FIN 317 – HOMEWORK 1

ZYNGA INC (ZNGA)

Use the Form 10-K for ZYNGA INC (ZNGA) using the EDGAR database at the SEC web site

(www.sec.gov). Answer the following questions using Zynga’s most recent (2020) Form 10-K

(filing date: 2021-02-26).

1. Briefly state the line of business in which Zynga operates.

2. State two risks related to their business and industry based on Form 10-K Item 1A.Risk

Factors.

3. Which public accounting firm conducted the audit for Zynga Inc.? What is the auditors’

opinion?

4. Using the information, for fiscal year 2020, what are the values for the following items from

the financial statements?

a. Assets

b. Liabilities

c. Stockholders’ equity

d. Total revenue

e. Net income or loss (specify if amount is income or loss)

# Month: March 2021

## INET 3011W – Writing Assignment 2 Team Contribution to IT

**INET 3011W – Writing Assignment 2**

**Team Contribution to IT**

It is important to realize, quickly, that not much in IT is successful from a single person’s work. No one person has enough resources, time, and skill to build and operationalize a running system. This was not the case 20+ years ago, but with the advancements in technology post the internet, cyber security (or lack thereof), mobility, cloud among other developments the thought of a single individual having all the hard and soft skills to perform all needed tasks is not attainable anymore.

A team is not just a group of people. The ability to call a meeting and invite many people is one of the worst ways to try to accomplish any task, let alone a highly complex technology task with many unknowns. What will need to be identified in this assignment is how to design, build, run, and manage an effective team that will require some adjunct components to not only make it effective, but also efficient. At each step in the development process, decisions will have to be made which have ramifications beyond the individual and the team. Decisions which affect society, too.

What needs to be identified in this paper is the team(s) that will be required to design, build, test, deploy, administer, manage and maintain “The Rock” as it goes from the information gathered in paper #1 to go-live in 6 months. This will require an opening section that will define the scope/team members/etc and a conclusion on why it is important to define all of the teams and members of their teams to support effective and efficient practices to bring “The Rock” to market.

In addition to the opening and conclusion sections, there will need to be identified value creation in the following sections:

## Introduction (150-200 words)

Start with your ideas/thesis on the subject at hand and start to build your narrative that will be supported by the rest of the paper and specifically the 5 sections listed below.

## Team Definitions (250-300 words)

- Who will be members of which teams? Define what positions you need to be filled.
- Define what positions can be remote and which positions must be filled with individuals who can work in person.
- Assume you will include team members from outside of the Rock Coast Bank employee pool. Include what needed to ensure they understand what they can and can not discuss outside of Rock Coast Bank employees.
- Describe is your criteria for choosing someone to be a member of your team. Be specific in regards to particular positions. Include literature that speaks to the needs of the project and cite what makes someone professionally capable to do this project.

## Team Collaboration (200-250 words)

- Describe how your team will collaborate with the client Rock Coast Bank. Include at least three guiding principles and how they will be put into practice.
- Include citations of resources that speak to effective communication and collaboration.
- Name what technologies will enable your team to collaborate most effectively and efficiently within the group and with the client. Cite articles or resources that prove their effectiveness and efficiency.

Cover topics such as: How will the teams collaborate? Will they collaborate the same way or are there different ways that are more effective with different teams? How does a team decide how to collaborate efficiently and effectively? What technology will enable more effectiveness and efficiency?

## Originality / Plagiarism (250-300 words)

- Detail which work is open to use/copy freely vs code that has to be licensed.
- Describe a process for documenting materials that come from other sources.
- Describe a process for testing code to identify if there is risk due to the code being publicly or privately available.
- Include citations of resources that speak issues of originality and plagiarism.
- Include guidelines (at least three key points) for your team to follow to ensure the production of original work and avoiding plagiarism. Reference literature or resources that point to the importance of these guidelines.

Cover topics such as: What needs to be defined as it relates to the ability to leverage code on the Internet? What is open to use/copy freely vs code that may have been produced or licensed in a way that does not allow anyone to use without some restriction(s)? How will it be documented on what was from other sources? How can you test your code to identify if there are any risks due to code publicly or privately available?How do teams produce original work and avoid plagiarism?

