article Review by Swendsen, Conway

Research articles follow a standard format and usually include the following sections: abstract, introduction, methods, results, discussion, and references. In this assignment, you will explain each of the sections of a research article and illustrate your understanding of each section utilizing the assigned article. Review the assigned article by Swendsen, Conway, Degenhardt, Glantz, Jin, Merikangas, Sampson, & Kessler (2010) ( closely prior to writing your paper. In a three to four page paper:

The Sections of a Research Article paper

Must be written in your own words and may not include quotations. Papers including quotes will not be accepted. All content from outside sources must be paraphrased and cited appropriately.
Must be three to four double-spaced pages in length (not including title and reference pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
Must include a separate title page with the following:
Title of paper
Student’s name
Course name and number
Instructor’s name
Date submitted
Must use at least two scholarly sources.
Must document all sources in APA style

Comparative Analysis of Epictetus and Aristotle View of Happiness

Comparative Analysis of Epictetus and Aristotle View of Happiness


Epictetus uses wisdom to understand happiness by classifying things that are within his control and those that are not. In the things that are beyond his control, he understands that he had to be casual in dealing with them and be willing to let them go; a wise person should be ready to say it means nothing to them. It is because since you have no control over them, depending on those for your happiness could make you vulnerable. He, however, had control over his beliefs and choices as they stem from human freedom within their minds. These are things that would determine his happiness. Since he had the choice to see anything as either good or bad, he had control over his happiness. Also, since he had no control over the effects of his actions, he would base his happiness on virtuous intentions. Overall, this choice determines happiness.


Aristotle agrees partially with Epictetus, but things he is only half true. Happiness to him involved three aspects: virtue, life, and external goods. Virtue is the internal things that we have control over; when we find the perfect balance in our virtues we are happy. They include things like courage, justice, temperance, and practical wisdom. Life, on the other hand, gives a context for happiness; a collection of good activities in life makes one happy and not just one or for a short period. External goods are things outside of our control but enrich our life e.g. Friends, honor and respect, health, money, good birth, and good looks. An abundance of positive external goods makes one happy. 


Aristotle’s answer about happiness is superior because it speaks much of a balance. In speaking about virtue, the most important point about living a virtuous life is having a perfect balance when applying it. I think a balance in virtue would yield more good than in the Epictetus case where someone only does a virtuous act and not caring about the output but only the intentions. He also brings the aspect of a balance when he speaks of having a collection of good events for a long period being source of happiness. It is more practical than creating happiness over one event. Further, his introduction of the theoretical aspect of external good brings a balance to the excellence of a person. While Epictetus’s view of zoning out the exterior and focusing on the interior may sound lucrative for anyone, the reality is that we cannot zone it out. The external goods are present in every life and determine much that happens; it is, therefore, an important factor when defining happiness to introduce their effects.

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Epictetus, Aristotle and Boethius on happiness

Compare and contrast two conceptions of happiness that we have looked at and tell me what you see as the strength and weaknesses of their views. Tell me who you think is wiser (and tell me why you think they are wiser and closer to the definition of true happiness).

Epictetus, Aristotle and Boethius on happiness !1This lecture is a slight detour away from Lady Philosophy and The Consolation of Philosophy. However it gives us some important background to notions of happiness that Lady Philosophy will use and criticize. Before you begin to read the lecture I want to prepare you with some of the questions that you should be able to address at the end of the reading. 1.What is Epictetus’ definition of happiness? 2.What is Aristotle’s definition of happiness? 3.What is the definition of happiness offered by Lady Philosophy in the Consolation of Philosophy?4.If you have three different definitions of happiness, what criteria can you use to decide which definition is better? (Note that this is a “meta” question, a question about a question. As we learned in the Miller book, it is a second order question.) a.Is it possible for a conception of happiness to be wrong? This is a sub question. 5.On any of the three definitions above is happiness attainable? Available always? Available sometimes? Available never? 6.On any of these definition is happiness attainable given bad fortune? a.Is life tragic in that happiness can be ruined by external events? b.Can a hero of virtue find happiness and rise untouched and unsullied above all tragedy?

