US History 2 class 1302

Below are the instructions for the research paper. It?s for my US History 2 class 1302, for Central Texas College. Hopefully that helps.

The core assignment of this course is a documented research paper (1500-2000 words in length = approx. 6-8 pages double-spaced, 12-point font).

  • The paper should support a thesis statement with information gained from research or investigation.
  • The paper will not be just a report presenting information but will be a paper that carefully examines and presents your own historical interpretation of the topic you have chosen and your interpretation of the information you have gathered.
  • The paper may include consideration of problems and solutions, define key terms, or refute arguments against your thesis statement.

It will be important to choose a topic of interest to you.

  • Approach this assignment with an open and skeptical mind, then form an opinion based on what you have discovered.
  • You must suspend belief while you are investigating and let the discoveries shape your opinion. (This is a thesis-finding approach.)
  • Once you have found your thesis, write the paper to support it.

You will use some of the following critical thinking skills in this process:

  1. Choosing an appropriate topic, limiting the topic
  2. Gathering information, summarizing sources
  3. Analyzing and evaluating sources
  4. Defining key terms
  5. Synthesizing information, comparing and contrasting sources
  6. Testing a thesis, making a historical argument, using refutation
  7. Amassing support for a position
  8. Documenting sources

Because this may be a longer paper than you have written before and a complex process is involved, it is recommended that you complete this paper using the following steps:

Click Here to Place your order and Get 100% original paper on any topic done for Your

  1. Choose a topic related to U.S. History after 1877 (Chapters 16-28) that you would truly like to explore and that you are willing to spend some time on. Your chosen topic should be focused. Pose a question that you really want to answer. You may want to begin with more than one topic in mind.
  2. Do some preliminary reading on the topic(s). You may begin with the textbook, then further explore the information available. Refine your topic. Summarize your topic, your interest in the topic, the questions you want to answer, and a hypothesis you want to test.
  3. Gather information from a variety of sources. Use a minimum of four sources for your paper, and at least one must be a primary source.
    • Examples of primary sources are ones that are used in our discussion forums 2-8.
    • They are sources that are contemporary to the times under investigation.
    • An example of a secondary source is our textbook, though the textbook also contains excerpts of primary sources, which you may use as a source in your paper.
  4. Outline the results of your research and the plan for your paper (you are not required to submit the outline).
  5. Write the final draft and be sure to include a Works Cited List, and use the correct MLA documentation style.

US History Custom Paper

US History 2 class 1302 that I?m taking for Central Texas College. I hope that helps. You may choose the title based on the topic that you choose. Here are the instructions for the research paper.

The core assignment of this course is a documented research paper (1500-2000 words in length = approx. 6-8 pages double-spaced, 12-point font).

  • The paper should support a thesis statement with information gained from research or investigation.
  • The paper will not be just a report presenting information but will be a paper that carefully examines and presents your own historical interpretation of the topic you have chosen and your interpretation of the information you have gathered.
  • The paper may include consideration of problems and solutions, define key terms, or refute arguments against your thesis statement.

It will be important to choose a topic of interest to you.

  • Approach this assignment with an open and skeptical mind, then form an opinion based on what you have discovered.
  • You must suspend belief while you are investigating and let the discoveries shape your opinion. (This is a thesis-finding approach.)
  • Once you have found your thesis, write the paper to support it.

You will use some of the following critical thinking skills in this process:

  1. Choosing an appropriate topic, limiting the topic
  2. Gathering information, summarizing sources
  3. Analyzing and evaluating sources
  4. Defining key terms
  5. Synthesizing information, comparing and contrasting sources
  6. Testing a thesis, making a historical argument, using refutation
  7. Amassing support for a position
  8. Documenting sourcesClick Here to Place your order and Get 100% original paper on any topic done for Your

Because this may be a longer paper than you have written before and a complex process is involved, it is recommended that you complete this paper using the following steps:

  1. Choose a topic related to U.S. History after 1877 (Chapters 16-28) that you would truly like to explore and that you are willing to spend some time on. Your chosen topic should be focused. Pose a question that you really want to answer. You may want to begin with more than one topic in mind.
  2. Do some preliminary reading on the topic(s). You may begin with the textbook, then further explore the information available. Refine your topic. Summarize your topic, your interest in the topic, the questions you want to answer, and a hypothesis you want to test.
  3. Gather information from a variety of sources. Use a minimum of four sources for your paper, and at least one must be a primary source.
    • Examples of primary sources are ones that are used in our discussion forums 2-8.
    • They are sources that are contemporary to the times under investigation.
    • An example of a secondary source is our textbook, though the textbook also contains excerpts of primary sources, which you may use as a source in your paper.
  4. Outline the results of your research and the plan for your paper (you are not required to submit the outline).
  5. Write the final draft and be sure to include a Works Cited List, and use the correct MLA documentation style.

