Zika – Global Concern Custom Essay

Zika – Global Concern

Zika virus, alternatively referred to as ZIKV, is part a virus family known as Flaviviridae. ZIKV is spread by Aedes mosquitoes, which are most active at daytime, such as A. albopictus and A. aegypti (Malone et al., 2016). ZIKV is a name that is derived from Uganda’s Zika forest, where the virus was first detected in 1947 (Sikka et al., 2016). ZIKV is associated with yellow fever, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis, and dengue viruses. Since the 1950s, ZIKV has commonly occurred within Africa and Asia. From 2000 to 2016, ZIKV spread eastward to the Americas across the Pacific Ocean and caused the 2015 to 2016 Zika virus epidemic. ZIKV has mild or no symptoms. There is no particular treatment of ZIKV; however, paracetamol can aid in alleviating the symptoms. Since 2016, ZIKV cannot be vetoed by vaccines or medications. ZIKV can be spread by an expectant woman to her unborn child; this can cause brain malformations, as well as other birth defects.

ZIKV is prevalent in tropical areas with vast mosquito populations. As of 2015, ZIKV was declared as a global emergency due to its rapid circulation in French Polynesia, Western Pacific, Africa, Brazil, Southern Asia, and the Americas (Beaver at al., 2018). Its unpredicted relation to neurological defects and impairments, currently referred to as congenital Zika syndrome, birthed the need to characterize the pathological condition and establish harmless, effective vaccines (Beaver at al., 2018). ZIKV has brought with it public health concerns such as autoimmune and neurological implications. Local health authorities based in Brazil have observed a rise in infections related to ZIKV, as well as an increase in neonates born with microcephaly (Wilson, 2017).

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To address global health concerns, health care delivery systems, as well as some stakeholders, work collaboratively. For example, the CDC is purposed to keep Americans safe, healthy, and secure. The U.S. must be in a position to alleviate, identify, and respond to threats of diseases to safeguard the health of Americans. Global health security improves economic and national security for the U.S. One of the main objectives of the CDC is to fight diseases globally so as to thwart health threats overseas before they trickle down to the U.S. (CDC, 2012). CDC achieves this by maintaining a strong and valuable global health presence to safeguard Americans from illnesses that can stem from anywhere in the world. CDCs global programs address over four hundred health threats and diseases. These programs are overseen by CDC disease experts who are adept in disciplines, including laboratory systems, epidemiology, informatics, and surveillance (CDC, 2012).

Even though CDC has over seventy years of public health excellence, it cannot achieve its mission of safeguarding Americans from diseases alone. In contemporary society, global health challenges require coordination and collaboration with a wide variety of partners and stakeholders to advance CDCs work in safeguarding Americans, as well as other lives globally (CDC, 2012). Together, CDC, with the collaboration of its partners and other stakeholders can accomplish more than any single organization can on its own.

By working with partners, CDC has maintained an active and strong global presence to protect Americans from emerging illnesses. Global partners and stakeholders expand the CDCs reach, thus increasing its effectiveness. CDCs partners in global health consist of various partners and stakeholders, including foundations, faith-based organizations, other U.S. government agencies, academic institutions, businesses and other private organizations, ministries of health and foreign governments, nongovernmental organizations, and the World Health Organization (CDC, 2012). Through these partnerships, the CDC can ensure that global populations are better prepared to respond to health threats.

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References

Beaver, J. T., Lelutiu, N., Habib, R., & Skountzou, I. (2018). Evolution of two major Zika virus lineages: implications for pathology, immune response, and vaccine development. Frontiers in immunology9.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). CDC global health strategy 2012–2015. Atlanta, GA, USA: CDC.

Malone, R. W., Homan, J., Callahan, M. V., Glasspool-Malone, J., Damodaran, L., Schneider, A. D. B., … & Smith-Gagen, J. (2016). Zika virus: medical countermeasure development challenges. PLoS neglected tropical diseases10(3), e0004530.

Sikka, V., Chattu, V. K., Popli, R. K., Galwankar, S. C., Kelkar, D., Sawicki, S. G., … & Papadimos, T. J. (2016). The emergence of Zika virus as a global health security threat: a review and a consensus statement of the INDUS-EM Joint Working Group (JWG). Journal of global infectious diseases8(1), 3.

Wilson, A., & Nguyen, T. N. M. (2017). The Zika Virus Epidemic: Public Health Roles for Nurses. OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing22(1).

Crisis Communication Plan Custom Essay

Crisis Communication Plan

Introduction

Context

An organization is bound to experience a crisis at one point in its existence.  The manner in which the organization manages the disaster will determine the success or failure of the organization. Communication is an important tool in an organization. It is through communication that organizations find it easy to coordinate their activities. However, there is no better time when organizations need to be effective in communication than in times of crisis. In many instances, when an organization is in crisis, there is confusion since many people may be attempting to do what they think is in the best interests of the organization. Unfortunately, their efforts may not be coordinated, and that may end up having adverse effects on the ability of the organization to manage the crisis. Communication plays an integral role in crisis management to the extent that it makes sure that all the stakeholders are reading from the same script, and that all of the stakeholders are moving toward the same direction. In the absence of effective communication, there will be confusion, and that will have adverse effects on the organization.

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Research in Motion is a Global telecommunications company. In 2011, the company’s co-chief executives found themselves facing a serious crisis which needed them to take actions to prevent the company from experiencing a further decline in market performance. The previous year, the company had faced one of the most challenging times when it had a decline in its market share while its stock price also experienced a serious hit. In this particular crisis, one of the senior executives in the organization addressed a damning anonymous letter which revealed some of the weaknesses and cultural problems of the company. The letter questioned, among other things, the leadership style of the organization, the organizational culture as well as the product development systems in the company. The anonymous senior executive offered personal insights and possible solutions which could be used to bring back the company to its lost market standing. While the letter was addressed to the executives of the company, it was unfortunate that the letter got leaked and it was picked up by an online technology news provider referred to Boy Genius Report. The contents of this letter were later published in an online article of Boy Genius Report, thereby exposing the weaknesses of the company to the public.

The letter seriously exposed the leadership weaknesses of Research in Motion. The co-chief executives of the company were under pressure to find out the best ways to address the public over the issues addressed in the letter. Most importantly, since it was evident that they were being questioned by their employees, the co-chief executives had to find the most suitable approaches to communicate with the employees internally. It was necessary for the co-chief executives to assure the employ the most suitable mechanisms to address the problems internally.

The specific problems to be addressed

There are two specific problems which need to be addressed in this case study. The following is an illustration of some of the problems which would have to be addressed in this case study;

Change the perception of the outsiders concerning the problems facing company; form the case study, it is apparent that the company has come from a difficult financial year which was characterized by poor performance in the market as well as dwindling share prices. When this letter went public, it affected the reputation of the company in the market since it exposed its weaknesses to outside parties. Thus, it is necessary to execute a communication strategy which will restore the reputation of the company in the market.

Address the confidence and faith of the employees in the leadership of the organization; from the letter, it is notable that the employees have lost faith in the company and its leadership. To some of the employees, the leadership is prepared to address the ills facing the company. It would be helpful for the organization to carry out communication, which would address the concerns of the company. Most importantly, it would be necessary to make the employees understand that the leadership is aware of the challenges, and it is taking necessary steps to address them.

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Communication goals

There are two primary targets of this communication exercise. The first target is the employees of the organization. The second target of this communication is the outside stakeholders of the company, including clients, suppliers and partners. Among the employees, the communication goal is to reassure them that the organization is doing whatever is possible to address their concerns. However, communication also seeks to help establish a communicating structure between the leadership and the employees. Apparently, the employee might have written the synonymous letter because there was no alternative communication channel which he could use. Another goal of communication is to provide an opportunity for the employees to understand the operations of the company. It may be argued the employee who had a problem with the product development and employee culture of the organization did not have an adequate understanding of the operations of the company. However, the main goal of outside communication is to rebuild the image of the company. The publication of the contents of the letter had caused a serious dent to the image of the company, and it was necessary to rebuild it.

Application of Lean Six Sigma to the skilled nursing facility

Application of Lean Six Sigma to the skilled nursing facility

Lean Six Sigma is a strategy for healthcare quality management and continuous improvement. This approach usually blends the well-established techniques: Six Sigma and Lean. Primarily, Lean Six Stigma is used in the nursing facility to enhance the delivery of quality services.  In healthcare settings, informatics professionals plat a vital role in improving function and quality of services. For instance, Lean Six Stigma is promoted and implemented in nursing facilities to develop appropriate informatics and thus boost productivity and enhance effectiveness and speed of lab testing, drug dispensing and other such vital services (Sehwail et al., 2013).