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Philosophy “Good Evil and God” Custom Paper

Good Evil and God

The world is full of evil to a great extent, and most times it leaves us with so many questions: why could God create the world without evil? If God is good why does He allow so much evil in the world? It is this same dilemma that Boethius had even after listening to all philosophies that exist on the same topic. His main concern was that if God did existed and had control over all things on earth, why then would He let evil go unpunished and let the evil in the world flourish instead?  He further laments on why evil is allowed to harm the virtuous. While everyone always has these questions, satisfactory answers to these questions are hard to come by. However, Lady Philosophy provided Boethius with answer that up to now lives on as a great philosophical answer. This paper aims to provide the answer provided by Lady Philosophy and provide an analysis of its sufficiency.

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Earthly wealth – is the power of possessions and bodies of people. These are physical things that people own, which they have control over. They include land, machinery, money, food, cars, etc. Earthly wealth also includes bodies of people as how people can own servants; they however only own their bodies and not their souls and minds. True wealth – is the possession of one’s soul and mind. It is the ability to control your won soul and achieve a sense of fulfillment that comes with happiness. Bestiality – The nature of a human behaving like an animal. It is when a person traverses off the path of humanity and starts to have characteristics accorded to certain animals. Providence – God’s foreknowledge and unchanging plan for everything (divine and eternal). God is the world’s helmsman, the divine reason, the supreme good, the origin of all things

Answer Provided by Lady Philosophy

Lady philosophy reminded Boethius of two principles: one Catechism, which stipulates that every evil will be punished and that not virtue will go forgotten. The second one is the principle passed down from philosophy that the wicked are weak: have no power in contrast to the virtuous who are powerful and strong.

The main aim of life is true happiness, and people live striving to achieve it.  The wicked people are unable to attain while the virtuous can.  The reason is that the evil people seek it using misguided ways and eventually not get it. It, therefore, means they are left out on finding the true joy of life; all the wealth and earthly power they have is not real power at all.  The wicked lose their true power by striving for the things that in reality do not matter; effectively losing their humanity and become like animals in their desires. For example like pigs, they become gluttonous, and like asses they become lazy.

On the question of punishment for the evilness, Lady Philosophy assures that just like virtue; evil is its reward. This statement means that because of their wickedness, the evil people are rewarded with evilness in the form of lack of existence and their descent to bestiality. Instead of getting an outside form of punishment, they are denied happiness by their actions. Introducing an outside form of punishment will bring two complications. One, it will mean that they have a chance to redeem themselves and therefore get the good things; secondly, when they escape the punishment, they would increase their wickedness.

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Role of God

Everything that happens on earth happens in the mind of God that is unchanging because he is the same in the past present and future.  Therefore since humans are temporary beings, it is hard for us to understand how things have happened before or what to expect in the future, but God knows. The ruling philosophy for all things is called providence; when applied to temporal real, it is called fate. The connection between things that happen on earth is called fate. Providence, on the other hand, is the divine order which the world follows as controlled by God (Boethius, 104). Humans are temporary beings, so they only understand fate instead of providence. Fate is sometimes cruel and unordered. The argument here is that everything that happens to a person, whether good or bad is good. Because even if your fortune is bad it is an instruction leading you towards a virtue so effectively is something good. Effectively, evil has no power because all the events in the world are planned by providence.

Discussion of Lady Philosophy’s Answer

Book 3 of the consolation philosophy introduces the fact that God and happiness are one thing; God, therefore, provides the divine goodness. There is however a difference between something that is evil and that which is bad. Something that might be hailed from a human point of view as bad might turn out to be turning a bad experience into a good one. It is correct to say that that thing is, therefore, bad and not evil. In, therefore, asking questions about why evil things happen to the good people, it is important to realize that some of the things viewed as evil might just be bad that progress someone to a good experience or helps someone evade an evil thing. A person who doesn’t go on a camping trip because he can’t afford it would see it as bad, but maybe the lack of finances for the tip prevented them from meeting bad companies that would have ruined their life. Therefore the essence of the bad things that come to a virtuous person is supposed to make them stronger, teach them and remind them the most important things in life

