhode Island, in the United States. Each port created connections to a wide hinterland for nearby and worldwide merchandise in Asia and funding to support the exchange African hostages.

European vendors and boat skippers (followed later by those from Brazil and North America) pressed their cruising vessels with nearby products and wares from Asia to exchange on the African coast. African brokers set explicit expectations for European products in return for African prisoners. Oppressed Africans, their regularly brutal catch and subjugation far out of the European overall population, were traded for iron bars and materials, extravagance merchandise, cowrie shells, alcohol, guns, and different items that changed district by area after some time.

Definition of Slavery in the Caribbean

The Caribbean during the eighteenth century was known predominantly as an agriculture-based locale with many plantations. The main yields in these plantations were sugar, an item profoundly requested in Europe acquiring high profits for the planters. Nonetheless, to make such tremendous amounts of sugar required human labor, bringing about the development of Slavery. This bondage framework involved principally of Africans whose qualities were reasonable for the heat and humidity of these tropical regions. Slavery was a fascism framework where the enslavers had total force, similar to a manikin master pulling all the strings, thus, delivering the enslaved slaves to authority. Sometimes, the enslaved waged war against the landowners in a bid to seek their freedom, but they were completely dominated.

Chattel slavery alludes to An arrangement of slavery whereby an individual and their children are perceived by the law similar to the property of someone else for life[5]. Slaves could be purchased, sold, and marked similarly as a household item, and these brutal conditions infuriated the enslaved bringing about the opposition.  This record of resistance illustrates that there was hardly a generation of enslaved males or females in the Caribbean who did not take their anti-slavery actions. Capturing, is against human instinct, and in this manner, the enslaved opposed from the beginning in a long or ‘extended’ war. Many slave revolts and plots in these domains somewhere in the range of 1638 and 1838 could be imagined as ‘200 years war’ one extended battle dispatched by Africans and their Afro-West Indian descendants against slave proprietors. The Enslaved worked under unforgiving conditions from sun up to sundown, with little rest and exposure to ailments, under exacting control from the boss who requested profitability. The universe of the enslaved, therefore, was a consistent fight between abuse of control and the craving for freedom.

Slave society alludes to the entire network dependent on bondage, including masters and freedmen and the slaves [6]. The Societal structure was a chain of hierarchy, white experts at the top socially and strategically, then colored in the center and the slaves shaping the establishment at the base. Around 1832 there were roughly 50,000 whites and 100 000 freedmen in the British Caribbean however just 32 000 slave owners. Freedmen claimed slaves; however, it was not as common when contrasted with the whites. Despite the fact that speaking to the minority whites control the legislative issues and most of the riches keeping up total influence. The whites were profoundly educated when contrasted with the freedmen who had basic training, leaving a larger part of the slaves uninformed. This solid differentiation reflected contrasts in the education of free guys and females, but on the other hand, it indicated contrasts in wealth. Whites were the masters working the estates, while freedmen were either ‘liberated shaded’ or ‘liberated blacks’ who earned their opportunity and attempted to create their own identity. These consolidated features and attributes of each class made a game plan of assorted practices and conduct that represented the properties of a slave society.

For any general public to work satisfactorily there must be an arrangement of control and the slave society was no exclusion. Arrangement of slave control exemplified physical, social, mental, financial, and legitimate components. The oppressed were practically misused by enslavers, as they had to work in ranch through physical inhumanity denying them individual freedom.  The whip was an upgrade to work and a consistent type of discipline and inspired by a paranoid fear of the many lashes ‘kept in line’ and did essentially as they were told. Slaves lived on the plantations in little earth huts, and enslavers situated their houses at the top administering their enslaving network and society works on, accentuating oppressed social inadequacy. Food and garments were constrained by the enslavers, as they chose what and when oppressed ought to eat and furthermore how they should dress. Slaves were not permitted to be educated; illiteracy was an amazing method for control. Denying fundamental social capacity, for example, training connoted oppressed inadequacy. The Enslaved religions rehearse, for example, their drumming, music, and the move was not permitted and even deserving of death. The enslaver’s religions were constrained upon them as a type of control, and the Oppressed was just permitted to sit at the rear of the Anglican/Catholic chapels[7]. The oppressed were viewed as mediocre compared to the whites and the whites contended that Africans were savage and unseemly. Enslavers attempted to abuse and squash the spirits of the oppressed through mental thoughts of race and shading. The financial structure of society regarding the property, profit (Money), and time were control purchase the enslavers. Slaves couldn’t legitimately group property or lawfully make contracts, couldn’t be paid for any work that they did, couldn’t possess creatures, and couldn’t claim land. These financial and legitimate limitations disabled the enslaved opportunity of developments. The diverse control frameworks actualized upheld subjugation and ensnarement, nonetheless, the oppressed opposition kept on interspersing the general public.