Law “Texas Government 2306”

Texas Government 2306. Below are the instructions for my assignment.

You should use New Courier or Times New Roman, 12 point font, double-spacing, and one inch margins on all four sides of the paper. All writing assignments will be analyzed using SafeAssign.  Essays that contain plagiarized material will receive a significant reduction in points or a zero.   Students may receive a failing grade in the course for submitting plagiarized material.  Do not cut and paste information from an onlinesource or copy information directly from the chapter without using quotations and citing the information you used. The assignment is to be formatted according to the Modern Language Association (MLA) style which includes a works cited page but does NOT include a title page.

You should find most of the information you need to complete the assignment in the chapter, but you are allowed to use outside sources as well (such as news articles or government websites). DO NOT simply copy the information word for word from your sources. If you use information directly from the textbook or another source, it should be cited and the properly formatted citation should be provided at the end of the assignment.

Click Here to Place your order and Get 100% original paper on any topic done for Your

Read Chapter 1 in the textbook, including “You Decide: Voices of Texas: Immigration in Texas,” and write an essay that addresses the following questions:

  • How is the population changing in Texas?
  • What are some of the possible political implications of the changing population in Texas?
  • After reading the “You Decide” passage, do you agree with Dan Patrick or Julian Castro? Should undocumented immigrants be given a pathway to citizenship or be sent back to their country of origin?
  • What are the pros and cons of illegal immigration in regards to both the U.S. and Texas economies? Consider how illegal immigrants have positively or negatively affected the economy.
  • Do you believe compromise is possible on immigration? Are the only two options deportations and amnesty? Is there a third option?
  • What role should the state of Texas play in the immigration policy?

Nike`s Support for Colin Kaepernick

Nike`s Support for Colin Kaepernick

A current political issue in the United States is Nike`s support for Colin Kaepernick advocacy campaign which has resulted in a heated debate and diverse political views. In a span of two years, Colin Kapernick`s life has significantly transformed from being one best quarterback players in the NFL to become an activist protesting social injustices such as discrimination of the black people and police brutality. According to Guerrero, Kaerpernick`s decision to protest discrimination and police brutality by sitting down, raising a fist or kneeling down during the national anthem has made the outspoken advocate for social justice to become a sports icon that is equally admired and hated by many people. As a result, Colin Kaepernick hasreceived major criticism from many people including President Donald Trump who have indicated that the player was being disrespectful to the national flag and was also voted the most disliked NFL player. Therefore, Nike`s support for Colin Kaepernick advocacy campaign has resulted in both positive and adverse outcomes for the company.

There are significant issues that have arisen from the critics of Colin Kaepernick`s advocacy campaign. In particular, by focusing on the form of protest used in Kaepernick`s advocacy campaign, the critics ignore and fail to consider the social injustice problems such as racial inequality, profiling and police brutality which are real issues that are affecting the population and require an urgent solution. According to Graham and Carpenter, the critics of Kaepernick`s protest focus on the unpatriotism exhibited by failing to stand during the national anthem by referring to the constitution of the United States, veterans who died and soldiers at war yet they ignore the real significant national issues being protested. This is because the critics imply that the protest is against the military just to invalidate Kaepernick`s activism perspective. Furthermore, instead of emphasizing on the change that is required to address social injustices in the country, the Kaepernick`s critics undermine the effectiveness and impact of the protest by regarding the advocacy campaign as a self-serving stunt. Therefore the failure of Kaepernick`s critics to focus on the target of the protest indicates that the critics are subjective on the matter and therefore Nike Inc. is justified to support Colin Kaepernick`s campaign since the advocacy campaign supports the organization`s beliefs and values.