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Nursing informatics best-practices policy encourages effective and safe data use in nursing practice through active data collection, analysis, and leverage. Notably, data, in this case, influences the way care is delivered, the management of resources, and how personnel operate on a day-to-day basis. One of the most significant advantages of informatics to nursing is documentation of health records such as patient’s history; health information technology tools such as the Electronic Health Record (EHR) yield useful data, which enhance patient safety; evaluating the quality of care, measuring staff needs and efficiency maximization. The use of information and communication technology (ICT) in healthcare supports and improves patient and organizational outcomes (Sehwail et al., 2013). Therefore, it is crucial for any health organization to create and adapt informatics best-practices to enhance data security and patient confidentiality. In this light, it is vital to further elaborate on the purpose of informatics, required ethical standards, regulatory requirements, and necessary behaviours and skills in nursing leadership for the implementation of the policy.

Critical Elements of Nursing Informatics Implementation

Informatics plays a significant role in informing best practice, also referred to as evidence-based practice (EBP). EBP is the implementation of consciousness, problem-solving strategy to medical practices that involves evidence from patient values and preferences. Notably, best practice can also be instigated by the application of technology to help identify potential problems earlier. Informatics use electronic documentation to detect changes in a patient’s status due to the availability of the information in the data system. Also, informatics assists in assessing a patient’s vital signs since data is interpreted, systematized and arranged in an appropriate manner. Informatics is also an integral part of EBP as it helps with return on investment analysis, evaluation of patient needs, and infection data control (Sehwail et al., 2013). Templates used to assist nurses with their daily workload also help facilitate best practice.

There are several ethical considerations governing informatics practices. For instance, the use of Human Information Technology could result in unintended consequences with patient safety implications and litigation for nurses.  EHRs support patient safety and quality by providing evidence-based protocols that can be used to reinforce clinical decision support. However, there have been challenges with EHR use with actual patients in terms of triggering or alerting nurses with the right. In this sense, a nurse might be faced with an ethical dilemma on whether to utilize information produced by EHRs and follow protocol. Notably, EHRs may trigger alerts following tools built within the system. The signals may not be compatible with nursing practice due to a nurse’s knowledge and experience. Also, when EHR triggered protocols that capture quality measures are not met, the health facility might be penalized. In this case, nurses are urged to practice their personal and professional ethical values to ensure patient safety during the implementation of informatics best practices (Chiarini et al., 2013).

Health facilities should ensure to adhere to regulatory requirements such as qualifications to ensure the quality of care and effective use of informatics. Practical informatics best practices should be firmly established on professional discipline. The possession of graduate education and certification in informatics is increasingly growing, making knowledge of nursing informatics a necessity for specific position requirements. Therefore, qualified clinical personnel are necessary for the implementation of informatics best practices policy.

Several interpersonal and professional skills are necessary for nursing leadership for the effective creation and adoption of informatics best practices policy. Also, nursing leadership should possess interpersonal competencies, such as empathy, teamwork, conflict resolution, and flexibility. The traits are essential to the success of a team, a requirement of the health informatics field, as well as see through to the effective implementation of informatics policy. The skills and competencies allow nursing leadership to oversee the smooth operation of informatics best practice policy in the facility (Van den Heuvel et al., 2016). Informatics is an integral part of health care due to its ability to oversee patient safety, evidence-based practice, data security, and quality of care. Although the ethical issues posed by informatics, having a best practices policy ensure that the facility adheres to moral and certification standards. Also, nursing leadership should possess skills and competencies to ensure the practices are adhered to effectively.

Conclusion

From the foregoing, it can be seen that the application of Lean Six Sigma calls for an understanding of how its methodologies and tools translate to intensive-collaborative processes that ensure effective service delivery. Practical application of Lean Six Stigma helps to improve patient satisfaction and thus reduce the service length by 20 per cent. Also, the approach helps to minimize any incurred errors and enhance patient satisfaction.

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References

Sehwail, L., & DeYong, C., (2013). Six Sigma in health care. Leadership in Health Services16(4), 1-5.

Chiarini, A., & Bracci, E., (2013). Implementing lean six sigma in healthcare: issues from Italy. Public Money & Management33(5), 361-368.

Van den Heuvel, J., Does, R. J., & De Koning, H. (2016). Lean Six Sigma in a hospital. International Journal of Six Sigma and Competitive Advantage2(4), 377-388.

Health Care Quality Custom Paper

Health Care Quality

Quality care is the objective of many healthcare systems around the world. It is a measure of how well goals are met from the perspective of involved stakeholders. In this view, quality standards are established to guide the implementation of interventions in a manner that addresses the expectations of different parties. Primarily, patients are at the center of interest since they are the primary consumers of health care. As a consequence, many quality plans are designed with the focus of the clients. Hospitals and other health institutions practice the measurement of such standards to identify improvement opportunities to adhere to industry requirements as well as attract customers.

Measurements of Quality Care

Structural Measurements

These are measures based on the infrastructure of the hospital, which is essential in the delivery of quality health care (FamiliesUsa, 2014). They include available buildings such as wards, offices, laboratories, and reliable sources of power. They also entail the personnel endowment of the facility and the qualifications of the staff members. This is because hospitals can have ample structures but lack competent workers to carry out necessary activities in them. Others include the environmental policy under which care is provided and the general availability of resources in the center.

A common consideration under this class is the installation of systems necessary to provide quality care such as the electronic health record system, the re-ordering software for drugs, and the overall technological advancement (Cantiello, Kitsantas, Moncada & Abdul, 2016). Other than clients, industry accreditors and insurance companies use these structure measures to weigh the ability of a hospital to deliver quality care.

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Patients use structure measures in selecting a preferred hospital because they provide one with necessary information about the capacity of a facility (FamiliesUsa, 2014). The characteristics of a health care center can profoundly determine its ability to provide the desired quality of care. Also, since these are the same measures used in the evaluation and accreditation of hospitals, meeting established criteria is an implication of one’s potential to offer quality care. However, structure measures are, in some cases, insufficient in giving the complete picture about a provider’s ability to provide quality care. This is because a hospital might not employ the resources at its disposal in a manner that improves the patients’ health.

Process Measures

            These are standards used to assess the degree of consistency employed in the provision of care in a hospital. It mainly deals with establishing adherence to established methods and techniques that have been proven to improve the health of a patient and limit the probability of future complications (FamiliesUsa, 2014). The use of these criteria requires the knowledge of industry laid standards or professional codes. For providers, process assessments offer immediate and valuable feedback which can be promptly used to make improvements in the provision of care.

Patients might use process measurements in deciding which hospital they would prefer for their regular visits. Although the information on such standards is available from personal experience and reports from others, its availability can help one assess which facility is more observant of laid down treatment procedures. A consistent hospital is more likely to provide quality care compared to one that regularly deviates from conventional techniques. However, a challenge in this class is the unavailability of standard processes for particular tasks in health care. Also, the effectiveness of procedures is determined by their complete adherence rather than limited compliance.

Outcome Measures

Outcome quality measures determine the effectiveness of a hospital based on the health of a patient due to the care they received. In this view, the focus is on both the direct and indirect effects of care on the wellbeing of the client, their quality of life, and their overall status. As a result, they are based on pre-set health goals whose achievement is an indication of superior quality (Teare, 2014). Such objectives can be set around the following areas;

Mortality. This is a traditional measure of the survival rate of patients. Hospitals with a higher endurance and recovery percentage are deemed to provide better quality care than one where the number of deaths is very high. Facilities set goals on a general perspective or for specific categories.

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Care Safety. This pertains to the protection of patients from hospital-acquired infections or complications from medical mistakes. It also looks at the general environmental safety such as the proneness to injury.

Readmissions. Readmissions are the return of patients to the hospital due to the resurgence of a treated problem or a related complication. It is a costly endeavor that is associated with poor quality care.

Time Sensitivity of Care. Timeliness is an essential aspect of quality care. This is because the effectiveness of medical interventions are highly determined by the time they are administered. In this sense, many people die or get worse in waiting bays due to delayed care. Quality care is one where patients are attended to promptly.

Equity. This is a measure of fairness in accessing care. It is based on the evaluation of care from the perspective of various disparities that limit people from obtaining desired services (Cantiello, Kitsantas, Moncada & Abdul, 2016). Quality care is one where all people can be treated without discrimination.

Customers use outcome measures to choose a hospital because they provide a snapshot of its quality deliverables. They can judge the facility from the viewpoint of achieved results which are fundamental to quality care.

Customer Experience Measures

The experience of clients is critical in the making of future decisions. It is a measure of satisfaction with previously obtained services or interventions (FamiliesUsa, 2014). These measures rely on the perceived quality of care by the patients. They count on elements such as the provision of information by carers, the experienced interpersonal relationship, patient-centered interventions, and timely service, among others. Patients use these measures in making hospital choices because experienced factors can help one rate the quality of care.