The philosophy agrees that there are good people and people in the world. The function of God and punishment to the wicked is still there, as explained by Boethius. The fate of the wicked is wickedness, as the fate of virtue is goodness ((Boethius, 93-94). Everyone in the world seeks to find happiness because it is good that motivates all events.  Goodness set from happiness is the common reward of any human activity. Moreover, god is equated to happiness in the arguments and therefore it is true to say that all humans strive to find godliness in every activity. Since evil people seek happiness through their sensual ways, they never achieve the godliness. In this way, therefore, the evil people diminish in a path that lets them loose course of their humanity. Humanity is all about happiness, and if you miss it through evil ways, you tend to become more like animals. If it is wealth, no wealth is enough to give you happiness, so you become greedy like a pig.

When a bad person receives punishment, it is not a bad thing but a good thing. The punishment is meant to rehabilitate the person so that they change their ways and start doing good. When an evil person is not rehabilitated and is left free to continue with their evil acts that is a punishment in itself because they are left in the path that will lead them into lack of happiness and therefore lack meaning in life. When we, therefore, ask why bad things don’t happen to bad people we are begging the question. When evil people, therefore, escape punishment, they ensure the biggest punishment of all; wickedness is punishment given when a person is evil ((Boethius, 100). Wickedness is like a sickness when one is punished; it is like they are healed but when they are left to indulge further, and they are left to suffer from the illness (Boethius, 94).

Providence also answers the plan of God when it comes to evil and good. Providence answers our shortcomings as humans that makes us determine some situations as bad and others as good. The plan of God is divine, eternal, and has everything in its place. Because of our shortcoming of having a temporary life, we are not good at judging whether something that happens to us is bad or evil. It is only through the belief in God’s providence that we will accept the situation as it is and therefore have the time to enjoy life and what it offers. Providence is reassuring and therefore allows us to be happy. True happiness would not come from comparison of lives with the evil ones because we know of their impending destruction within the same path.


It is, therefore, our responsibility to live as Good people, seek out Godliness, and that is the way that we will reach true happiness. If one assumes the trait of being good, even when bad things happen to us we shouldn’t view them in the light of wickedness but as something in God’s providence plan and that it will eventually payout to something good. Human’s main function is to life and live happily. That as the argument by Lady Philosophy is only achieved by living a virtuous life.



Work cited

Boethius, Anicius Manlius Severinus. The consolation of philosophy. Oxford University Press, USA, 2000.


It is to be written for a non-professional.  Write for an intelligent reader who knows next to nothing about Boethius and who does not have a technical philosophical vocabulary.  (Any technical terms or words used in specialized ways should be defined in ordinary English.)  Imagine that you are writing this for your mother, on her death-bed; she wants to know if you?re learning anything valuable in college philosophy and whether philosophy has anything useful for you to know about the fairness of the world or happiness or consolation in the face of bad fortune.  She needs this knowledge in order to die in peace and is depending on you.  She also has limited energy and can?t read more than eight pages so you must be concise.

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Answer the following in the essay;;;

  1. -Does Lady Philosophy adequately defend her claim that God rules the human realm in such a way that the good are rewarded and the wicked are punished?


**Sources not requiered** Please use attachments to help with paper.

Grading Criteria:

Mind-body Materialism

Mind-body Materialism

Mind-body materialism is the notion that the products and the operations of the conscious mind come from the functionalities of the physical brain. The theory has been defended in variety of ways taking various perspectives including the interdependence of the body and mind. The reality is that we cannot undermine the mind or eliminate it in the explanation of the materialistic states. Therefore there is a materialistic explanation of the relationship between the mind and brain. The materialists support the notion that the two are the same things. The paper will focus on the available arguments on if the mind and brain are identical and finally test the viability of the explanations.

Arguments for Mind-body Materialism

Lucretius presents an interesting argument about the interdependence that exists between the body and mind; the relationship is that the mind is born within the body, progressively grows as the body does and eventually gets slower and weary with age. Children with tender bodies have weaker judgments as they grow their mind force increases, and at an elderly age they get dull and diminished. Neurologists further support the claim by presenting evidence of diminishing of some mental abilities that come from damage of some parts of the human brain. The materialistic perspective also explains the relationship that the dualist is unable to shows between the mind and body.