## Agreements / Contracts (200-250 words)

- Define agreements between Rock Coast Bank and any external resources that may be on the project.
- Describe the main component of the agreements/contracts to ensure low to no risk on the part of Rock Coast Bank in the use of external resources for “The Rock.”
- Describe the functions of team members who work on agreements and contracts. Cite literature that can guide them in their decision making.

## Leadership / Management (200-250 words)

- Create an organizational chart of what the management of “The Rock” look like within Rock Coast Bank.
- Make notes about how information flows between each level of management.
- Describe who initiates decisions on strategy regarding the App.
- Describe how each level bring value to the Rock Coast Bank.

Cover topics such as: Organizational structure – define what the organization looks like with levels of management all the way to the CEO/CFO. How and why does information flow between levels in the organization? When there is a need for a strategy decision, who makes it and at what level? How does each level in the organization bring value to Rock Coast Bank? Why is each level of management involved?

## Conclusion (100-150 words)

Use this section to “wrap up” your thoughts based on your original thesis from the introduction. Should finalize your ideas using the 5 sections to support your original thoughts.

## Assessing Your Intake for Variety and Moderation

This will be presented as a written paper. The paper should include an introduction paragraph, one paragraph for each of the 5 food groups, one paragraph on the “limits” (sodium and saturated fat), and a conclusion.

- Introduction: This should tell the reader what they will expect to read about in your paper. The main focus here is that you are introducing a review of your diet in terms of how well it matches up to recommendations about food groups.
- Body of the paper: Aim for 1 complete paragraph (3-5 sentences is a good goal to aim for) addressing each food group and the limits. This means you will have 6 paragraphs in total for the body of the paper.
- For each food group support the determination you made (Y or N) in column 3 of your worksheet- Did you reach your target? Clearly state if you believe you did/did NOT meet the recommendation and how you came to this conclusion. Which foods did you classify in this food group and how did you come up with the total number of servings? Do this for each of the 5 food groups.
- Once you have this for all food groups, do the same for the limits. If you exceeded sodium and/or saturated fat, identify which foods in your diet for the day resulted in being over the limit(s). If you were under for one or both, comment on how you made choices to keep those to a minimum. In the event no decisions were made specifically with awareness of sodium and saturated fat content, that is fine, however you will want to comment on this still and not skip over a critical analysis of your intake impacting those values.

- Conclusion: This is the last paragraph of the paper. Here is where you present your final argument using the preceding evidence presented in the body of the paper to support whether or not your diet for that one-day was varied and exhibited moderation. The key aspects to address here are specifically variety and moderation as presented in
*An Introduction to Nutrition*chapter 2 using MyPlate as your set of guidelines.

## Business in contemporary society runs on teamwork

# Discussion Guidelines

**R**eview your writing. Think through responses. Check your grammar and spelling before posting to a course activity. Online interactions don’t have the same advantage as the nonverbal cues and reactions of face-to-face communication; make your writing clear and direct to avoid misunderstandings.

**E**xtend the conversation. Peer-to-peer interactions should **extend** a conversation, not only offer an agreement or disagreement. Explore new ideas, questions, and research with your peers.

**P**rivacy is a must. What happens in class stays in class. Don’t share posts beyond the classroom and don’t share personal information in the classroom.

**E**ngage difference. You may not always agree with your peers, but a discussion is richer for its varying cultural and social perspectives.

**C**onduct yourself with professionalism. Online communications have rules of appropriate conduct, so treat others as you want to be treated. If you wouldn’t say it face-to-face, don’t say it online.

**T**one matters! Use full sentences and extend basic courtesies as “please” and “thank you.” Cues from face-to-face communication don’t always translate to writing. Avoid SHOUTING, sarcasm, or excessive punctuation (?!?!) in favor of responses that focus on the assignment.

## Personal Theory as an Effective Role Model Paper Assignment Instructions

**Personal Theory as an Effective Role Model Paper Assignment Instructions**

The paper must be a total of 7 pages: 5 pages for the body, 1 title page, and 1 reference page. It must include at least 6 scholarly sources from the Jerry Falwell Library, plus both textbooks (Slavin & Schunk and Van Brummelen). All sources must be published within the past 5 years. Points will not be deducted if the number of sources you use exceeds the minimum requirement.