Industry Ratings

            Hospitals receive ratings and accreditations from various health care administrative and regulatory bodies based on their quality of care, among other metrics. In this view, facilities are set into categories each with precise specifications on the set capacities and health care goals (Cantiello, Kitsantas, Moncada & Abdul, 2016). They are evaluated periodically to determine their achievement of such objectives as well as their resources and capabilities audited to decide on their next classification. Feedback from these agencies can be used as a quality measure by different stakeholders. Patients can compare hospitals based on their accreditation reports to choose the one ranked high as it is perceived to provide quality care.

Hospital Features for Designing a Quality Improvement Plan

A quality improvement plan in health care is a document that is designed to establish and communicate the commitments an organization makes to its stakeholders for enhancing quality through set goals and action strategies. It entails the identification of current status and setting out targets as well as proposed techniques through which to achieve them. The sources of required data are specific features in hospitals that form the foundation of quality.

Benchmark Reports

One of the features that sunlight hospital and other health care facilities can use to design a quality improvement plan is the feedback from benchmark exercises. Modern organizations regularly undertake comparative studies with industry leaders to determine their shortcomings and possible ways of filling the gaps (Singer, Benzer & Hamdan, 2015). These reports can be used as guiding tools in the preparation of frameworks to enhance the quality of care.

Internal Audit Reports

These entail scores on the hospital processes, outcomes, client feedback, and other quality indicators (Singer, Benzer & Hamdan, 2015). Improvement is based on upgrading current systems to meet desired levels. By evaluating such quality identifiers, the hospital can monitor its weak areas and focus more effort on them in its quality enhancement efforts. The successful study of such elements can improve care in Sunlight hospital. However, inaccurate reporting can cause significant quality failure.\

Industry Accreditation Feedback

            Hospital accreditation studies take an in-depth evaluation of the facility, which is graded against set industry standards. It mainly relies on established quality measures to determine the capacity of hospitals to deliver certain classes of services. Sunlight can use these reports to monitor its quality scores and prepare an improvement plan. Working on identified weaknesses can enhance the quality of care in the hospital. However, some of the grading mechanisms are too general can offer misleading information.

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Hospital Resources

            The resources of a health facility can be influential in determining the quality of care. They include the physical and intangible endowments that work together to produce desired results. Investment in these elements can enhance the quality of care in Sunlight, among other hospitals. For instance, the measurement tools used to determine quality scores are a useful resource in designing an improvement plan. Failure to acquire necessary resources can, however, lead to failing strategies due to the lack of support materials.

Quality Care and Competitive Advantage

As discussed, quality care is a primary consideration for patients in deciding their preferred regular hospitals. In this view, Sunlight hospital can benefit from having a better quality of care because more clients will be attracted to the facilities compared to competitors. Patients are confident that they can receive the best care in the hospital, and their continued visit is necessary for growing the Sunlight brand and reputation, which are vital competitive factors.

 

 

References

Cantiello, J., Kitsantas, P., Moncada, S., & Abdul, S. (2016). The Evolution of Quality Improvement in Healthcare: Patient-Centered Care and Health Information Technology Applications. Journal of Hospital Administration, 5(2). doi: 10.5430/jha.v5n2p62

FamiliesUsa. (2014). Measuring Health Care Quality: An Overview of Quality Measures, 1-16. Retrieved from https://familiesusa.org/sites/default/files/product_documents/HSI%20Quality%20Measurement_Brief_final_web.pdf

Singer, S., Benzer, J., & Hamdan, S. (2015). Improving Health Care Quality and Safety: The Role of Collective Learning. Journal of Healthcare Leadership, 91. doi: 10.2147/jhl.s70115

Teare, G. (2014). Measurement of Quality and Safety in Healthcare: The Past Decade and the Next. Healthcare Quarterly, 17(SP), 45-50. doi: 10.12927/hcq.2014.23950

McCargar’s Print Art work Review Custom Essay

Introduction

McCargar’s Print (Night) 1981 is a serigraph made by David Allan Thauberger . This 54 cm x 61.5 cm flocked serigraph signifies the pictures of rural Saskatchewan, catching the all-well-known prairie synthetic components. Thauberger artwork was affected by natures. The artwork is at present being displayed at the Dunlop Arts Exhibition, yet it belongs to the Saskatchewan Arts Board.

About David Allan Thauberger

David Allan Thauberger is a Canadian painter born in 1948 in Holdfast, Saskatchewan. David was inspired by his mentor David Gilhooly while at the University of Saskatchewan studying ceramics to venture into art rooted in personal life encounters and geographical areas.  David has received numerous accolades for his artwork for example, the Saskatchewan Order of Merit among other awards for his contributions in promoting and preserving the Canadian heritage and folk art in Saskatchewan province.

David is popular for his vernacular design paintings and cultural representations of Saskatchewan. Combined with his popular paintings that depict culture and depiction of tourist mecas pictures, his portrayal of Saskatchewan comprise art, culture and how we perceive the world, showing a hyper-genuine image of the setting that rises above regionalism while catching the core of being from Saskatchewan.

Description and Exploratory Question

The exploratory question is: What visual elements are portrayed in the image? The artwork depicts a grain elevator which upon a closer look various components of techniques are used in the artwork with crosses shading and painting. The directional lines are a principal element of the artwork as depicted in the geometric lines of the grain elevator. So to become a complementary to the idea of using straight lines, the background is painted with straight brush strokes that are evident to the eyes. There is a sense of unity depicted in the artwork with white color palette together with widely used straight shapes. David explored the concept of grain farming utilizing the symbolic image of a grain elevator that is associated with storage of grains. The grain elevator in the artwork signifies a storage object that helps in the unloading and storage of grain transported using the railroad. This implies that farmers in Saskatchewan deal in mass production of grain crops[1].

Formal and Conceptual Analysis

David’s artwork is an illustration of fork art representation, artistry that is fundamentally the same as the original subject itself. His nuance changes shading, value, and detail to give a genuine feeling of being available in the rural of Saskatchewan. Tones of white join the clear landscape and the sky summoning a sticky, murky climate that Saskatchewan is famous for. The overwhelming subject or figure of the artwork in the grain elevator in the center. In the background, lies white shading giving a sentiment of the spot encountering a winter season. These faraway objects are seen past an expanded amount of air, dampness, and snowmaking them seems a lot whiter and less particular than the closer view of the grain elevator. David’s artwork depicted rural Saskatchewan known for its grain elevators. The background of the artwork looks like its night as depicted by the shadow of the grain elevator. The manner in which the shadow is drawn indicates that it was nighttime.

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The hues utilized in this artwork are generally cool hues, white and black. The shading plan is comparable as the piece incorporates varieties in shading between tones contiguous each other on the shading wheel, for instance, white-black. McCargar makes a suggested delusion of motion in this artwork. The grain elevator implies an association with the transportation used in transporting grains which is loaded and offloaded from the grain elevator.

In artwork there is harmony among unity and diversity. The use of white color symbolizes unity and the diversity in farming activities symbolized by the grain elevator which stores various types of grain crops. If David somehow managed to subtract the use of white color the art piece would lessen in quality, the title would never again be suitable as the grain elevator characterize the scene of Saskatchewan[2].

Diversity is shown by the numerous differing items, for example, using the shadow to depict nighttime, and the grain elevator. The shadow of the grain elevator portrays the passion David had for nighttime in Saskatchewan which is characterized by intense sky hanging above the quite village. The grain elevator symbolizes the busy lifestyles of Saskatchewan inhabitants as grain farmers and how farming is done in large scale in Saskatchewan[3]. The grain elevator is used for amassing products offloaded from the railroad. The white color used in the artwork symbolizes a positive implication. It means safety, which suggests that rural Saskatchewan is a safe place to live in. the grain elevator is a renown Canadian life symbol where the first elevators were built in the 1880s along the Canadian Pacific railway lines which was crucial to agriculture and trade as a place for processing and storing grains before they were transported to the eastern markets[4].  Grain elevators also symbolize ton locations especially affluent communities which owned numerous grain elevators. The vertical interludes of the grain elevators for years were used for distinguishing the Prairies images[5].

Critical Evaluation and Conclusion

David’s artwork has value; it exemplifies the typical scene one would find in Saskatchewan. David’s artwork merits considering because it catches the extraordinary highlights of grain farming. In contrast to his counterparts, David’s can portray the infamous atmosphere; he imparts the crude embodiment of the daylight found in the zone. I esteem this skillfully made, unique piece since it triggers recollections in me. The artwork oozes the sentiment of being lost in a cold, outlandish winter location. David’s McCargar’s Print (Night) 1981 has value broadly. Initially sent to promote the travel industry in Saskatchewan, David made a perfect work of art which features nature in the entirety of her sparkling wonder. His work projects the ideal, rustic areas Saskatchewan is known for. David can be respected for revealing the standard excellence Saskatchewan brings to the table. David was acclaimed for his skill in enlivening beautiful spots, showing right around a getaway as one would look into his works and feel as if they were there.

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Bibliography

Barnet, Sylvan. A  Short Guide to Writing about Art.  Eighth Edition.  Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2008.