A religious perspective presented by dualists on life after death claim that: when we live on earth, the spirit-mind exists alongside the physical body, then upon death, the body dies, the spirit-mind continues to exist afterward. John Locke materialistic argument on life after death is that within this world, it is in Gods capability to create the conscious human mind out of purely physical material that exists as the brain. In this life, therefore, we have the mind represented by the physical material brain. After death, God recreates the mind in a new physical body and that new state either punish or reward a person according to their actions in this world. Therefore the argument is that God will and can restore the state of sensibility even when we exist in another world (afterlife)   He, therefore, accepts the ethereal account of life after death and his point is that we cannot argue the mind-brain duality on spiritual grounds.

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Three characteristics are associated with the modern dualism philosophy about the mind: non-localizability, private-ness, and intentionality. The third argument for materialism discredits these dualist notions. First the mind is localized within my brain and not narrowed down to a cluster of cells; neuroscientists confirm that consciousness is located within a localized region of interconnected neural activity located at the surface of the neocortex.  Secondly the mind is not privet as it can be discovered by the person’s behavior or physiological monitoring. Thirdly neuroscience has developed to the extent that we can comfortably say that the human brain has intentionality.

Inadequacy of Answers

The three cases of evidence present a stronger case that dualism but do not completely solve the mind-brain problem; it just rejects the spirit mind ideas. The question that remains unanswered is how the chemical processes that happen within our brain generate the conscious experiences we have. For example in the case of feeling pain, the physiological process is well defined, but it is not enough to explain how a person experiences pain which isn’t physical. This argument is the basis of modern discussion as they try to solve the relationship between a physical act and an experience that isn’t physical.

Lady Philosophy`s Diagnosis on the Prisoner

Lady Philosophy`s Diagnosis on the Prisoner

The Boethius Consolation Philosophy begins with muses of poetry from Boethius regarding his woes before and after he was imprisoned. Thereafter, Boethius is visited by Lady Philosophy who diagnosis him by enlightening Boethius about his erratic ways and shows him the cure of his adversaries. Therefore, this paper explores the truth in Lady Philosophy`s diagnosis of the prisoner.

I believe it is true that the real source of Boethius unhappiness is his perception about true happiness and beliefs in life rather than the actual misfortunes that happened to him as indicated by Lady Philosophy. To illustrate, the prisoner complained about the reversal of his fortunes that stripped him off his comforts, status and power in the society. This indicates that the prisoner thought that his earlier life was more precious to him and that’s why he was extremely devastated by his loss.  In addition, Boethius believed that he was a victim of the world`s injustice since he thought that he was supposed to be rewarded by his virtue rather than being punished and persecuted by evil people in the world. Moreover, Boethius was indifferent towards God since he believed that God had abandoned him due to His failure to intervene in the prisoner`s situation yet God has all the power and authority.

However, after having a dialogue with Lady Philosophy, she diagnosed that Boethius main problem was based on his beliefs and perceptions about critical life aspects. In particular, Lady Philosophy told the prisoner that he was suffering since due to inaccuracies in his beliefs since a person`s beliefs dictate his perception about what should or what should not happen to him thereby contributing to a person`s misery. Nevertheless, Lady Philosophy believed that the cure of the prisoner`s misery was to gain an insightful understanding regarding the world`s governance. This indicates that Lady Philosophy believed that by changing his perception and beliefs, the prisoner would understand that God governs the human world by providence and by virtue of an implanted human nature which rewards or punishes in respect with the human goal. Having reviewed Lady Philosophy`s diagnosis of the prisoner, I believe its true that the real cause of unhappiness arise out of an individual`s perceptions and beliefs rather than what actually what happens to a person.

Boethius Consolation of Philosophy.  

A reflection paper covering the early books in Boethius Consolation of Philosophy.

I want this reflection paper to be over Lady Philosophy’s diagnosis on the prisoner.

Below are the instructions and meaning of a reflection paper.