Throughout your paper, you must also weave a solid biblical basis for your theory that is supported by specific scriptures referenced by chapter and verse . Your Final Paper must be concise, well-developed, and follow current APA format.

You may find it useful to focus on the educational area in which you intend to serve (elementary, middle, high school, gifted, ADHD, special education, etc.).

Throughout this paper, it is essential that you demonstrate your understanding of the readings and course work. Your learning theory must be unified and congruent. Organize your paper using the following headings:

- Introduction
- Qualities of an Effective Role Model
- The Teacher as an Effective Role Model
- The Teacher’s Responsibility as an Effective Team Member
- The Teacher’s Role in Cultivating Good Parent/Teacher Relationships
- The Teacher’s Approach to Student Diversity
- The Teacher’s Approach to Learners with Exceptionalities
- The Teacher’s Journey as a Lifelong Learner
- Conclusion

*You may substitute administrator or leader for teacher if needed to better articulate your theory.

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## Calculus: Origin and Transformation

**Calculus: Origin and Transformation**

# Origin and Early History of Calculus

Calculus is defined as the study of change. It is employed in a number of fields that deal with the examination and evaluation of different elements: gravity, light, heat, cost minimization, navigation, planetary rotation, electricity, construction, resource allotment, and insurance valuations. Many of the groundbreaking inventions made between the 1700s and the present can draw their connection to calculus (Boyer, 1959). The very nature of everyday life with its predictable and unpredictable changes necessitates the employment of calculus in an attempt to gain control or knowledge of the factors that drive change. Calculus was developed under separate conditions by Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz; however, both individuals worked on similar projects that demanded new and innovative solutions (Boyer, 1959). The two mathematicians studied the different facets of motion and area. Additionally, both their effects were hampered by the lack of knowledge on matters relating to algebra and analytic geometry. The concept of algebra was already being used and expanded upon in Arabic nations; furthermore, the Greek mathematicians had a firm, yet underdeveloped, understanding of analytic geometry through the representation of points on an x and y plane.

There is extensive evidence in ancient texts and manuscripts that early civilizations had knowledge of calculus and its underlying theorems and formulas well before the time of Isaac

Newton. For example, researchers discovered ancient Babylonian tablets that are dated at least 1700 years before Christ that demonstrate the knowledge of the Pythagorean Theorem by early mathematicians. Also, similar tablets have shown the basic understanding of Pythagorean triplets that satisfy the Pythagorean Theorem (Kline, 1990). Moreover, the Pythagorean Theorem is referenced in the Indian Baudhayana Sulba-Sutra accounts, which are rumored to have been written somewhere between 800 and 400 BCE.

The usage of the “sum of integer powers” was found to have existed in 11^{th} century Egypt due to the work of Arabic mathematician Abu Ali Al-Hassan. Trigonometric series were quite popular with Indian mathematicians in the 16^{th} century as indicated by journals later posted by European scholars who traveled to India (Katz, 1995). Nevertheless, the mathematician, Isaac Newton, has become synonymous with the invention of calculus as a branch of mathematics due to countless publications that have credited his mathematical genius with its discovery and overall popularization in various fields such as physics, astronomy, and algebra.

# The Contributions of Different People to Calculus

Three prominent mathematicians who are considered to have developed or used the concepts of calculus before Isaac Newton in the field of mathematics are Pythagoras, Euclid, and Archimedes. There are also a few others who are less known but have also played monumental roles in the advancement and development of useful calculus formulas and theorems (Bruce,

2013), including Pierre Fermat, Descartes, Pascal, and Mersennes. After the era of Isaac Newton (the father of calculus), there emerged numerous and reputable mathematicians, physicians, and philosophers who expanded the pool of knowledge that could be obtained in the field of calculus. Most notable are Laplace, Lagrange, Euler, the Bernoulli brothers, Fourier, and Riemann.