George Kubler, The Shape of Time: Remarks on the History of Things .New Haven: Yale University Press, 1962.

Jonathan Hale, The Old Way of seeing .New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1994.

Jonathan Hale. The Old Way of Seeing. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1994.

Mark Abley, Beyond Forget: Rediscovering the Prairies .Toronto: Douglas & McIntyre, 1986.

Barnet, Sylvan. A  Short Guide to Writing about Art.  Eighth Edition.  (Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall), p.30.

Jonathan Hale. The Old Way of Seeing (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1994), p. 71.

George Kubler. The Shape of Time: Remarks on the History of Things (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1962), p. 74.

Mark Abley, Beyond Forget: Rediscovering the Prairies (Toronto: Douglas & McIntyre, 1986), p. 197.

Jonathan Hale. The Old Way of Seeing (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1994), p. 71.

Mary Ellen Curtin “Black Prisoners and Their World” Book Review

This book is a result of Mary Ellen Curtin story which depicts how a few detainees kicked the bucket while others persevered through unspeakable conditions and endured. Curtin contends that dark detainees utilized their mining abilities to impact jail approach, request better treatment, and move toward becoming working class coal excavators upon their discharge. Black Detainees and Their Reality uncover new proof about existence under the most oppressive foundation in the New South. Curtin recommends aggravating parallels between the rent and the present expanding arrangement of secret detainment. In the late nineteenth century, detainees in Alabama, by far most of them African Americans, were compelled to function as coal excavators under the most horrid conditions possible. Black Detainees and Their Reality draws on an assortment of sources, including the reports and correspondence of jail monitors and letters from detainees and their families, to investigate the historical backdrop of the African American people whose work made Alabama’s jail framework the most beneficial in the country. To coal organizations and the territory of Alabama, dark detainees gave, separately, wellsprings of shoddy work and state income. By 1883, a critical level of the workforce in the Birmingham coal industry was comprised of convicts. Be that as it may, to the families and networks from which the detainees came, the convict rent was a living image of the dashed any desires for Recreation. Undoubtedly, the rent the framework under which the detainees toiled for the benefit of the organization and the state exhibited Alabama’s hesitance to relinquish subjugation and its assurance to seek after gainful penitentiaries regardless of what the human expense. Irrespective of the endeavors of jail authorities, progressive reformers, and worker’s parties, the state declined to remove detainees from the coal mines.

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The detainees were given something to do as coal diggers. In the mines, they were undermined by tuberculosis, poison gas, fire, damage, and strikes. Detainees either complied with the work temporary workers or they endured brutal whippings. Coal mine detainment facilities were entirely black, and the detainees were leg chains and jails outfits. Renting detainees to coal mines was gainful. As rivalry for the work of convict people expanded, provinces attempted fewer detainees for crimes, liking to hold them under neighborhood control. Political restriction to detainee rent came from numerous quarters. Southern black papers challenged. The black possessed Huntsville Paper condemned the rent framework as incredible. The Greenback Party energetically contradicted the utilization of detainees. The Freedmen’s Agency was the most vocal. Once liberated, the previous detainees isolated themselves into black just chapels, took an interest in legislative issues, and upheld instruction for their youngsters. Black detainees who endure frequently continued as free diggers.

What occurred among liberation and the finish of the nineteenth century is the subject of Mary Ellen Curtin’s investigation of black detainees in Alabama and the world they occupied. Making phenomenal utilization of the abundance of absolving records, governors’ papers, and jail authority records, she sorts out the formation of a jail culture which had been ninety-nine percent white preceding the Civil War. After liberation, the socioeconomics moved to an overwhelmingly African-American populace. How Alabama slaves moved from servitude to opportunity to jail and afterward to the semi subjection of the convict rent framework are one of her focal inquiries. Curtin found the underlying foundations of this move in Reproduction when Alabama’s Black Codes made new racially stratified classifications of wrongdoing (time limitation infringement and vagrancy) that could rapidly fill the detainment facilities with freedmen. Regardless of the endorsement of the War Alterations and the cancelation of the Black Codes, Curtin contends that “the law remained a heavy-handed contrivance of social control and racial repression”(Curtin 7). Along these lines, the destiny of black detainees in Alabama toward the century’s end was molded by the disappointment of Recreation. Convict rent would turn into a miserable apparatus in the New South; however, its foundations were planted solidly in post-liberation political discussions.

After white Democrats came back to the statehouse in 1874, Alabama’s detainment facilities loaded up with African Americans accused of wrongdoings that had not recently been lawful offenses; jails wound up benefit making organizations, as well as wellsprings of shoddy work for the expanding enterprises of the New South. Curtin works superbly depicting how African-American detainees functioned and made due in the scandalous jail mines of Alabama, by a long shot the most beneficial jail mines in the locale (Curtin 98). For what reason did Alabama’s jail excavators deliver more than their partners in Georgia and Tennessee, where intimidation never turned a benefit? Curtin answers this inquiry and makes it the core of her contention. Rather than getting to be unfortunate casualties, she contends, Alabama’s black detainees “took pride in acing their work”(Curtin 98). They demanded that those for whom they worked and treat them as profitable individuals, protesting, testing mine supervisors, and griping about working conditions. Her portrayal of their day by day lives, their sufferings and their demonstrations of insubordination, is one of the most grounded parts of the book. Especially significant is her section on black female detainees, a gathering about who next to no has been composed. Her proof demonstrates that detained ladies endured physical and sexual maltreatment because of white gatekeepers. However they additionally challenged white specialist by declining to wear jail attire, sassing protects and participating in consensual sexual contact with male detainees.

Curtin contends that convict workers who drudged in mines progressed toward becoming, after some time, the black average workers in Alabama. There is extensive proof to help this contention, significantly more than there is for a considerable lot of her allegations about black organization notwithstanding white persecution. Curtin recounts the account of Sydney Holman, a convict compelled to work in the mines. After a few unsuccessful petitions for mercy and “brief time,” his last demonstration was to leave an entryway open in the mine, exploding him alongside a few others. Curtin sees his suicide as a previous demonstration of insubordination, picking a rough demise at the season based on his personal preference to proceeded with the administration to a low framework. In any case, is this suicide a demonstration of organization and disobedience, or one of distress, of a man who sees no desire for discharge from the dividers of the mine that detains him? The refinement is an imperative one.

In disclosing to Sydney Holman’s story, Curtin endeavors to compel her proof into a hypothetical model of black organization, a model that is not upheld by her very own sources (Curtin 139). To decrease the lives of these people to a model that sees the organization in all things is to miss an unquestionably increasingly complex account – which the narrative of black detainees in Alabama is both about office and abuse; there was both resistance and quiet submission to white expert. Acknowledgment of this duality would not take away from the story Curtin tells; preferably, it would have illustrated the lives of black detainees in the New South and offered intricacy to their voices.

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This analysis aside, Curtin’s examination makes a critical commitment not exclusively to African-American and Southern history, yet it additionally includes the developing writing class arrangement and works in the New South. Curtin’s Black Detainees and Their World reproduce an out of line arrangement of wrongdoing and discipline in which race and class to a great extent decided how equity was distributed. They paint a calming picture, and one that advises us that contemporary American culture, in which detainment facilities are a benefit making development industry and new classifications of constitutional offense violations for peaceful direct fill cells, still propagates racial and class-based imbalance, rather than equity for all. Mary Ellen Curtin joins a developing number of researchers who, in the course of the last 25 years, have looked to comprehend the place of convict work in the postbellum South. Curtin’s concentrated examination of convict work in Alabama covers a portion of a similar turf. She contends that convict work as a framework developed haltingly and that the two gatherings bore duty regarding it.

Work Cited

Mary Ellen Curtin. Black Prisoners and Their World, Alabama, 1865-1900. Charlottesville; London: University Press of Virginia, 2000.

Organization Behavior Custom Paper

Introduction

Various theories d concepts exist explaining job attitudes. Job satisfaction is among the prevalent aspects, and it concerns how a job offers fulfillment to a worker and how good it serves as an enjoyment means. Individual workers may feel negative concerning different components of their job that can result in job dissatisfaction. Job satisfaction can be categorized as global or facets. Universal implies the general feeling of a worker concerning a job, and facet is the worker’s feeling about a specific job aspect, for example, career opportunities, compensations, and the job itself. The most noticeable impact on job satisfaction is the work itself.

a.Executive Summary

Julie Mok worked in ASACURA for two months as her first job since graduating from university. Julie’s role was becoming part of the global HR team that works on diverse projects with various responsibility. Julie’s first assigned role was recruiting undergraduate management learners. She got introduced to the project team who were experienced recruiters. The recruiting event would be done in several weeks and should attract third-year learners for future full-time events and likewise, internship opportunities. For fifteen years this event has been running at ASACURA. However, there was a drop over the last three years on recruits using this event and transformed into the graduate program from seventy-five percent to fifty-five percent.