Slave Culture in The Caribbean

The principle explanation behind bringing in enslaved Africans was economical. In 1650 an African slave could be purchased for as cheap as £7 despite the fact that the value rose so that by 1690 a slave cost £17-22, and after a century somewhere in the range of £40 and £50. In correlation, in the seventeenth century a white obligated worker or worker would cost a grower £10 for just a couple years work, however, would cost the equivalent in food, haven, and apparel. Subsequently, after 1660 not many new white workers arrived in the Caribbean the Black Africans took their spot[8].

As an outcome of these trades, the size of the Black populace in the Caribbean rose drastically in the last part of the seventeenth century. During the 1650s when sugar began to take over from tobacco as the fundamental money crop on Nevis, enslaved Africans formed just 20% of the populace. By the census of 1678, the Black populace had ascended to 3849 against a white populace of 3521[9]. By the mid-eighteenth century when sugar creation was completely settled almost 80% of the populace was Black. The extraordinary increment in the Black populace was dreaded by the white ranch proprietors and thus treatment regularly got harsher as they felt a developing need to control a bigger however unhappy and possibly insubordinate workforce.

Enslaved Africans were frequently treated cruelly. First, they needed to endure the shocking conditions on the journey from West Africa, known as the Middle Passage. The demise rate was high. One ongoing assessment is that 12% of all Africans shipped on British boats somewhere in the range of 1701 and 1807 passed on the way toward the West Indies and North America; others put the figure as high as 25%. Almost 350,000 Africans were shipped to the Leeward Islands by 1810. however numerous passed on the journey through illness or abuse; some were driven by misery to end it all by hopping into the ocean.

When they showed up in the Caribbean islands, the Africans were readily available to be purchased. They were washed and their skin was oiled. At long last, they were offered to neighborhood purchasers. Frequently guardians were isolated from kids, and spouses from wives.

The estate depended entirely on an imported enslaved workforce and turned into an agrarian plant focusing on one gainful yield available to be purchased. Enslaved Africans had to participate in an assortment of relentless exercises, every one of them overwhelming. The work in the fields was difficult, with extended periods of time spent in the sweltering sun, managed by supervisors who rushed to utilize the whip. Undertakings went from clearing land, planting sticks, and reaping sticks by hand, to manuring and weeding. The plantations depended on an imported oppressed workforce, instead of family work, and turned into a rural plant focusing on one beneficial yield available to be purchased.

Inside the plantation’s works, the conditions were frequently more awful, particularly the heat of the bubbling house. Moreover, the hours were long, particularly at reap time. The demise rate on the plantation was high, a consequence of exhaust, helpless nourishment, and work conditions, mercilessness, and malady. Numerous estate proprietors wanted to import new slaves as opposed to giving the methods and conditions to the endurance of their current slaves. Until the Amelioration Act was passed in 1798, which constrained grower to improve conditions for oppressed specialists, numerous proprietors essentially supplanted the losses by bringing in more slaves from West Africa.

Diet and Food

From the seventeenth century onwards, it got standard for plantations proprietors to give enslaved Africans Sundays off, despite the fact that many were not Christian. Oppressed Africans utilized a portion of this spare chance to develop garden plots near their homes, just as in close by ‘arrangement grounds’.

Arrangement grounds were zones of land frequently of low quality, rocky or stony, and regularly at some good ways from the towns which estate proprietors put in a safe spot for the enslaved Africans to develop their own food, for example, yams, sweet potatoes, and plantains[10].  notwithstanding utilizing the product to enhance their own eating regimen, slaves sold or traded it, just as domesticated animals, for example, chickens or pigs, in neighborhood markets.

Despite the fact that the volcanic soils of the two islands were profoundly prolific, estate proprietors and chiefs were so anxious to augment benefits from sugar that they liked to import food from North America instead of losing stick land by developing food. Salted meat and fish, alongside building wood and creatures to drive the plants, were dispatched from New England. The plantations proprietors furnished their enslaved Africans with week after week proportions of salt herrings or mackerel, yams, and maize, and here and there salted West Indian turtle. The oppressed Africans enhanced their eating regimen with different sorts of wild food. Revd Smith watched,

Slave Houses

The places of the oppressed Africans were far less strong than the stone and wood structures of European ranch proprietors. Hence reports give our two primary wellsprings of data on slave houses. The main sort comprises records from movement authors or previous occupants of the West Indies from the seventeenth and eighteenth hundreds of years who portray slave houses that they found in the Caribbean; the second is contemporary delineations of slave lodging. As of late, the third wellspring of data, paleontology, has started to add to our comprehension.

Slave houses in Nevis were portrayed as ‘made out of posts in the ground, covered around the sides and upon the rooftop, with boarded partitions’. They were minimal more than hovels, with a solitary story and covered with stick garbage. In the stock of property lost in the French attack on St Kitts in February 1706, they were commonly esteemed at as cheaps as £2 each.