Reflection papers are meant to provide you a place to express your own thoughts and opinions on what we are covering in class.  I evaluate the reflection papers more on how you support your position or pursue your inquiry than I do on the content of your thought.  Suggested length of reflection papers is one typed page. 

Usually the reflection paper is on a topic of your choosing related to the class.  It can be over the readings or something that we have discussed in class.  The reflection papers are designed to allow you to reflect on what you are learning in class.  I want you to give your evaluation on what we cover and ask yourself is what I am learning true or good or beautiful (or false or wicked or ugly).  Explain the reasons why you think something is true or good or beautiful.

III. What does Boethius know and what has he forgotten? (Book 1, Prose 6) Lady Philosophy presents herself as a nurse concerned to restore the prisoner to health. Like any good nurse she will diagnose his illness. It is a philosophical diagnosis based upon what the prisoner knows and what he has forgotten. At one point she describes what he has forgotten as chinks in his armor. The defense against his doing badly is the truth—so in one sense her medicine and treatment will the truth. She will administer this in two forms. One form is poetry (or music) this is gentle medicine. As the book progresses she will go to stronger medicine after he has recovered a bit—the stronger medicine are arguments. As the book goes along the poems become shorter and shorter and the prose sections become longer and longer. The entire books begins with a poem and ends with prose, modeling the progress of cure. The diagnosis that Lady Philosophy gives takes the form of a catechism. A catechism is a strange choice of genre to be in a literary work. A catechism is a Christian form of teaching used to prepare initiates (catechumens) for baptism and to make sure that the candidates for baptism understand Christian teaching and doctrine. Typically these catechisms take the form of question and answer. Below are excerpts from a modern catechism the Baltimore catechism. LESSON FIRST: On the End of Man. Q. 126. What do we mean by the “end of man”? A. By the “end of man” we mean the purpose for which he was created: namely, to know, love, and serve God. Q. 127. How do you know that man was created for God alone? A. I know that man was created for God alone because everything in the world was created for something more perfect than itself: but there is nothing in the world more perfect than man; therefore, he was created for something outside this world, and since he was not created for the Angels, he must have been created for God.

Philosophy “God as the Perfect Happiness”

God as the Perfect Happiness

Boethius Consolation of Philosophy is a philosophical piece of work that was written by Boethius when he was in prison awaiting his execution. The piece of work contains apocalyptic dialogue and satire between the author and earthly incarnation of philosophy. In particular, when lady philosophy visited Boethius in prison, she started lecturing him on putting his trust and hope in earthly materials such as wealth, power, fame and pleasures to mention but a few. This is because Boethius was in grief after placing too much importance and a strong attachment on earthly things.          Thereafter, Lady Philosophy begun reminding Boethius on the real source of happiness given that he was spiritual being. Therefore, the Boethius consolation of philosophy explores spiritual truths and pursuits as the source of true and everlasting happiness.

One of the truths in the Boethius Consolation philosophy is the aspect that God is the source of true happiness. In particular, the fact that human desires cannot be sufficiently fulfilled by earthly materials indicates that true happiness does not lie on earthly things such as fame, comfort, wealth or power. Subsequently, this inadequacy proves that there is an existence of a Supreme Being who is the source of true happiness and that true happiness exists outside the earthly realm. This is indicated in the futility resulting from seeking happiness through earthly materials. To illustrate, Lady Philosophy indicates that although the universe is one of God`s products, absolute good cannot be found in earthly things since the universe contains both good and evil things. Therefore, Boethius agrees with Lady Philosophy that spiritual and philosophical pursuits are the only are knowing in order to attain true happiness given that human beings are spiritual beings

Another truth in the Boethius Consolation of Philosophy is notion that perfect good and happiness are not only found in God but that they are God. In particular, the book indicates that the pursuit of God is the only thing that is worth pursing in life since all other earthly things are temporary. The philosophy implies that fortunes and all other earthly materials are prone to change. To illustrate, the book indicates that it is only the highest good which rules all things and disposes them. This is because God is Omniscient and He foresees every future event before it happens. Subsequently, the pursuit of God makes individuals to attain the perfect good since He is the supreme good and He gives individuals the power to not only bring forth or gain whatever they want but also people attain the perfect good by just seeking the Supreme good. Therefore, the pursuit of Good makes an individual to attain Godly-like virtues and only pursue the good things by acting appropriately thereby gaining the perfect good and happiness.