Julies has challenges fitting in her role. Her team members treat her with polite indifference after the first weeks in the team, making it challenging to work with her team members. Introducing new ideas for Julie was challenging as the group appeared to have a set method for the events management. Only three of the five local universities were targeted for the promotional campaign because eighty percent of the graduates in the past come from these universities perceived as the best.  Julie’s university wasn’t among the three though her university had a professional actuarial stream and actualized a global focus. These factors mad Julie lost her initial enthusiasm for the project and was under various pressures.  She held with the job with high regard since it was her first job, and she was briefed that the project team was competent, and she would have various opportunities of contributing creative and inventive ideas.

After conversing with Joshua, a new ASACURA recruits in accounting, it made her reflect on her challenges and felt much better afterward by thinking about her work positive aspects. For example, after completion of the three-month project, she will be included in the global project team. She will work together with Melbourne, China, Singapore, and France team members. Julie’s role will entail supervising the tool on cultural adaptiveness for user nations that are engaged in using this tool. Julie feels that it’s possible to overcome the current project team challenges. Nevertheless, she realizes that she needs to embrace some strategies for coping with her current situation for her wellbeing.

 

 

  1. Case Analysis

Motivation  

Motivation is the related concept since Julie lack motivation and is dissatisfied with her job. Motivational Theory is the best applicable Theory in this case.  ASACURA hierarchy is best suited to Maslow’ hierarchy of needs. After a few weeks working on the team, Julie got demotivated as working with her team members became challenging[1]. Introducing or suggesting new ideas was difficult as the team had a rigid method of managing the recruitment event.  While working on the project presentation of compiling current data on timelines as last year contacts on the slide deck. Julie wanted a dynamic presentation with videos and music and inviting an audience interaction using their smartphones. Tonia, one of the team members, opposed her ideas because the GM who will speak at the event was familiar with the present format and expecting him to embrace a new form within short notice was unprofessional. Julie persisted with proposing new ideas. Harry Main, Julie’s colleague, told Julie that for eight years, the team members have been working together, a cohesive consensus was critical. Harry suggested that the team had the experience and experts in events management, and so they wanted Julie only to listen carefully. Since then, Julie lost her first excitement working on the project[2].

A good team supervisor should realize the following team aspects:

Self- Awareness: comprehending the moods and emotions of team members.

Self- Regulation: contemplating your actions and regulating negative ones.

Motivation:  working hard in attaining the worker’s objective alongside their individual goals. Empathy: comprehending others emotions.

Social skills: creating a good relationship with other team members.

The head HR, who was the team’s disciplinarian, failed to concentrate on the above traits as a leader in driving the company forward to a better future. As per Herzberg’s Two Factors Theory, crucial hygiene elements incorporate supervision quality, status, compensation, working conditions, and relationships with colleagues. None among these elements did the head of HR, who is the team’s disciplinary supervision, take care of except supervision quality. This prompted dissatisfaction on Julie’s side. The team members embraced the Theory X perspective to which they never perceived Julie’s ideas as effective in building the team’s cohesion consensus.

A company’s driving engine is motivated workers, and ASACURA organized workers into teams to actualize their operations. This makes a worker feel valuable; however, the teams should be dynamic in adopting proposed new ideas for activities. This strategy nurtures a friendly and inventive culture which will make ASACURA rely on its employees to uphold its brand reputation worldwide. Also, working in teams establishes trust among team members as an element of culture which is crucial in developing relationships in ASACURA. The recruitment event project team members trusted one another, and that is why they worked in cohesion for eight years. However, since Julie was new in the team, the team members were building a connection with her to develop trust with her, and that is the reason Julie perceived that her contributions were not being valued. Open and free correspondence is a perspective of a method of sustaining a culture and ASACURA should provide various communication channels, for example, holding weekly departmental meetings or monthly team briefing sessions where workers can discuss challenges they are experiencing or voice their concerns. Also, ASACURA should conduct periodic surveys to monitor the proposals and complaints of employees.

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Job satisfaction theory is another hypothesis applicable in this case. Job motivation can be characterized as the mental drive that portrays an employee’s Behavioral direction in the company, which is determined by three components; persistence level, behavior direction, and effort level[3]. The employees’ Behavioral direction is determined by the extent a worker decides to perform an assigned role. Motivation is a crucial element that improves an employee’s persistence level in the company[4]. A company needs employees who are highly motivated in a highly competitive global marketplace, and motivated workers to become more productive and contribute to the organization’s effectiveness[5]. These are some of the motives why effectual managers are anticipated to recognize what motivates their workers in different task context.

There are various reasons why Julie is experiencing job dissatisfaction. Following  Harry’s suggestion of preferring Julie to listen carefully rather than suggest new ideas, this prompts Julie to feel that her contributions are not valued in the team in which self-actualization cannot be attained. An individual’s growth towards fulfilling the highest need is termed self-actualization.  It happens when persons can maximize their capabilities. After Julie’s suggestions were turned down, she discusses with Joshua how frustrated she feels that her efforts are not recognized. Julie’s reasons for feeling this way is because she did everything possible to prove her skills. As per Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Hypothesis, Maslow suggested that different drive motivate humans simultaneously, the motivation most significant source is becoming the lowest unsatisfied[6]. In Julie’s case, her most active motivation drive at the time is self-actualization, which is a self-fulfilment want[7]. Nevertheless, she feels she is stuck in the team’s rigid approach of managing events and feels less motivated to uphold high effort and productivity. Suppressing new ideas can cultivate job dissatisfaction.

Various proofs from the case illustrates that Julie depicts elevated levels of conscientiousness as per the personality Five-factor model. She is a highly orderly, steadfast, goal-oriented, and ambitious individual. Her ambition is portrayed through her desire to implement new ideas of managing the events. In the conversation with Joshua, she mentions Harry’s authority over the team and how Harry talked to her as though he was her boss or project leader. Julie aims at growing her career because this is her first job[8]. This is her career objective and is built and elevated by her self-concept using the self-evaluation process. Hence Julie crafts this high achievement need as per the learning needs hypothesis as she desires to attain her rationally challenging objective using her efforts. When her high achievement need is turned down by the team members, this makes Julie become dissatisfied working in the recruitment project[9].

The team members have not given Julie any constructive feedback that outlines her weakness except Harry telling her to become a listener[10]. This poor management makes Julie pursue the self-enchantment process as she continues perceiving herself as a professional worker and competent[11]. However, Harry’s control of the team denies her self-verification as Harry’s decision doesn’t prove her self-concept of a responsible team member[12].  This prompts a sense of irritation and a sense of company injustice as Julie feels the inequality pressure for neo being valued since the team members feel that they are professionals and do not accept any new suggestions making Julie encounter job dissatisfaction working on the recruitment project.

Decision Making

In any successful organization, decision-making is crucial, but it depends on how effective a decent decision can be made. One element of the response is pertinent data and information clarification. Seeking expert advice could likewise become beneficial and help in outlining any errors. There are different logical aids and methods for decision-making. In a version-led process, this decision method depends specifically on an individual with the vision, and if for instance, this individual leaves the company, that decision becomes abandoned. A plan-led technique is mostly overly dependent on the perspective of the planner typically one strategically minded professional that might overlook some critical elements and the stakeholders affected by the decision are included. The consensus-led technique is pegged on an agreement except if the accord between the agreed parties can be reached in a short period; it takes time to make a decision using this method[13]. Most organizations embrace a mixed technique where decision concerning problems, vision, and goals are pegged on consultations, whereas experience method is utilized in designing and strategies review. Therefore, the best approach is pegged on the situational circumstances. From the case, the decisions of the team were mostly made after consultations among team members. For eight years the team has been working together, their choices are often unanimous[14]. The team members are the ultimate decision-makers in the recruitment event as the company also expects them to implement and oversee the recruitment event operation. The team members are anticipated to regard every sole realistic information and likely situations before continuing with decision making.

The team members’ primary role on decisions is exercising their independent judgment and acting as per what they rationally trust that is best for the company’s interest.  For example, the team never liked settling on decisions at short notice because they perceive this as unprofessional and disorderly[15]. That is the reason Paul dismissed Julie’s suggestion of incorporating her university among the top three selected for the recruitment event. The team members chose the top three because they perceive them to be the best, and in the past, they have been recruiting from those universities. They believed that these universities aligned well with traditional values of ASACURA. However, it seems Harry have authoritative control over the teams based on his conversation with Julie[16]. Harry has a reputation in the company of involving himself in every decision and is bold in speaking at any meeting. The decisions made in the team were biased and implicit favourite as Harry preferred the same old methods and perceived Julie as inexperienced. Julie made her decision to lose interest in the project pegged on emotions.