Scarcely any representations make due to slave towns in St Kitts and Nevis. A progression of watercolor artworks by Lieutenant Lees, dated to the 1780s is one special case. His artistic creations principally portray the British fortification on Brimstone Hill, yet additionally, show gatherings of slave houses. One composition shows a slave town close to the foot of Brimstone Hill. The eighteen obvious hovels of the town are organized in no specific request inside a stone-walled nook, which is encircled by stick fields on three sides. The houses have hipped rooftops, thickly covered with stick rubbish. A striking element of the town territory is the thick mass of shrubs and trees, including coconut palms. Another slave town remains alongside a fenced compound, associated with the fortification. Be that as it may, as this town may have been related to the post of the fortification it might not have been run of the mill of towns at sugar ranches.

How the Slave Masters Maintained Control

As somewhere else in the Americas, the privilege of bosses in Jamaica to rebuff slaves was revered in law, and the viciousness that continued subjection went beyond past whipping. Disciplines could incorporate removal, deforming, marking and that’s just the beginning. Slaves could likewise be executed – a punishment regularly implemented during the consequence of uprisings[11]. Also, they were once in a while slaughtered rapidly. The unbearable executions dispensed to the individuals who drove uprisings or who were blamed for teaming up in defiant plots give the absolute most offensive instances of human brutality on record.

Yet, physical maltreatment alone couldn’t keep the worthwhile estates of the British Caribbean beneficial. It is difficult to get enormous gatherings of individuals to perform supported work adequately and reliably for quite a long time just through giving out agony and instilling fear. Indeed, even the most severe of slaveholders were along these lines constrained to build up a modern arrangement of the executives that misused the most human desires and fears of the individuals they ruled.

Making divisions between slaves was basic to this. Oppressed individuals dwarfed free whites in the British Caribbean. In Jamaica, the proportion was higher than 10 to one, and on some large plantations, it was around 100 to one. Chiefs in this manner expected to separate slaves so as to lead over them. The slave exchange from Africa gave them one chance. As a director of a few huge Jamaican sugar domains commented in 1804, it was an overall arrangement to ‘have the Negroes on a home a blend of countries to adjust one set against another, to make certain of having 66% join the whites’ (in case of an uprising)[12]. The hypothesis behind this was oppressed individuals from one African ‘country’ would decline to join uprisings plotted by those from others, or by creole (privately conceived) slaves, picking rather than serving their white experts in the desire for remunerations for steadfast assistance.

Privileging some enslaved individuals above others was another powerful method for planting dissension. Slaveholders energized complex social orders on the plantations that added up to something like an arrangement of ‘class’. At the head of estate slave networks in the sugar provinces of the Caribbean were gifted men, prepared up at the command of white administrators to become sugar boilers, smithies, woodworkers, coopers, artisans, and drivers. Such men were, as a rule, really happier than field slaves (a large portion of whom were ladies), and they would in general live more.

The most significant individuals from this oppressed first class were the drivers, liable for implementing order and work schedules among the other enslaved specialists. These men were fundamental to powerful estate the executives – a conductor for orders and, some of the time, for exchanges between white managers and the massed positions of field workers. The benefits gave on the enslaved world-class came in a few structures: better food, more food, better apparel, additionally garments, better and greater lodging, even the possibility (in some uncommon cases) that an ace may utilize his last will and demonstration of free them. It could even be shown in a name. For example, the head driver on one Jamaican sugar bequest is recorded in the records of 1813-14 by the name of Emanuel, yet in addition by another name: James Reid.

Impact of Slavery on the Caribbean Regions

Characterizing the Caribbean is difficult, as every island, spot, and individual has followed a special direction to the present. However, it is conceivable to recognize a couple of examples of trends in the land, work, and history. One example is a demographic collapse as an outcome of European and African (Old World) diseases being brought to the New World. Evaluations differ greatly, however, most researchers concur that local Caribbean populaces surpassed a few million preceding contacts with Europeans, and declined quickly maybe as much as 90% in certain spots—inside the primary century after European appearance. Fighting represented a portion of this decline, however, the essential driver was the accidental presentation of microbes like flu and smallpox (to name just two). Confronting a lacking indigenous labor supply, Europeans started to import African workers through the overseas slave exchange.

A critical African-descended populace is another element of the Caribbean. Over the long course of the slave exchange, slave shippers conveyed in excess of 4,000,000 Africans to the Caribbean. These populaces prompted the development of multiracial social orders in the area, a significant number of which have a mixture of African-European-indigenous social attributes[13].

As the African slaves got incorporated with the Indians in the various states, just as with their European experts, the continuous combination of these three races and societies came to portray life in the American provinces, especially in the Caribbean. Associations with people of various races and legacy were socially adequate for the Spanish and Portuguese and thus there was a quick development of a blended race society in the American provinces during the time of Spanish and Portuguese pilgrim rule.


The combination of these three racial gatherings (Spanish, African, and Indian) offered an approach to various physical qualities and types, which were given various names to recognize the diverse blends. Specialists made artworks of the diverse physical qualities and made tables naming the aftereffects of the combinations of races.