Nike`s decision to support Colin Kaepernick`s advocacy campaign by placing the sports icon as the face of its latest advertising campaign has yielded both positive and adverse outcomes for the organization. This is because Nike`s decision attracted a lot of criticism from a section of the public whereby some of the organization`s customers criticized the decision by posting videos on social media showing them destroying their Nike attire (Masters and Mezzofiore). In particular, Nike`s decision to support Kaepernick resulted in customer loss. Many customers have indicated that Nike`s support for Kaepernick shows the organization`s greed and support for politics in sports.  For instance, the University of North Carolina has received numerous e-mails from fans demanding that the organization to sever ties with Nike after the advertisement campaign that featured Colin Kaepernick (Wolken). In addition, Nike`s stock price significantly dropped after the organization launched its ad campaign that featured Colin Kaepernick.

On the other hand, Nike Inc. has gained substantial benefits from supporting the former NFL player. In particular, Nike has secured its brand loyalty from fans and customers that support Kaepernick`s advocacy campaign by enhancing its core customer base. According to Wolken, Nike`s online sales significantly increased after the Kaepernick`s ad campaign debut. Nike targets younger customers and to drive its growth, the organization supports belief-oriented customers to build its brand loyalty and achieve sustainable growth. According to Green, Nike`s self -empowerment brand concept actualized through supporting belief-driven customers to empower themselves through education to achieve their goals.  This indicates that Nike`s support for Colin Kaepernick using a declarative statement on its ad campaign and featuring Colin on the ad despite the player being controversial shows the genuine representation of the organization`s values and beliefs since the organization has continuously build its brand on the empowerment concept.

Click Here to Place your order and Get 100% original paper on any topic done for Your

In conclusion, Nike`s support for Colin Kaepernick advocacy campaign has yielded both positive and adverse outcomes for the company. Colin Kapernick`s life has significantly transformed from being one best quarterback players in the NFL to become an activist protesting social injustices such as discrimination of the black people and police brutality. The critics of Kaepernick`s protest focus on the unpatriotism exhibited by failing to stand during the national anthem by referring to the constitution of the United States, veterans who died and soldiers at war yet they ignore the real significant national issues being protested. Nike`s decision to support Kaepernick attracted a lot of criticism that resulted in the organization`s stock price reduction and loss of some of the customers. However, the positive outcomes for Nike`s decision include brand loyalty, increased online sales and enhanced the organization`s core customer base to mention but a few. The failure of Kaepernick`s critics to focus on the target of the protest indicates that the critics are subjective on the matter and therefore Nike Inc. is justified to support Colin Kaepernick`s campaign since the advocacy campaign supports the organization`s beliefs and values.

 

Work Cited

Guerrero, Juan. “Timeline: looking back at Colin Kaepernick`s transformation from a football star to a social justice advocate“ 2018. abc7 News, www.abc7news.com/sports/timeline-of-kaepernicks-push-for-social-justice/4147237/. Accessed 6th October 2018.

Graham, Brayan & Carpenter, Les. “ Colin Kaepernick`s critics are ignoring the target of his protest“2016.TheGuardian,www.theguardian.com/sport/blog/2016/sep/16/colin-kaepernick-protest-racial-iniquity-nfl-american-football. Accessed 6th October 2018.

Green, Dennis. “ Nike ignited a firestorm of fury with its new Colin Kaepernick ad, but it`s still a brilliant strategy“ 2018. www.pulselive.co.ke/bi/strategy/nike-ignited-a-firestorm-of-fury-with-its-new-colin-kaepernick-ad-but-its-still-a-brilliant-strategy-id8810771.html. Accessed 6th October 2018.

Masters, James & Mezzofiore, Gianluca. “ Nike`s support for Colin Kaepernick has some destroying their shoes“ 2018. CNN News, www.edition.cnn.com/2018/09/04/us/colin-kaepernick-nike-sneakers-intl/index.html. Accessed 6th October 2018.

Wolken, Dan. “ What fans told their college programs after Nike launched Colin Kaepernick ad campaign“ 2018. USA Today. www.usatoday.com/story/sports/ncaaf/2018/10/04/how-fans-reacted-college-sports-nike-colin-kaepernick-ad/1498729002/

Political Science ” Federal Government “

Below are the intructions for my essay. It is for my Federal Government class that I am taking online. The school I am attending it Central Texas College. The paper is over a current event. If it helps or an idea is needed, I was thinking about writing over Nike siding with Colin Kaepernick. Thank you so much.

 

—You are to write a current event paper, more than 750 words in length, consisting of a summary and analysis of a current event having to do with American government and/or politics. You must cite a minimum of five references (sources) in the paper and include a works cited page at the end of the assignment to provide full bibliographic information for each of the references that was cited in the text of the paper.