Power

Power is crucial in developing a company aware of the culture, values, ethics, and creativity. Control is the importance of power.  Power is characterized as the capability of controlling other people behaviors[17]. The force utilizes in getting things done is defined as power. Power concentrates on the methods used for obtaining compliance and power influence is synonymous[18]. One becomes influential with ability. Power is a procedure by which an individual actuates a change in another’s conduct or demeanors. Power is considered as the premise of all sorted out the activity. As a social structure of human interrelationships, the association controls the operation of people; and authority over others in power. Control in the association lays on power.

Julie holds both Expert Power as she has raised in the organization ranks and will be integrated into a global project team tasked with re-developing an online training platform.  She likewise holds “Referent” power, which derives by the respect accorded to her by her colleagues and their desire to emulate her. Her new role will be influential in supervising the cultural adaptiveness tool in user nations that engage in using the device. This position will give her reverent power as her ole will impact workers who will not be aware how the integration of company culture will affect them[19].  Julie leads by example as she tried empowering the recruitment event team members with creative, innovative ideas of managing the event differently.

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The head of HR, who is the team disciplinary supervisor, holds formal authority. This is the elemental power vested in a manager’s position and legitimate power.  The HR Head has subordinates who must follow his directives within the legal and organizational guidelines. Power can be exerted in various ways in motivating persons more effectively. Apart from managing persons, the HR Head oversees teams’ projects and controls the disciplinary actions of these teams. Apart from this control is the capability of resource allocation to projects for teams to operate effectively[20].

The HR Head power is legitimate by default because of his position in the company. He is separate from staff because of the more essential rights a role that he has.  Hence, this additional right a lawful power vested on him and separates him from his juniors.  From the case, employees fear being reported to HR Head, who depends on legitimate power pegged on the position in the company hierarchy that he holds.

Harry holds coercive power, and his influence is as a result of working for ASACURA for many years, which made him build a network of connections in the company. He uses his influence to intimidate other colleagues, for example, when threatened Enrique that he would report him to the HR Head because of leaving work early to handle urgent family problems. Harry interacts with influential persons in the cafeteria.

Influence

According to influence hypothesis, the convictions, outlooks, and ensuing actions or conduct of an individual is impacted by referent others using three procedure of compliance, recognition an internalization.  Julie complied adopted induced conduct to avoid conflicts in the team because the team, for many years, had taken a rigid method of managing the events.  Harry is an influential person in ASACURA because of his many years working for the company that made him build network connections of prominent persons. This gave Harry an upper hand in manipulating his colleagues to dance to his tune and respect him. Julie was undergoing an identification process where she embraced induced conduct to get along with Harry and other team members[21]. It seems Joshua did also adopt the same method as evident with his conversation with Julie, whereby he admitted that he understands what Julie is going through. He learned how to respond to the situation by building his reputations in his method. Harry adopted Internalization after realizing that he has an influence, which is evident in his behavior towards Enrique. Harry threatened to report Enrique to the HR Head for occasionally leaving the office early.

 

Conflict

From the case, it appears ASACURA has an orderly arrangement that cultivates workers participation in its facet, but for decision-making, it is perceived to be a moderately insufficient resolution -doing exercise. The decision-making of the company is decentralized. The employees are left to make decisions regarding the projects they are working on. This is evident from the case as the team members managing the event worked together for eight years because there was cohesive consensus in the team. According to task conflict theory, tem members felt as though Julie was not consulting with the team before proposing ideas, yet the team had experienced and professionals in events management. They perceive Julie as not fully integrated into the team because her suggestion was not supported extensively by team members. Harry advised Julie only to listen carefully to avoid conflict[22].

The decision-making practices in the company can be improved by often switching project leaders handling related tasks which will empower them to become creative when it comes to making decisions. The organization should adopt an open-door approach by encouraging employees to propose to their managers’ ideas of how to solve suggested problems and likewise giving suggestions on likely issues that can occur. This presents the team members with capabilities of widening their possibilities on resolutions and tackling little issues before becoming bigger[23].

Recommendations

ASACURA should enhance its decision-making practices by switching project managers handling various tasks. Feedback is a crucial information tool employee’s get concerning their performance. Good feedback explains role perception, enhances the insights and skills of employees, and in particular, pertinent, timely, reliable, and adequately constant. The first step is providing productive, constructive feedback to Julie that is particular and pertinent recognizing her forte and short-comings in that she has excellent abilities and competent in contributing creative ideas but lacks team management skills as her team members have lamented on her mediocre team cohesion skills. This feedback should be timely, implying that its delivery should be done as Julie’s suggestions were dismissed so that Julie can acknowledge a clear connection between her actions and the ensuing results. Harry can likewise collect the option so the team members on his own and politely present them to Julie so that Julie comprehends that it is reliable and will probably accept the feedback.  It’s crucial to have follow-up meetings as productive feedback should be conveyed continuously in ensuring that Julie is making improvements and comprehending that the organization values her by continually checking on her performance and enhancements. This critical a productive feedback effect can hugely impact the company citizenship conduct and job satisfaction, which can make Julie continue working for longer for ASACURA.

As per the characteristic job paradigm, effectiveness of work, work motivation, and overall satisfaction can be improved by enhancing Julie’s fundamental job traits. This comprises increasing her abilities diversity through job enlargement by giving more work to Julie, which is the case with the new role she will adopt of supervising cultural adaptiveness in the organization.  Task identity and task importance of this new role can be increased by job enrichment by giving more challenging work to Julie, such as coordination, scheduling planning. Enhancing job autonomy by allowing Julie to acknowledge the reasons the assigned roles are valuable and then permitting her to choose how she will deliver on her role giving her a feeling of choice which is crucial in enhancing the experience accountability.  When Julie becomes satisfied with her new role, she will be excited in that new role; she will take up ad work for long for ASACURA.

  1. Conclusion

            It’s vital to have job satisfaction in the workplace because it adds to work competence, output, and products quality. Employees motivations are likewise impacted by job satisfaction as it also has advantages, for example, lower worker turnover rates, enhanced organization output, decrease hiring costs, and increase revenues. Hence, companies should often strive to assess for improving the motivation and workers job satisfaction using techniques, for example, job enrichment, supporting personal development, and attractive compensat.

Part 2

Tuckman’s model is renowned as a premise for effective team building. The Tuckman phases are pegged on studies he did on team dynamics. He trusted that these phases are inevitable for a team to develop to a stage where they operate effectively together and high quality outcomes are delivered[24]. My group went through the phases outlined by Tuckman as follows;

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Forming: our business teacher gave us an assignment to work in groups of five members a then do a presentation afterwards. My group comprised of Melissa, Aurelia, Vincent, Josef, and Jessica. We discussed what the assignment entailed and each team member was assigned a role. I was appointed as the team leader (Melissa).

Storming: the team agreed to be meeting at the café to discuss the assignment. However every time we met, we engaged in discussing topics that are unrelated to the assignment and some of the members would get distracted by their phones because they were often on social media or texting. As a team leader it was crucial for me to learn each team member’s personality so that I can steer the team for listen to each other and regard their opinions and differences.  Josef was a practical. Innovative and reserved person. He presented his ideas in a logical perspective by creative a cause and impact rationale. He led the group in brainstorming practical solutions to issues which made us think rationally and critically when doing the presentation. Sometimes Josef get distracted with his phone because it was always ringing. Vincent made us bond easily since he was skilled at comprehending the opinions of other team members. However, Vincent would easily lose his temper if a member did not quickly grasp the discussion ideas. Aurel was a people-person a concentrated on concepts and opinions that rallied the team in making decisions based on rationality and intention[25]. She planned our meetings but sometimes she would come late for meetings and sometimes she lacked self-motivation. Melissa (me) was a committed and strong-willed member who coordinated the activities of the team and ensure that each member I their assigned roles[26]. I was too judgmental and never listened to other members opinions.

This analysis of my group members helped me as a team leader in understanding the way each member is wired. Appreciating each member’s personality helped me avoiding team conflicts and I became more tolerant of their different personalities[27]. I am an orderly person so I drafted rules that would govern the operation of the group so that we work towards delivering a powerful presentation.

Norming: we agreed on team rules and the first rule was keeping out phones away anytime we met for discussions. Second, no member was to interrupt the other member as they are explaining his or her point. We agree to improve our communication as a team and in formed a WhatsApp group where each team member would update how he or she was progressing with the assignment[28]. Each member signed a consent form which was handed over to the professor. This made the team begin trusting each other and regard each other views and appreciate their diversity in personality. Instead of competing against each other, we began helping each other to work in achieving a common objective.

Performing:  we were making decisions as a group which lessened the conflict in the group. Each member gave a daily update concerning how they progressed with their research. We were consulting each other and posting daily inspirational quotes in our WhatsApp group to motivate members[29]. We changed our meeting from Wednesdays to Saturday because most members were available during weekends, hence reducing cases of lateness and absenteeism.

Adjourning: after doing our presentation, we adjourned the group because the purpose of the group was working on a presentation that was to be presented in three weeks. Though we adjourned the group, some members still kept in touch with one another.