The blended race society of the Caribbean is still racially and socially solid today. Anthropologists accept that in spite of European and Asian attacks since ancient occasions, occupants of Africa’s west coast and focal areas protected their unadulterated racial characteristics[14]. The African slaves were additionally ready to save a considerable lot of their societies just as a portion of their strict convictions. Regardless of the Spanish forced Christianity, their dedication to their customary divine beings didn’t vanish totally, rather the two commitments intertwined and adjusted. Music and move are significant pieces of the day by day life in western and focal Africa and the beautiful jamborees held each year in the Caribbean are an aspect of the islands’ African legacy.

Enslaved and unfree laborers worked inside a framework—regardless of whether in gold or silver mines or on sugar, espresso, or cotton estates, for instance—that was intended to remove riches from the area for transit to Europe. This for the most part made connections wherein Caribbean regions were subordinate to European countries. Components of this example would proceed through a significant part of the locale’s set of experiences. All things considered, the Caribbean was the site of a few freedom fights—one eminent case of which is the slave upheaval in Saint-Domingue that prompted the rise of the Republic of Haiti.




Browne, Randy M. “The “Bad Business” of Obeah: Power, Authority, and the Politics of Slave Culture in the British Caribbean.” The William and Mary Quarterly 68, no. 3 (2011): 451-480.

Canterbury, Dennis. “Caribbean agriculture under three regimes: Colonialism, nationalism and neoliberalism in Guyana.” The journal of peasant studies 34, no. 1 (2007): 1-28.

Davies, Arthur. “The” Miraculous” Discovery of South America by Columbus.” Geographical Review 44, no. 4 (1954): 573-582.

Eltis, David. “Europeans and the Rise and Fall of African Slavery in the Americas: An interpretation.” The American Historical Review 98, no. 5 (1993): 1399-1423.

Mullin, Michael. Africa in America: Slave acculturation and resistance in the American South and the British Caribbean, 1736-1831. University of Illinois Press, 1994.

Rawley, James A., and Stephen D. Behrendt. The transatlantic slave trade: a history. U of Nebraska Press, 2005.

Twaddle, Michael, ed. The Wages of Slavery: From chattel slavery to wage labour in Africa,

[1] Rawley, James A., and Stephen D. Behrendt. The transatlantic slave trade: a history. U of Nebraska Press, 2005.


[2] Davies, Arthur. “The” Miraculous” Discovery of South America by Columbus.” Geographical Review 44, no. 4 (1954): 573-582.

[3] Canterbury, Dennis. “Caribbean agriculture under three regimes: Colonialism, nationalism and neoliberalism in Guyana.” The journal of peasant studies 34, no. 1 (2007): 1-28.

[4] Rawley, James A., and Stephen D. Behrendt. The transatlantic slave trade: a history. U of Nebraska Press, 2005.


[5] Twaddle, Michael, ed. The Wages of Slavery: From chattel slavery to wage labour in Africa, the Caribbean and England. Routledge, 2013.

[6] Twaddle, Michael, ed. The Wages of Slavery: From chattel slavery to wage labour in Africa, the Caribbean and England. Routledge, 2013.


[7] Twaddle, Michael, ed. The Wages of Slavery: From chattel slavery to wage labour in Africa, the Caribbean and England. Routledge, 2013.

[8] Mullin, Michael. Africa in America: Slave acculturation and resistance in the American South and the British Caribbean, 1736-1831. University of Illinois Press, 1994.

[9] Mullin, Michael. Africa in America: Slave acculturation and resistance in the American South and the British Caribbean.


[10] Mullin, Michael. Africa in America: Slave acculturation and resistance in the American South and the British Caribbean, 1736-1831. University of Illinois Press, 1994.


[11] Browne, Randy M. “The “Bad Business” of Obeah: Power, Authority, and the Politics of Slave Culture in the British Caribbean.” The William and Mary Quarterly 68, no. 3 (2011): 451-480.

[12] Browne, Randy M. “The “Bad Business” of Obeah: Power, Authority, and the Politics of Slave Culture in the British Caribbean.”


[13] Eltis, David. “Europeans and the Rise and Fall of African Slavery in the Americas: An interpretation.” The American Historical Review 98, no. 5 (1993): 1399-1423.

[14] Eltis, David. “Europeans and the Rise and Fall of African Slavery in the Americas: An interpretation.”

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Teamwork Experience

There has been an increased demand for teamwork over the years in organizations and in business industries turning many employers to incorporate team building activities and group projects. Skills such as time management, interpersonal skills, problem-solving, and communication are essential for effective teamwork. Teamwork aims to achieve creativity, productivity, great cohesion at the workplace, and high levels of support and commitment. Teamwork success is mainly affected by the employer’s and the employees’ attitude in an organization and resistance from either side.