Current event papers must be formatted according to MLA style, for papers with no title page (see the following link to access an online resource for MLA style: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/08/). In addition, please use Courier New 12 point as the paper’s font, and ensure the assignment is double-spaced.

The current event paper should have the following elements:

  • Provide a thorough, but brief, summary of the political issue. An understanding of the issue should be developed by reading the articles uncovered during research for the assignment. The information provided in the summary will lay the foundation for you to react and respond to (analyze) the political issue. Be sure to properly cite within the text (according to MLA style) any information that you obtained from one of your sources. Citations must be provided, even for paraphrased information.Click Here to Place your order and Get 100% original paper on any topic done for Your
  • Present your perspective on the political issue. Think critically about the topic discussed in the articles and clearly express your thoughts about it in writing. Consider eight standards for critical thinking (Paul and Elder, 2103): clarity, accuracy, precision, relevance, depth, breadth, logic, and fairness. Ask questions, such as but not limited to:
    1. How can I validate the accuracy of my statement?
    2. How is this information relevant?
    3. How does my conclusion address the complexities of the issue?
    4. What is another interpretation or viewpoint of the issue?
    5. Does my conclusion follow from the data and/or statements I have provided?

Grading will be based on the following criteria:

  • Critical Thinking Skills: the extent to which you have engaged in critical thinking, innovation, and inquiry of a political issue, and have demonstrated analysis, evaluation, and synthesis of information related to the political issue;
  • Communication Skills: the extent to which you have effectively expressed ideas in writing;
  • Personal Responsibility: the ability you have to develop opinions related to a political topic, and recognize the consequences of those choices and decisions;
  • Social Responsibility: the ability you have to demonstrate civic responsibility and engagement by developing an understanding and perspective of a political issue that affects regional, national, and potentially global communities.

The Battle of the Alamo

The Battle of the Alamo

Introduction

The battle of the Alamo is a significant event in the history of the Texas Revolution in the American/Mexican history. Looking at it from the perspective of the Mexican country and the then president Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, it was a tale of holding up the central government through determination and setting principles. From the American or Texan perspective, it was the tale of liberation with democracy and the right to choose the type of governance they want. While the tales had little remnants to reveal the information, it will be known as a horrific massacre lasting 13 days that saw the battle of a large Mexican army against an unexpectedly insurmountable Texan garrison force who tried to fend off the Mexicans. Even with the determination of the Texan soldiers to fight and seek for help, they lost the war because of poor leadership that lacked vision, lacked proper organization of its affairs and one that did not have an eye for the future.

The Battle of Alamo

Background of Alamo

In 1978, Spanish Settlers built the Mission San Antonio on the banks of River San Antonio. The mission housed missionaries and Native Americans converts for more than 70 years when Spanish authorities secularized the five missions located on river Antonio and distributed the land among the residents. In the early 1800s, Spanish military was stationed at the abandoned mission, and they renamed the fort “El Alamo” (Snow and Margaret 10). The place was occupied by different military troops starting with the Spanish, rebel troops then later Mexican troops. After Mexico’s independence from the Spanish in the 1820s, US families settled in the Alamo region, around Texas and more immigration followed after that. There was conflict in the early 1930’s because of the settlements and at one [point the Texans drove all the American troops out of Mexican Texas, and about 100 Texans took over garrison at Alamo (Cox 276).

Reason for War

The leadership style of President Antonio shifted from the federalist model that had been previously there and adopted a more dictatorial position in the management of the affairs. Such actions included the constitution revocation in 1835. The people within the border regions were more accustomed to the federalist approach and therefore were vocal about the shift to centralism. There were previous attempts of America to buy off the Mexican Texas and thus with the newfound vocalism the government suspected American influence (Cox 276). A rebellion started, and therefore the President started a mission to restate order within that region.  The Texans had defeated the Mexican armies in the region and chased the last army out. Most of the Texan army was done by new people especially American adventurers.