What is will do differently in the next group project is become more tolerant and sensitive to sentiments and other individuals opinions which will help me in creating a strong bond with my group members an make them comfortable to voice their views.

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Part 3

Everyone has their remarkable characters that characterize them. Various therapists have created hypothesis in clarifying why individuals have certain identity characteristics that characterize them. A case of an assessment instrument utilized in deciding identity is the Myers-Briggs Type Pointer (MBTI) which is unequivocally implied for assessing identity types[30]. I utilized the MBTI appraisal, and the outcomes demonstrated that I am INTJ (architect). As INTJ working in a group was trying for me since I incline toward working alone and my work standards are exceptionally high in terms of work delivery. I found how dominant my persona is when I was participating in our group discussion on ASACURA case study as part of our unit evaluation.

Was chosen as the team leader by the members since they notice my high self-confidence which was evident in my honest and direct correspondence style. My strengths were that I liked researching because I learnt new things a knowledge grew and I develop a profound comprehension of analysing things from diverse perspectives.  I utilized my creativity in assigning team members roles pegged on their personalities which I became familiar with amid out group interactions.  I am a resilient and determined individual so I would contact each member to inquire about their progress with the case study I understood that correspondence was a critical device for the effective team functioning[31]. Being liberal helped me in managing colleagues who were outgoing people since it made me leave my usual range of familiarity of having a free disposition and getting to be responsive to other individuals’ thoughts[32]. Working in this group caused me to understand that I am an introvert because amid arguments I was laid back and favored coherent and judicious dialogs. In any case, I discovered that interacting more with the members was curial in creating a bond and will outcome in delivering a powerful presentation.

 

My team members were impacted with my shortcoming because some members perceive my self-confidence as pride because I never like engaging in intellectually inferior conversations.  Some members viewed this as being judgmental and shutting off others sentiments which may be helpful[33]. Nonetheless, through discussions in the team, I learned to be accommodative of other individuals’ perspectives and concerns which create a strong bon between me and the members as they became comfortable to voice their views[34]. My shortcoming was maintaining a regular communication with members by posting updates on meetings. Reports on gathering and what every part has done as such far. I was excessively analytical an opted to seek more explanations from a respective member regarding his or her to avert misunderstandings and suppositions that could trigger team conflicts.  I found that being an introvert is certifiably not a terrible attribute at all since I simply needed to comprehend the identity characteristics of other individuals and figure out how to bond with them. Utilizing the MBTI helped me in recognizing my strengths and shortcomings s and taking a shot at them to enable me to improve my identity notwithstanding when managing individuals in my future vocation as a software engineer.

 

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Laforet, Sylvie. “Effects of organisational culture on organisational innovation performance in family firms.” Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development 23, no. 2 (2016): 379-407.

Li, Ning, Brad Harris, and Helen Hailin Zhao. “Clarifying Member Personality Influences on Team Effectiveness: Toward a Social Network Approach.” In Academy of Management Proceedings, vol. 2017, no. 1, p. 11863. Briarcliff Manor, NY 10510: Academy of Management, 2017.

Majumdar, Bishakha. “Organisational Behaviour.” Abhigyan 36, no. 2 (2018): 74-76.

McShane, S, Olekalns, M, Newman, A & Travaglione, T. Organisational Behaviour, Gurdish Gill, China, 2016.

Natvig, Deborah, and Nancy L. Stark. “A project team analysis using Tuckman’s model of small-group development.” Journal of Nursing Education 55, no. 12 (2016): 675-681.

Pittenger, D. J. Cautionary comments regarding the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 57(3), (2005): 210-221. doi:10.1037/1065-9293.57.3.210

Pradhan, Rabindra Kumar, Itishree Gita Kumari, and Updesh Kumar. “Human resource flexibility and organisational effectiveness: mediating role of organisational citizenship behaviour.” International Journal of Human Resources Development and Management 17, no. 3-4 (2017): 282-300.

Raes, Elisabeth, Eva Kyndt, Stefan Decuyper, Piet Van den Bossche, and Filip Dochy. “An exploratory study of group development and team learning.” Human Resource Development Quarterly 26, no. 1 (2015): 5-30.

Ruck, Kevin, Mary Welch, and Barbara Menara. “Employee voice: an antecedent to organisational engagement?” Public Relations Review 43, no. 5 (2017): 904-914.

Saifullah, Nasir, Muhammad Alam, Muhammad Wasif Zafar, and Asad Afzal Humayon. “Job Satisfaction: A Contest between Human and Organisational Behaviour.” International Journal of Economic Research 6, no. 1 (2015): 46-56.

Salas, Eduardo, Marissa L. Shuffler, Amanda L. Thayer, Wendy L. Bedwell, and Elizabeth H. Lazzara. “Understanding and improving teamwork in organizations: A scientifically based practical guide.” Human Resource Management 54, no. 4 (2015): 599-622.

Soetanto, Danny, and Matthew MacDonald. “Group work and the change of obstacles over time: The influence of learning style and group composition.” Active Learning in Higher Education 18, no. 2 (2017): 99-113.

Whittingham, Martyn. “Interpersonal theory and group therapy: Validating the social microcosm.” International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 68, no. 1 (2018): 93-98.

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[3] Saifullah, Nasir, Muhammad Alam, Muhammad Wasif Zafar, and Asad Afzal Humayon. “Job Satisfaction: A Contest between Human and Organisational Behaviour.” International Journal of Economic Research 6, no. 1 (2015): 46-56.

[4] Majumdar, Bishakha. “Organisational Behaviour.” Abhigyan 36, no. 2 (2018): 74-76.

[5] Harter, J., Schmidt, F., and Hayes, T. “Business-unit-level relationship between employee satisfaction, employee engagement, and business outcomes: a meta-analysis,” Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 87 No. 2, (2002):pp. 268-279.

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[8] Judge, T., Thoresen, C., Bono, J., and Patton, G. The job relationship: a qualitative and quantitative review, 3, (2001):pp. 376-407.

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[10] Chumg, Hao-Fan, Jonathan Seaton, Louise Cooke, and Wen-Yu Ding. “Factors affecting employees’ knowledge-sharing behaviour in the virtual organisation from the perspectives of well-being and Organisational behaviour.” Computers in Human Behavior 64 (2016): 432-448.

[11] Katou, Anastasia A. “Transformational leadership and organisational performance: Three serially mediating mechanisms.” Employee Relations 37, no. 3 (2015): 329-353.

[12] Raes, Elisabeth, Eva Kyndt, Stefan Decuyper, Piet Van den Bossche, and Filip Dochy. “An exploratory study of group development and team learning.” Human Resource Development Quarterly 26, no. 1 (2015): 5-30.

[13] Glinkowska, Beata, and Bogusław Kaczmarek. “Classical and modern concepts of corporate governance (Stewardship Theory and Agency Theory).” Management 19, no. 2 (2015): 84-92.

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[15] Salas, Eduardo, Marissa L. Shuffler, Amanda L. Thayer, Wendy L. Bedwell, and Elizabeth H. Lazzara. “Understanding and improving teamwork in organizations: A scientifically based practical guide.” Human Resource Management 54, no. 4 (2015): 599-622.

[16] Pradhan, Rabindra Kumar, Itishree Gita Kumari, and Updesh Kumar. “Human resource flexibility and organisational effectiveness: mediating role of organisational citizenship behaviour.” International Journal of Human Resources Development and Management 17, no. 3-4 (2017): 282-300.

[17] Laforet, Sylvie. “Effects of organisational culture on organisational innovation performance in family firms.” Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development 23, no. 2 (2016): 379-407.

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[18] Colquitt, J.A., Lepine, J.A., and Wesson, M.J. Organizational behavior: Improving performance and commitment in the workplace (4th Ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Irwin, 2015.

[19] Holland, John. “A behavioural theory of the fund management firm.” The European Journal of Finance 22, no. 11 (2016): 1004-1039.

 

[20] Avota, Silvija, Elspeth McFadzean, and Liga Peiseniece. “LINKING PERSONAL AND ORGANISATIONAL VALUES AND BEHAVIOUR TO CORPORATE SUSTAINABILITY: A CONCEPTUAL MODEL.” Journal of Business Management 10 (2015)

[21] Clay-Williams, Robyn, and Jeffrey Braithwaite. “Reframing implementation as an organisational behaviour problem: Inside a teamwork improvement intervention.” Journal of health organization and management 29, no. 6 (2015): 670-683.

[22] Daniel King, S. L. Organizational Behaviour. Chicago: OUP, Oxford, 2013.

[23] Whittingham, Martyn. “Interpersonal theory and group therapy: Validating the social microcosm.” International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 68, no. 1 (2018): 93-98.

 

[24] McShane, S, Olekalns, M, Newman, A & Travaglione, T. Organisational Behaviour, Gurdish Gill, China, 2016.