Over the last holiday, I was part of a data entry team, and our main work was to collect, analyze, and record data in a specific area of residence. We were eight members, teamed up by our employer to perform the job. We decided to split up into two more groups; one would work on collecting and analyzing the data while the other recorded to ensure work delivery on time. Problems started when some of the team members opposed to the idea of teamwork. Some wanted the work split to individual levels due to strained relationships between team members and conflicts. We had an understanding employer who brought everyone together through reconciliation and formed a good working relationship between members enabling progress on the team’s objectives.

We established clear goals, had a sense of mutual accountability, and defined an appropriate leadership structure. Each team had a leader, chosen by the team members, who was fully accountable for its behavior. Our team leaders clearly stated the reasons for participating in the teamwork. We aimed our strategy and plan at enhancing the principles, visions, and success of the work. Our willingness to seeing the success of the mission was the main reason our teamwork was a success. The leaders involved team members in either the analysis or the collection of data. There were no favors portrayed by the leaders, and that made everyone feel equal. Our leaders challenged us to outdo ourselves and inspired us into enthusiasm and commitment at work. Improving the work environment is essential for team success since it reduces dysfunctional behavior.

Team members must possess the requisite knowledge to address emerging issues. They may need to acquire extra training, such as problem-solving skills, to allow them to work effectively. The training was essential in our teamwork since most of the issues we encountered we were able to resolve without involving our team leaders. The main reason our cooperation succeeded was the resources needed to accomplish our objectives were available. The leaders ensured all the data was available in the files, and that made our work easier. They ensured we had access to computers and the internet. That showed that our leaders and the organization trusted us to provide us with all the data we needed.

Timely employee recognition is among the most important forms of feedback. It positively affects confidence in one’s ability to do well at the workplace of work. Our leaders put clear criteria in place and would recognize anyone who met the requirements. The recognition given provided fairness and clarity. The distinction made most of the members dedicated to their specific work hence promoted productivity

The ability to manage a team is one of the skills an employer is supposed to possess. Supporting and implementing teamwork in organizations needs the fundamental organizational changes from the employers to the team members. Effective collaboration depends on leadership competence and the ability to address problems at hand in time.

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Social Issue in the News: Racial Profiling

What were the news articles about? Compare and contrast the local, national, and global
perspectives on your social issue.

All three articles speak about a case of Salehe Bembury (Versace Vice President) who was racially profiled while in Beverly Hills by the police. The police asked him to sit on the fence and to produce any weapon he had while they pat him down.

The first News Report Channel is CNN (global News Chanel) used information from the interview with both Salehe and the police department. They also referenced the evidence from the body camera video released by the police department. It goes further to release information on the follow-up activities after the incident and even an interview with close friends of Salehe. All the statement was directly quoted as they represent real statements given to the station.

The second media channel is the Daily Mail (national Chanel) makes a report of the incident. They refer and narrate to an Instagram post made by Salehe of the body cam images taken during the profiling. They also report on the statements given by the Beverly police department.

The third media news channel is from The ROOT (Local News Channel). The report takes a narrative form of a person in the first person.  The person takes stands by claiming that profiling happens to black people and call out the police for it. They cite the report provided by CNN on the same matter. Further, they cite tweets from other people about the matter. The report goes ahead to state that the same wouldn’t have happened if the person was white.

What is the bias and reliability of each news source according to the Media Bias Chart? Do you
agree? If the news source is not examined in the Media Bias Chart, what do you think its bias and reliability is? How does this bias and reliability affect the news coverage of your social issue?

CNN –  Reliability – Has Reliability Mode of 52 and a Bias of -3

New York Times – Reliability concentrated at 30 and Bias at -5

The Root is not within the Media Bias Chart

I agree with the charts.

CNN uses real material evidence from statements by the police and the police department. In both cases, they provide direct speech of the individuals. They also use the body cam image and the Instagram posts that carried the primary sources of information. Based on these two, the news is credible. There is also no bias towards either Salehe or the police making almost neutral in bias.

The Daily Mail provides the information without much bias but the evidence is not conclusively supported. They provide the body cam videos and Instagram posts by Salehe as their main source of Evidence. There are however no reports from Salehe or the police.

The ROOT is not within the Media chart. It is a local channel. It uses a CNN report on the same as a reference and only the Instagram and tweets. It is heavily biased as the statements seem to be pegged towards the blacks. It speaks ill of the police and it shows that it twists facts to make them look bad. With this, I believe that I cannot provide valuable information or facts.


Are one or more logical fallacies being made in the news articles? If so, how are they being made, and how do these fallacies affect the reporting of your social issue.

The Rot claims that when police stop a black person, they always go-ahead to search for weapons or drugs This is a fallacy and does not provide the truth about the situation with the police. It also goes ahead to claim that if Saleh was white, that wouldn’t have happened. While Racial profiling may be at play here. The writer, therefore, uses fallacies to support their bias against the police.





Moon, S. (2020, October 10). Versace executive accuses Beverly Hills police of racial profiling after jaywalking stop. CNN.