Click Here to Place your order and Get 100% original paper on any topic done for Your

War Preparation

When the Mexican army left, the Texans took over the Alamo and occupied it. As of January 1936, the Texan army only had 100 soldiers remaining, they were underprovisioned, and the Alamo was only able to support an attack from the locals, not an army (Buenger 3). When they asked for support from the Texan government, they could not support their claim. The army commander at the moment, Sam Houston realized that he could not conduct even heist with the army and commanded the chief engineer James Bowie to take down the station. The engineer could find the necessary tools to carry out the task and so take to convince the commander that they could survive the battle (Snow and Margaret 10). Bowie then took over the command of the Alamo. They later only received 30 men as reinforcement. Within the ranks of the Alamo, there were five other commanders and confusion grew within the ranks. As the Texan army continued their search for men and supplies, the Mexican president grew his army to 6,019 soldiers. Many of them were new recruits, and the training was a bit slow.

The Battle

The Mexican Army began the siege in February 23rd morning, and by the afternoon the Alamo was occupied by 1500 soldiers. Two of the Texan commanders; Bowie and Travis initiated the cannon blowing, but the Mexican army took a slow start onto the war. The war continued for weeks, and at some point, the Texan commander became ill leaving Travis in the sole command of the Alamo.  The war continued until March 1st, and as of that date, the Mexican causalities were 9 and 1 Texan. The Mexican army called in for reinforcements of 600 soldiers making the total above 200 (Cox 276). The Texan commander, Travis sent a letter for reinforcement, and an army of 350 people was sent to his, but upon arrival into the city, they aborted the mission and went back.  The commander sent out 34 men to go seek out reinforcements, but in the dusk, they confused them for Mexican soldiers and shot at them (Buenger 3). In 3rd of March, another 1000 soldiers joined the Mexican army (Snow and Margaret 10). Santa Anna organized an assault to take place on March 5th at night when the final assault of the war occurred.

The final battle witnessed confusion from both sides. The Mexican army marched in subdivided troops by with the mayhem upon entering the Alamo, the armatures in the middle of the groups fired anyhow killing the ones in front of them. The Texans filled their guns with any types of metals they could find and fired. Finally, the Mexican army managed to enter the Alamo through the gates and the walls, and they killed all the Texans inside the Alamo and also the fleeing ones.

Aftermath

The war left many causalities (Levy and Susanna 12). Accounts show that about 7 Mexicans survived the battle, but the President ordered for their execution leaving the number of Texan army survivors at zero. The accounts prove some about182-257 Texans who died on that day. Historians place the number of dead Mexican soldiers at between 400 and 600 with about 250 others injured (Curtis 314). The Texan Army commander Travis was speared by President Santa Anna who wanted them to support him in taking over the whole of Texas  (Buenger 3). He further spared all the con combatants and gave the women blankets and two silver pesos.

Synthesis of Leadership within the Battle of the Alamo

Several problems led to falling of Alamo. However, what stands out significantly is the leadership during the preparation and the attack. The following are some of the issues with the leadership of the Texan Army;

The leaders Lacked proper Vision

Every task or mission requires knowing where it is headed. Therefore the work of the leader is to articulate the vision and help the followers to synthesize it. A proper vision bears clarity regarding comprehensiveness and should have a reward to all of the efforts of the team players (Gale 458). Moreover, it should stipulate the role of each team player within the whole framework as they work towards achieving their target. When Stephen Austin came into Mexico in 1822, he was followed by other American immigrants, and they accepted a land grant and fulfilled the requirements to be citizens (Levy and Susanna 12). His vision for the people was for them to lay a good foundation for settlement in the region. It was an example of a vision; it was however not achieved.

When the Texan army commanders started off the war and chased out the Mexicans, it was against the Vision of Stephen Austin. They packed themselves in the Alamo and hoped to fight the Mexicans without any vision (Gale 458). The leadership of the army including Bowie and Austin had no vision for the army. They know that they did not have supplies to last during the war, they did not have a good army or a good station, but they still convinced themselves to fight on. When the army of reinforcement was sent to the Texan army, they went back because they did not see a reason to fight because there was no proper vision set by the Texans (Curtis 314).

The leaders lacked Leadership Qualities

James Bowie was known as a swindler. When he was sent by his commander Houston to take out the soldiers and supplies from the camp because they could not survive a siege, he went there and took over command. He then led the army to believe that they could win. He was also known for being a land swindler and getting involved in the slave trade. Sam Houston was also an alcoholic after his wife deserted him (Gale 458). Travis, on the other hand, had left his wife back in the US and came for his adventures in Texas only to get into the war. Another most significant point about the leadership was that they were all new into the region. It was another factor that led to the local army deserting the fight (Snow and Margaret 10).