In conclusion, the Boethius consolation of philosophy explores spiritual truths and pursuits as the source of true and everlasting happiness. Consolation of Philosophy is a compilation of poems that were written by Boethius in prison when he was grieving over his loss of earthly materials such as wealth and power. One of the truths in the Boethius Consolation philosophy is the aspect that God is the source of true happiness. Moreover, another truth in the Boethius Consolation of Philosophy is notion that perfect good and happiness are not only found in God but that they are God. Therefore, I believe that the pursuit of God is true happiness and earthly things cannot yield everlasting happiness.

Consolation of Philosophy reflection paper

A reflection paper covering the early books in Boethius’ Consolation of Philosophy.  As usual you have freedom to pick your topic, however I would like you to reflect on and evaluate what we are covering in the Consolation of Philosophy.

Below are the instructions and meaning of a reflection paper.

Reflection papers are meant to provide you a place to express your own thoughts and opinions on what we are covering in class.  I evaluate the reflection papers more on how you support your position or pursue your inquiry than I do on the content of your thought.  Suggested length of reflection papers is one typed page.

Usually the reflection paper is on a topic of your choosing related to the class.  It can be over the readings or something that we have discussed in class.  The reflection papers are designed to allow you to reflect on what you are learning in class.  I want you to give your evaluation on what we cover and ask yourself is what I am learning true or good or beautiful (or false or wicked or ugly).  Explain the reasons why you think something is true or good or beautiful.

I have attached an outline of book 2 and 3 of Boethius Consolation of philosophy. Use the attachment and additional resources strictly about books 2 and 3. Thank you!

**Sources not required**

Outline Book 2 and 3 Consolation of Philosophy !1Boethius Book 2 What can we expect from fortune? I. Immanuel Kant once said that there were three great questions which must be answered in life: “What can we know? What is my duty? And For what can I hope?”II. The Consolation of Philosophy addresses the question through the figure of Lady Fortune. A. What can we expect of fortune? 1. In the dialogue–the prisoner expects better of fortune than he gets. He expects to be rewarded for good actions. 2. In his anger he blames fortune and calls her unfair, she has taken from him something that is justly due to him–that is something that is his. (Keep in mind Epictetus’ conception as what is rightly “our own.”) a. The definition of “ones own” –that which cannot be taken away from a person by nature. 3. Lady Philosophy says that what we can expect from Lady Fortune is change. 4. There is also a sense in which Fortune is a teacher. Misfortune teaches what is truly “our own.” a. Lady Philosophy says that what we can rightly expect from fortune is for her to change. b. The change from good fortune to bad is instructive for those who learn– it teaches the lesson of what is truly ones own (e.g. ones virtue, the image of God within oneself and perhaps ones virtuous friends are all that are rightly ones own). B. Can we expect happiness of fortune? 1. We cannot expect happiness from fortune if we place happiness in things external to ourselves. For these in the end will all be taken away. C. Lady Philosophy describes this book as rhetoric to calm the wildness of the prisoner’s thoughts until he is ready for stronger medicine. She does this by: 1. Speaking on behalf of fortune. 2. Having the prisoner remember what good gifts he still possesses. a. A virtuous family still intact belongs to the prisoner. b. The prisoner still has life. 3. Responding to the prisoner’s complaint that the memory of past goods is more painful. 4. Reminding the prisoner about the nature of true happiness. a. General features of happiness. 1) “Anxiety is the necessary condition of human happiness since happiness is never completely achieved and never permanently kept” (p. 28). 2) “Nothing is miserable unless you think it so” (p.29). This is a stoic perspective that maintains that all grief can be stopped if things are seen from the proper perspective (i.e. from the perspective of nature.) b. Two general arguments about the nature of happiness. 1) Happiness cannot depend upon things which are uncertain because