Linly, Z. L. (2020, October 11). Versace Executive Stopped in Beverly Hills Accuses Cops of Racial Profiling. He’s Right, but Wypipo Will Never Admit It. The Root.

Davies, J. (2020, October 8). Versace executive claims he was racially profiled in jaywalking stop. Mail Online.

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Schizophrenia is one of the most severe mental health problems in the world.  The paper, therefore, sought to inform on the subject matter using previous research within the field. Schizophrenia is a severe mental health condition that affects a person’s feelings, thoughts, and behaviors. It mainly manifests itself in form of hallucinations, delusions, disorganized thought, unusual motor activity, and negative symptoms. The disease has been in existence throughout history as recorded in Egyptian and Roman histories. It was however fully recognized as a condition in 1887 by Emile Kraepline and later termed as Schizophrenia in 1911 by Eugen Bleuler. Much about the disease is not yet fully understood but research within this field is still intense to uncover the facts.

The causes of Schizophrenia are not yet fully known but the risk factors have been identified to be genetics, neurotransmitters, brain development, and birth complications. Drug abuse and stress are also known as triggers of the condition. Treatment for Schizophrenia happens in two main forms: Medication and Psychosocial interventions. These are used together in varying proportions depending on the patient. In severe cases, the patients are hospitalized. Self-help is also a critical part of the treatment. It ensures that the patient accepts the situation and actively participates in the treatment procedure.





Of all the mental health conditions in the country and the world, the one that brings much anxiety and fear to the doctors, media and the public is schizophrenia. It is a severe and chronic mental health condition that affects a person’s behaviors, feelings, and thoughts thus altering their thought process, social interaction, and perception of reality. Statistics by the Global Burden of Disease, Schizophrenia affects 20 million in the world with new cases being 1.5 per 10, 000 people (McCutcheon, Marques, & Howes, 2020). It is also one of the 15 leading causes of disability. It gets worse because 5% of people with the condition die by suicide and 20% of them attempt suicide at least once. Treatment for schizophrenia is available yet many families often find it hard to access it mainly because of misinformation. Information about schizophrenia is important in the battle against myths, misinformation, and the disease itself, this review will therefore provide a proper insight into the condition.

What is Schizophrenia?

Schizophrenia is a mental health condition that affects how a person thinks feels or behaves. It, therefore, makes a patient of the condition appear to have lost touch with reality or interpreting reality abnormally. Therefore, one experiences a combination of hallucinations, disordered thinking, and delusions which affect their daily functions and can disable a patient (Crider, 2020). The field of science on the condition is not well developed and there is no clear definition of the cause and cure of the condition. There is however much research into genetics, behavioral research, and brain imagining to find its cause and thus the remedy. Because of the complexity of the condition, there have been several misconceptions and myths peddled around about it, scientific research is however trying hard to correct.

History of Schizophrenia

The disease was first identified in 1887 by Dr. Emile Kraepelin. There is however a belief that the condition has been in existence throughout history.  Before its discovery, traces of written history find its existence in old Pharaonic Egypt even before Christ. A book from this period, Book of Hearts, records symptoms of dementia, depression, and thought disturbances which are typically those of Schizophrenia (McCutcheon, Marques, & Howes, 2020). The book further explains the source of the diseases as demonic and originating from the blood vessels, poison, and fecal matter. A study into the Roman and Greek history showed that there we also people with abnormal mental conditions but mostly treated as spiritual problems because of the belief that they were caused by demonic possessions (Bentall, 2013). The treatment of this was an exorcism.

Emil Kraepelin was the first person to classify mental disorders into different categories. In the case of Schizophrenia, he classified it as Dementia Praecox. It was a name to distinguish it from other forms of dementia that occur later in someone’s life. The term Schizophrenia was coined in 1911 by Swiss Psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler who first described the symptoms as either negative or positive. The name “Schizophrenia” comes from the Greek words Schizo (Split) and phrene (mind) which in combination meant someone with fragmented thinking (McCutcheon, Marques, & Howes, 2020). The public largely misunderstood it to mean split personality. After Blueuler’s time, the definition of the disease changed as more scientists study its symptoms and observations. In recent times, there has been evidence to support the fact Schizophrenia is a biologically based condition of the brain. They have proven this through dynamic brain imaging that showed the brain tissue destruction in a brain suffering from schizophrenia. The future provides promising prospects as studies are ongoing in genetics to define the underlying cause of the condition.

Prevalence and Statistics

The global burden of the disease stands at 20 million people. The number translates to 1.5 per 10,000 people. It is also a leading cause of suicide as up to 20% of the affected patients attempt suicide with 5% succeeding. In the USA, the affected people are 1.5 million people. It is common among the younger generations during their late teens to early 30s. It is also more prevalent in males than in females. The average life of a person with the disease is 28.5 years. The disease appears to be more prevalent in the black American population (21%), Latinos (19.9%), and whites (13.1%) in the USA. It is lowest among the Asians (5.4%).