Gottfried Leibniz and Isaac Newton are the two true founders of calculus. Even though their individual discoveries led to heated disagreements between the two, it does not take away from the contribution that each of them made to the realm of calculus. Leibniz devoted new and more improved ways of tabulating the minima and maxima values, introducing the dx/dy symbols that are used in differential calculus, and the most universally recognized “=” symbol (Bruce, 2014). Three major contributions that Isaac Newton made to the world of calculus are: the method of fluent, where the operations of differentiation and integration are inverses of each other; a formula for computing the average slope of a curve; and generalization of the binomial theorem, which led to the advancement in the study of finite differences (Newton, 1736). His work with series also gave rise to the concept of infinite series and the formulas that can be used to expand or compact them.

Archimedes’ work in geometry led to great contributions in calculus. He is considered to be the first person to correctly deduce the tangent to a curve that was anything other than a circle. His work in the tabulation of the sum of a geometric series laid the foundation for the topic of limits that is studied today in calculus. In addition, Archimedes is credited with the tabulation of pi, and the creation of formulas that could be used in the computation of the area under a curve, as well as the surface area and volume of a sphere (Archimedes & Heath, 2002). Isaac Barrow was a 17th-century mathematician whose discovery in the determination of tangents led to the later discovery that the processes of differential and integration are in actuality inverse operations by Isaac Newton (Barrow & Child, 1916), where the effects of integration can be reversed through the employment of differential.

One of the most important facets of calculus is limits. This area has remained unchanged for the past 50 years due to its definitive nature and rigidity to change. The limit is considered to be the paradigm of calculus that deals with the study of how functions and sequences behave as their input values are directed towards (approach) a given value (Cajori, 1929). The topic of limits plays a vital role in the study of continuity, series, sequence, derivatives, and integrals. It is one of those subgroups of calculus that students/academicians need to learn after introduction to functions, derivation of functions, and integration of functions, but before they go into learning about finding the area, surface area, and volume of a solid on a Cartesian plane or using polar coordinates. The topic of limits allows the student to gain a firm understanding of how functions behave based on values in the numerator and denominator level (Katz, 2009). This is important because knowledge of how functions move on a Cartesian plane is crucial not only in calculus but also in algebra, geometry, and trigonometry.

# Conclusion

Calculus is an important aspect of mathematics that has completely elevated the world through the introduction of numerous problem-solving equations, theorems, and principals. The history of calculus is far broader than most people seem to understand because of its root in Indian, Egyptian, Arabic, and Babylonian cultures. Nevertheless, Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz can still be linked or credited with the invention of calculus due to their exemplary works in the development of concepts vital to the tabulation of areas, surface area, and volume of solids, as well as the performance of differentiation and integration through the usage of signs such as ∫ 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑑𝑥/𝑑𝑦. There are several other notable individuals who have contributed a significant amount of knowledge to the concept of calculus over the past 300 years. Their knowledge has in turn led to the advancement of different fields like chemistry, biology, physics, astronomy, and mathematics in general. Click here to place an order for this or any other related assignment

References

Archimedes, & Heath, T. (2002). *The works of Archimedes*. New York: Dover Publication.

Barrow, I., & Child, J. M. (1916). *The geometrical lectures of Isaac Barrow*. Chicago: Open

Court Publishing.

Boyer, C. B. (1959). *The history of calculus and its conceptual development: (The concepts of calculus)*. New York: Dover Publications.

Bruce, I. (2013). Elements of the calculus of variations*. Novi Comm*., 51-93.

Bruce, I. (2014). G. W. Leibniz: New method of finding maxima and minima. *Mathematica*,

467-473.

Cajori, F. (1929). *A history of mathematical notations (Vol. 2)*. The Open Court Publishing

Company.

Katz, V. J. (1995). Ideas of calculus in Islam and India.* Mathematics Magazine*, 68(3), 163-174.

Katz, V. J. (2009). *A history of mathematics: An introduction (3rd ed.).* Addison-Wesley.

Kline, M. (1990). *Mathematical thought from ancient to modern times: Volume *2. New York:

Oxford University Publishers (USA).

Newton, I. (1736). *The method of fluxions and infinite series: With its application to the geometry of curve-lines*.