Click Here to Place your order and Get 100% original paper on any topic done for Your

Leaders are supposed to lead from the front having impeccable moral authority. It inspires the followers to mirror their character, and they, therefore, inspire a following. When losers therefore lead a group, it is, therefore, hard to inspire a win. All the commanders had lost in their previous lives and were seeking redemption in the newer region (Levy and Susanna 12). It was also hard for them to acquire reinforcement from any of the regions because they did not have any good following.

Critical Thinking for Decision Making

When faced by trouble, it is of importance to take time to review the information, evaluate possibilities, assimilate information then make a decision. No assumptions should be used in such a case as it would lead to misjudgment of the situation. James Bowie took to the decision to continue with the attack even when he knew that the Alamo could not survive a siege from an immense army (Levy and Susanna 12). He also understood that there were not enough supplies and the numbers were against him. Based on that decision, it would have been a better option if he considered falling back.

Proper Communication for Proper Leadership

Leadership should adopt proper communication between the leaders, and the subjects. The leaders should communicate the mission, vision, values, instructions, inspiration and many more to the followers. He should also get feedback from the people before undertaking significant decisions. Moreover, leaders should consult among themselves before reaching a verdict. In the Alamo war, Bowie did not listen to the scout reports telling him of the approaching Mexican army (Snow and Margaret 10). At the start of the war, Travis released canons without consulting with Commander Bowie. When the battle had overwhelmed the Texan’s, the letter sent out by William Trav9is seeking for reinforcement did not communicate a great vision, and therefore he did not get any support.

Conclusion

Leadership is a vital paradigm in any organization involving more than two people. It determines the focus and vision and directs the people towards a common goal. Proper leadership bears fruits, but the contrary leads to the destruction of the team. Therefore, a great lesson of leadership is accrued from the battle of Alamo, and it significantly addressed the pitfall of poor leadership. After the Alamo, better leadership is witnessed when they fight for their freedom.

 

 

Works Cited

Snow, Marianne, and Margaret Robbins. “How Should We Remember the Alamo? Critical Analyses of Four Graphic Histories.” Social Studies Research & Practice 10.2 (2015).

Levy, Janey, and Susanna Keller. A Primary Source Investigation of the Alamo. The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc, 2015.

Cox, Jeremy. ““They Died the Spartan’s Death”: Thermopylae, the Alamo, and the Mirrors of Classical Analogy.” Advances in the History of Rhetoric 19.3 (2016): 276-297.

Curtis, Michael. Mass atrocity, collective memory, and the law. Routledge, 2017.

Buenger, Walter L. “Texas and the South.” Major Problems in Texas History (2016): 3.

Gale, Cengage Learning. A Study Guide for Emily Dickinson’s” Success is counted sweetest”. Gale, Cengage Learning, 2016.

 

 

 

American History “The Alamo.”

Below are the instructions for my research paper. The topic that I have chosen is The Alamo.

-The core assignment of this course is a documented research paper (1500-2000 words in length = approx. 6-8 pages double-spaced, 12-point font).

The paper should support a thesis statement with information gained from research or investigation.

Click Here to Place your order and Get 100% original paper on any topic done for Your

The paper will not be just a report presenting information but will be a paper that carefully examines and presents your own historical interpretation of the topic you have chosen and your interpretation of the information you have gathered.

The paper may include consideration of problems and solutions, define key terms, or refute arguments against your thesis statement.

It will be important to choose a topic of interest to you.

  • Approach this assignment with an open and skeptical mind, then form an opinion based on what you have discovered.
  • You must suspend belief while you are investigating and let the discoveries shape your opinion. (This is a thesis-finding approach.)
  • Once you have found your thesis, write the paper to support it.

You will use some of the following critical thinking skills in this process:

  1. Choosing an appropriate topic, limiting the topic
  2. Gathering information, summarizing sources
  3. Analyzing and evaluating sources
  4. Defining key terms
  5. Synthesizing information, comparing and contrasting sources
  6. Testing a thesis, making a historical argument, using refutation
  7. Amassing support for a position
  8. Documenting sources

Because this may be a longer paper than you have written before and a complex process is involved, it is recommended that you complete this paper using the following steps:

Choose a topic related to U.S. History up to 1877. I chose The Alamo.