Patients of the conditions are identified to be four to six times more likely to commit a violent crime than the unaffected. Western countries show that 6% of their homicide acts are committed by schizophrenic patients. A study in Sweden showed that 13.2% of their schizophrenic patients had committed one violent act; within the first five years of the condition, 10.7% of males and 2.7% of female patients had committed a violent offense.

Symptoms of Schizophrenia

While the symptoms of the disease may vary, there are the major indicators of the condition. They include:

Delusions – a delusion is a falsely held belief that the patient has that is not based on reality. These delusions appear in different scenarios for example persecution; when a patient feels like they are the center of a threat or a conspiracy. Another one is passivity when they think their thoughts and actions are controlled by an external person or force. Other examples include when they think they are being harmed, harassed, another person is in love with them or a catastrophe is about to occur. It is a common characteristic of the disease.

Hallucinations – in this case, the patients see or hear things that do not exist or any other perceptions without a specific real stimulus. In the schizophrenic’s perceptions, they are experiencing a full impact of the stimulus and experience. It occurs in all the senses but hearing is the one most affected.

Disorganized Thought – an illogical thought process is best explained through a disorganized speech (Crider, 2020). In this case, the patient has impaired communication, answers questions partially o gives a completely unrelated answer.  A more severe case is one of the word salad when the patient puts together meaningless words that cannot be understood.

Abnormal or extremely disorganized motor behavior – this symptom appears in different forms ranging from unpredictable agitation to childlike silliness. Their moto movements have no specific goal and thus making it hard for them to perform simple tasks.  It may include bizarre postures, excessive useless movement, resistance to instructions, or complete unresponsiveness.

Negative Symptoms – These include the lack of the ability to function properly such as loss of motivation, self-neglect, social withdrawal, emotional blunting, and the lack of ability to experience a pleasure (Crider, 2020).

The symptoms of the condition vary but the above mentioned are the major signs of schizophrenia. Severity also varies over time as the problem worsens. Men show the symptoms early, within their mid-20s while women start later in the 20s (McNally, 2016). It is uncommon for children and older people above 45 years to be diagnosed with the condition. Teenagers with schizophrenia also display some of these symptoms but their case is harder to identify. Their common traits would be withdrawal from family and friends, performance drop, trouble sleeping, reduced or lack of motivation, and irritability. They are however less likely to display hallucinations and delusions. Suicidal thoughts and behaviors are a common trait among schizophrenics. When someone, therefore, displays such behaviors it is proper to observe them closely or seek assistance from psychological experts because they may also display schizophrenia symptoms.

Causes of Schizophrenia

The exact cause of schizophrenia is not yet discovered. Researchers however speculate that a combination of genetics, psychological, environmental, and physical factors lead to the development of the condition. The risk factors of the disease are, therefore:

Genetics – Schizophrenia has been shown to run in families but no single gene has been pointed out as the responsible one.  It seems therefore that it may be a combination of several genes. The genetics theory has been proven using identical twins. When one twin is diagnosed with schizophrenia, the other twin has a 1 in 2 chance of developing it even if they were raised separately (McCutcheon, Marques, & Howes, 2020). In the case of non-identical twins, the chance was higher at 1 in 8. It, therefore, proved that there is a genetic risk factor.

Brain Development – brain imagining studies have shown that the brains of people with schizophrenia are not similar to normal people. These subtle differences are not similar in all schizophrenics but it is an indicator that the disease is partly a disorder related to brain development.

Neurotransmitters – The connection between schizophrenia and neurotransmitter was made when developing the drugs for the patients. It was noted that these drugs would alter the neurotransmitter levels and thus relieve some symptoms of schizophrenia.  Research has therefore speculated that changes in dopamine and serotonin levels or an imbalance between the two are responsible for schizophrenia.

Birth complications and Pregnancy – Research has proven that schizophrenics are more likely to have developed complications during birth or during pregnancy. The complications include premature labor, low birth weight, or lack of oxygen at birth.


Some other triggers accelerate or increase the chances of schizophrenia development among people at risk. The major one is stress. Psychological events such as divorce, bereavement, losing a home or job, emotional, sexual, or physical abuse, or the end of a relationship are some of them. They are not causes of the condition but trigger it among the vulnerable populations. Drug abuse also increases the chances of its development. Certain drugs such as cannabis, LSD, Cocaine, or amphetamines trigger the disease.

Treatment of Schizophrenia

Medicine and talking therapy are the two main forms of treatments given in tailored combinations for individuals. The treatment happens for a lifetime even after the symptoms have stopped.  In some adverse cases, hospitalization is required. Treatment is coordinated by a psychiatrist who is well versed with the field but can also require assistance from a psychologist, nurse, social workers, and a case manager to coordinate the care. A full team patient-centered approach is required to ensure a good recovery of the patient.


Medications are the cornerstone of the treatment program. Antipsychotic medicines are the most common types of medications offered to these patients. Their functions are to control the symptoms by regulating the dopamine neurotransmitter. The goal is to successfully manage the signs and symptoms with the lowest dose possible (McNally, 2016). A combination of different drugs or doses overtime is required to achieve the desired result. Other medicines such as antidepressants and anti-anxiety drugs can also be used.