For some reason the absolute necessity of in text citing sources used in a research paper (on both directly quoted AND paraphrased material) either isn’t getting taught anymore or (and this one is my personal theory) it just isn’t sinking in anymore.  You MUST both in text cite your sources AND provide an MLA style bibliography at the end. Failing to do either/both is a form of plagiarism, whether you mean it that way or not, and it will be treated as such so please just make sure to take care of business and in text cite those sources as you go while writing the paper, and include that MLA style references/bibliography at the end of the paper. 

Grade Rubric

INTRODUCTION & THESIS: Includes a clear thesis statement, an assertion or position. Topic is original and manageable in a short research paper. /15

FOCUS AND DEVELOPMENT: Body of the essay focuses on this thesis and develops it fully, recognizing the complexity of issues and refuting arguments in opposition to the thesis. /20

SUPPORT AND SYNTHESIS: Uses sufficient and relevant evidence to support the thesis (and primary points), including facts, inferences, and judgments. Quotes, summarizes, and paraphrases accurately and effectively–appropriately introducing and explaining each quote. /25

RESOURCES: Shows a clear understanding of the sources; has evaluated each source and used it appropriately. Uses a wide variety of sources reflecting significant research. /10

CONVENTIONS: Uses MLA format correctly; includes internal citations and a Works Cited list; is free of errors. /15

CORRECTNESS AND STYLE: Introduces the topic in an interesting way; shows critical thinking and depth of understanding; uses appropriate tone; shows sophistication in language usage and sentence structure. /15
TOTAL: 100

Cooperative and Adaptive Algorithms

Assignment 3: GA and ACO

Question 1 [50 marks]: Genetic Algorithms and PID Controller Design
GA can be used to design a PID (Proportional-Integral-Differential) controller for closed
loop plant control systems. A common configuration is shown in the following figure 1.
Figure 1. Closed-loop control system
Notice that the output of this system has an explicit impact on the input of the controller,
which explains the “closed-loop” term. In this loop, the output of the system is what we
would like to control to the set-point. So, the controller is being fed by the error.
The PID controller is specified by a transfer function of the form:

Where , , and are the controller parameters. The objective of the design is to obtain the
values of these parameters that optimize the performance of the system. For a given plant
transfer function, the performance of the system is typically evaluated by the step response of
the system which is of the form shown in figure 2.
Controller Plant

setpoint + output
feedback

ECE457A, SPRING 2020 Cooperative and Adaptive Algorithms
2
Figure 2. Step response parameters
The performance is measured in terms of integral squared error (ISE),
which is the integral of the square of the difference between the output and the steady
state value (1 in this case), along with the values of the step response parameters: , the
rise-time; , the settling time, and , the maximum overshoot magnitude, which can
be addressed as the percentage of the steady-state output. and are important, as they
demonstrate how fast a system can work. is of importance as well, as we may abide
by the plant restrictions. So it is important to minimize all these performance measures.
In this problem you are provided by a function that gives you the performance measures if you
provide it with values for the parameters , , and . The function is
[ISE,t_r,t_s,M_p] = Q1_perfFCN([K_p;T_i;T_d]. It is a Matlab code that uses other functions
of the Matlab control tool box.
Assume that the values of the controller parameters are in the ranges:
a) Develop a suitable representation for the solutions with precision of 2 decimal points.
b) Formulate a fitness function that you can use to evaluate a solution.
c) Implement GA algorithm to solve this problem, use a population of 50 individuals,
number of generations of 150, crossover probability of 0.6 and mutation probability of
0.25. Use FPS parent selection strategy and an elitism survival selection strategy
keeping the best two individuals across generations. Select a crossover and mutation
operators and solve the problem.
d) In this part we would like to study the effect of the choice of the GA control parameters:
i) Experiment with 3 different values for the number of generations and report the
progression of the solutions as a function of the different number of generations.
ii) Repeat i) for 3 different population sizes.
iii) Experiment with different crossover and mutation probabilities (within the
guidelines given in class) and report the results.

maximizing net educational income.