Psychosocial Interventions

The psychosocial interventions are used once psychosis recedes but in tandem with medications. These methods include individual therapy that helps the patient to normalize their thought patterns, cope with stress, and identify early signs of relapse (McCutcheon, Marques, & Howes, 2020). The patients also receive social skills training to improve their interpersonal communications and thus their ability to participate in the day to day activities. Family therapy also is important in educating the family members to deal with the patient and schizophrenia. Another psychosocial intervention is through vocational training and supporting them to get employment and secure it.


Hospitalization is also not ruled out for these patients. Schizophrenics are taken into hospitalization during periods of severe symptoms or during a crisis.  Hospitalized patients also receive good nutrition, basic hygiene, and adequate sleep which is also motivation to hospitalize the patient. It is also an option in ensuring the safety of the patient.

Electro conclusive Therapy

Older or adult schizophrenics who do not respond well to drug therapy are treated with electro conclusive therapy. It is also helpful when the patient has depression.

Self Help

Self-help is also a critical part of the treatment process. Since the majority of the patients recover. Once someone has accepted the condition, it starts the process towards healing. And that is by accepting the treatment options provided. It is important to accept the condition and work towards healing. A positive attitude towards the treatment would produce better results and would bring out a better and helpful relationship with the psychiatrist. The patient should also work towards avoiding stress and taking care of oneself


Schizophrenia is one of the most severe mental health problems in the world. It is a severe mental health condition that affects a person’s feelings, thoughts, and behaviors. It mainly manifests itself in form of hallucinations, delusions, disorganized thought, unusual motor activity, and negative symptoms. The disease has been in existence throughout history as recorded in Egyptian and Roman histories. It was however fully recognized as a condition in 1887 by Emile Kraepline and later termed as Schizophrenia in 1911 by Eugen Bleuler. Much about the disease is not yet fully understood but research within this field is still intense to uncover the facts.

The causes of Schizophrenia are not yet fully known but the risk factors have been identified to be genetics, neurotransmitters, brain development, and birth complications. Drug abuse and stress are also known as triggers of the condition. Treatment for Schizophrenia happens in two main forms: Medication and Psychosocial interventions. These are used together in varying proportions depending on the patient. In severe cases, the patients are hospitalized. Self-help is also a critical part of the treatment. It ensures that the patient accepts the situation and actively participates in the treatment procedure.




Bentall, R. P. (Ed.). (2013). Reconstructing schizophrenia. Routledge.

Crider, A. (2020). Schizophrenia: A biopsychological perspective. Routledge.

McCutcheon, R. A., Marques, T. R., & Howes, O. D. (2020). Schizophrenia—an overview. JAMA psychiatry, 77(2), 201-210.

McNally, K. (2016). A critical history of schizophrenia. Springer.



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Risk Assessment & Creating a Case Plan



Your After you submitted your sentencing recommendations to the court, the judge in this case has determined to sentence Jamie Jackson to 18 months in jail. However, because the defendant pleaded guilty to the charges, the judge has suspended that sentence and placed her on two years probation.

Using the Ohio Risk Assessment System (ORA-S) pictured in the text chapter 5 figure 5.1 to conduct a risk assessment of your client, Jamie Jackman. The score on this risk assessment will indicate her level of risk. Remember that risk level refers to the risk of recidivism and not to “dangerousness.” With the information you have from the ORAS and the recommendations/goals of probation/parole from the previous assignment, create a case plan for the offender. Use the Case Plan Template located in Files: Student View: Unit Assignments. Include the following in your Case Plan:

Problem Statement: Determine the most important issues the offender needs to address. Choose three or four areas. Create a problem statement for each issue, stating the problem clearly and explaining why it is a problem the offender needs to resolve.

Long Range Goal: After each problem statement, develop one long range goal that the offender will need to achieve.

Probationer Action Item to Meet Goal: Develop two to three step-by-step instructions (like a roadmap) for the probationer to achieve to reach each long-term goal. Include dates or deadlines by which the client needs to complete each item.

Officer Action Item to Meet Goal: Think of at least one thing you, as a PO, will need to do to help the client achieve his or her long-term goal for each of the problem areas.


Your recommendations must be supported. Write a one-page paper supporting your decisions. You will be graded on how well you are able to support your recommendation with information from the text, the options available for sentencing, and two outside sources. Those outside sources need to be selected from peer reviewed research articles from the online library, any of the additional sources I provide each week via the course schedule or in discussion, government agency documents, or other academic texts. Do not use online encyclopedias, dictionaries, or information from Wikipedia or you will lose points. This assignment should be submitted as one document. The recommendation section should be written using APA format, and you must include a list of the references used as well as in-text citations to support your sentencing recommendation.

assignment will be graded according to the following rubric.

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