Assignment
A university located in USA wants to determine what mix of instate local students and out-of-state
students it should accept to c In this case, you are required to use
the Excel Solver to decide on the best mix of students to accept.
The university plans to accept less or equal to 10,000 freshmen next year. Of course, B State will
accept many freshmen from within the state. University officials will also accept many freshmen from
three nearby states; out-of-state tuition is much higher than that for in-state residents. The three
nearby states are code-named C, D and E. The question for B state officials is how many freshmen to
accept form within the state and from the three nearby states.
The goal for B stat is to maximize its net educational income. A freshman pays tuition, room, and
board, which is B state’s revenue from have the freshman on campus for the year. The costs of having
a fresh man live on campus are instructing the student, and housing and feeding the student.
A year’s tuition, room, and board is $8000 for in-state freshmen and $13000 for out-of-state freshmen.
The average one-year cost of instructing a freshman is $3000. The average one-year cost of housing
and feeding a freshman is $2000.
The fixed administrative cost associated with having all freshmen on campus for a year is 25,000,000.
B state is required by the state legislature to tax itself as if it were a real business. In other words,
when and income statement is produced, a pre-tax income amount is created, and taxes are assessed
bases on pre-tax income. The tax rate is 28% but no taxes are charged on pre-tax losses.
Although the goal is to maximize net income, B state also has academic goals for its freshmen. The
average GPA for all freshmen must be at least 2.6 on a 4.0 scale. Base on historical trends, the
expected average GPAs for freshmen vary depending on their home state:-
Expected GPA (of 4.0)

B state freshman
C state freshman
D state freshman
E state freshman
2.5
2.7
2.8
2.2

For example, assume that 2,500 freshman were accepted from each state. The average GPA for all
10,000 students would be: ((2500*2.5)+(2500*2.8)+(2500*2.8)+(2500*2.2))/10,000 = 2.55
B state officials have set certain guidelines for admissions. No more than 10,000 freshmen can be
accepted in a year. At least 3,000 in-state students must be admitted to the freshman class, but not

more than 4,000. At least 1,000 students must be admitted from each of the state code-named C,D
and E. Of course, only a whole number of freshmen can be accepted. Fractions are not allowed in
calculations.
Constants Section (Please refer to your spreadsheet.)
Yearly Tuition, Room and Board — The yearly tuition, room, and board for an in-state student is
$8,000; for an out of state student, this yearly cost is $13,000.
Yearly cost of instructing a student — The average one-year cost of instructing a freshman
(whether in state or out of state) is $3,000.
Yearly cost of housing and feeding a student — The average one-year cost of housing and feeding
a student (whether in-state or out-of-state) is $2,000.
Fixed Administrative cost per year — The annual fixed administrative cost associated with having
all freshmen on campus is $25,000,000.
Expected Freshman GPA (of 4.0) — Big state has academic goals for freshmen GPAs. In-state
freshmen must have an average GPA of 2.5. For state C the GPA is 2.7; for state D the average GPA
is 2.8; and for state D the average GPA is 2.2.
Maximum number of B state residents — The largest number of in-state freshmen that can be
accepted.
Minimum number of B state residents — The smallest number of in-state freshmen that must
accepted.
Minimum number of C state residents — B state must accept at least 1,000 freshmen from C state.
Minimum number of D state residents — B state must accept at least 1,000 freshmen from D state.
Minimum number of E state residents — B state must accept at least 1,000 freshmen from E state.
Target net income to total revenue ratio — The B state administration wants after-tax net income
from freshmen to be at least 25% of total revenue from freshmen.
Calculation Section
Net Income to Total Revenue Ratio — The net income calculated in the income statement divided
by the total revenue from the freshman.
Tuition, Roo and Board Revenue — The tuition, room, and board for each type of student(in state
and out of state) multiplied by the number of each type of student accepted.
Average GPA, all freshmen — The sum of the average GPA for all groups of freshmen, multiplied
by the number of freshmen in each group, divided by the total number of freshmen.
Total Freshmen accepted — The total number of freshmen accepted in B State.
Total Revenue, Freshmen — The total tuition, room, and board revenue for all freshmen.
Total Cost of instructing Freshman — The yearly cost of instructing a student multiplied by the
number of students.
Total cost of housing and feeding freshmen — The yearly cost of housing and feeding a student
multiplied by the number of students.
Fixed Administrative Costs — A constant number.
Total Costs — The sum of the preceding three fields: Total Cost of instructing Freshmen, Total cost
of housing and feeding freshmen, and fixed administrative costs.
Pre-Tax income — The different between the total costs and the total revenue, freshmen fields.
Income Tax expense — Taxes are zero if pre tax income is zero or negative. Otherwise, apply the
tax rate to the pretax income to compute the income tax expense.
Net income – The difference between the pre tax income and income tax expense fields.
Running Solver
1. The number of students that get the biggest income.
2. The number of students that get the highest GPA.