[25] Dyer Jr, W. Gibb. “Team building.” Wiley Encyclopedia of Management (2015): 1-2.

[26] Li, Ning, Brad Harris, and Helen Hailin Zhao. “Clarifying Member Personality Influences on Team Effectiveness: Toward a Social Network Approach.” In Academy of Management Proceedings, vol. 2017, no. 1, p. 11863. Briarcliff Manor, NY 10510: Academy of Management, 2017.

[27] Hansen, David E. “Cohesion in online student teams versus traditional teams.” Journal of Marketing Education 38, no. 1 (2016): 37-46.

[28] Soetanto, Danny, and Matthew MacDonald. “Group work and the change of obstacles over time: The influence of learning style and group composition.” Active Learning in Higher Education 18, no. 2 (2017): 99-113.

[29] Natvig, Deborah, and Nancy L. Stark. “A project team analysis using Tuckman’s model of small-group development.” Journal of Nursing Education 55, no. 12 (2016): 675-681.

To get assistance on this or any other related assignment, Click here for professional help.. 

 

[30] Pittenger, D. J. Cautionary comments regarding the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 57(3), (2005): 210-221. doi:10.1037/1065-9293.57.3.210

[31] McShane, S, Olekalns, M, Newman, A & Travaglione, T. Organisational Behaviour, Gurdish Gill, China, 2016.

[32] Driskell, James E., Eduardo Salas, and Tripp Driskell. “Foundations of teamwork and collaboration.” American Psychologist 73, no. 4 (2018): 334.

[33] Benoliel, Pascale, and Anit Somech. “The role of leader boundary activities in enhancing interdisciplinary team effectiveness.” Small Group Research 46, no. 1 (2015): 83-124.

[34] Bester, Janie, Marius W. Stander, and Llewellyn E. Van Zyl. “Leadership empowering behaviour, psychological empowerment, organisational citizenship behaviours and turnover intention in a manufacturing division.” SA Journal of Industrial Psychology 41, no. 1 (2015): 1-14.

 

Parade to War, Allegory Custom Essay

The artwork Parade to war, Allegory is a painting created by John Steurart Curry in 1938.  His views about war are portrayed vividly in this painting. The Cummer museum describes the painting as such “Parade to War, Allegory was painted as the Great Depression ended and WW II began (1939-1945). Curry transforms the pomp of a procession into a scene of warning and fear, most clearly unveiled in the skeletal essences of the youthful warriors. The frenzy and distress of the two ladies in the forefront appear differently concerning the confident guiltlessness of the focal striding couple and the young men gathering streamers. Run of the mill of Curry’s work, this artistic creation speaks to the independent dispositions and developing frustration communicated by an expanding number of Americans in the late 1930s”[1] Curry’s portrayal of “parade” shows his stance upon war. The soldiers have skeletal faces and white flags hanging from their guns. This parade portrays a bleak future.

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This painting denotes the developing inclination by the 1930s that American support in WWI had been a slip-up. In the work of art formally dressed men walk off to war, gradually transforming into corpses before the cheery groups. The young man running nearby them neglects to see this change and instead stays entranced by the display and war excitement. Just the two moms in the scene (one to one side sobbing discreetly and the other on the right whom a policeman prevents from meddling with the march) comprehend the genuine distress that war conveys to families and the country.

This sullen painting portrays a procession of troopers walking through a clamoring road, with regular citizens seeing the warriors off while the fighter’s countenances are delineated as being skeletal, making a feeling of fear and warning for the demise to come. Painted just before World War II, John Steuart Curry’s motivation for painting the scene is self-evident: War is miserable, the loss of life will be crazy, and the procession is only a show in vain. The dull hues and practical figures, skeletal countenances notwithstanding, hit the nerve of the actual state of mind that one could envision is available just before such a disaster occurs. Curry’s artistic creation is stunning in that regardless of how constructive of a viewpoint an individual has, March to War, Purposeful anecdote is a psychological punch in the gut with the feeling of agnosticism. It is the horrible encapsulation of how individuals feel before a friend or family member heads out to war, and basically, it is calming. It was a treat to see such appalling authenticity pressed in delightful and marvelous work.

Oil on canvas was the medium used for this 47 13/16 x 63 13/16 dimension painting. Conceived on November 14, 1897, in Dunavant, Kansas to Smith and Margaret Curry, John was acquainted with the artistry at a youthful age. His folks both felt firm that one ought to have solid gratefulness for craftsmanship, ingraining that confidence in their child.  Curry enrolled at Art Institute in Kansas City and Chicago Art Institute. Curry began his career as an illustrator and started painting in the 1920s.  His works mostly concentrated on Kansas history and his hometown.  Curry was an American craftsman known for his contribution with Regionalist development[2]. Utilizing an illustrative realism, Curry depicted the Great Depression occasions just as records of American history, as found in his acclaimed paintings.  In the wake of coming back to America, the craftsman went with the Ringling Sibling Bazaar, tutoring in New York, and turned into a craftsman in Wisconsin University residence. He was a functioning member in Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s WPA program and created notices empowering the war exertion in the late 1930s. Curry passed on August 29, 1946, in Madison, WI. Today, the craftsman’s works are held in the accumulations of the Metropolitan Exhibition hall of Workmanship in New York, the Smithsonian American Workmanship Gallery in Washington, D.C., and the Workmanship Establishment of Chicago, among others. As the Great Depression ended and World War II began that’s when Parade to War, Allegory was completed.  Both the war and the Great Depression destruction tie into the painting meaning and the sad, melancholy truth of this timespan. In this painting, warriors with skulls instead of their heads are appeared off to war.

The painting hues have very top to bottom implications. The shading white that is shown on the kid’s shirts and the lady’s outfit signifies blameless people and unadulterated expectation. The inky dark shading speaks to the misery and misfortune drawing closer. The trace of red on the young men baseball top gives vitality and to provide the feeling that this minute caught is a bright minute. The main kid running with red white and blue streamers emits high spirits; however, the skeleton appearances of the troopers demonstrate that demise is standing by. There is a darker closer view, a nonpartisan conditioned center, and out of sight there is fluffed light radiating through the sky. The overwhelming shapes in the work of art are vertical, straight, and geometric. The design was to make an American, regionalism, class painting to delineate a political articulation of war. This political artistry had no supporter planned. The estimated size of this work of art is around four by 5 feet. The oil on the work of art is tight and direct stroked. It’s smooth and in specific regions, for example, the lady’s dress in the extreme right it was a somewhat thick impasto. There is dramatic lighting in the upper right of the image in the sky, and the timeframe relates to the artwork since he painted this amid the Great Depression and WW II eve. The canvas utilizes air point of view and has a suggested surface. Everything in the image is proportioned practically and is on an appropriate scale to one another. Curry was enlivened by a scholarly work called “All Calm on the Western Front” however mostly encountered the impacts of war personally.

This painting in like manner utilizes a sharp juxtaposition of dissonant subtleties to uplift an enthusiastic reaction. At first look, you see the pomp of a military motorcade: banners and ticker tape ripple in the breeze. Edgy young men keep running alongside forcefully dressed troopers walking in a march. A lovely lady in white grasps an officer. And afterward, you see the soldiers are skull confronted. They are the strolling dead, and the youthful don’t appear to take note. In every one of the three works of art, you witness the silly death toll. The hatred of war is conceived by the fighters and their more distant families. Note the more established ladies in the March scene wearing dark with their heads bowed. The artistic creation feature hails as images of patriotism, embroiling political pioneers and visually impaired enthusiasm.

Although he appreciated much accomplishment in his lifetime and was without a doubt a painter of incredible power and significance, Curry’s heritage is perplexing until today. His time in Wisconsin supported a large group of provincial artists, and he assisted in starting a yearly art fair, however, after his demise, his notoriety has been dominated by Thomas Hart Benton and Grant Wood[3], whose styles were bolder and progressively eccentric. Admittedly, the abstract expressionism ascent dampened his repute.

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Various abstract expressionists perceived Curry and his kind as political and aesthetical preservationists, signifying everything that craftsmanship ought to respond against. For the more youthful avant-gardists, craftsmanship ought to make progress toward internationalism rather than regionalism and shake off the burden of conventionalism. While Curry’s local Kansans didn’t value his state legislative hall paintings at the time, in the mid-1990s, the state Senate passed a resolution that formally perceived the governing body’s poor treatment of the craftsman, as per the Kansas Chronicled Society, guaranteeing his notoriety for being an imperative craftsman. Later commentators and students of history have started to reassess Curry’s formal experimentation, and his utilization of various viewpoint focuses, holding onto his specialized cumbersomeness as a significant orderly advancement.

Bibliography

Cummer Resources.” To Engage and Inspire through the Arts, Gardens, and Education. Accessed April 19, 2019. https://blog.cummermuseum.org/2011121-john-stewart-curry-parade-to-war/.

Dennis, James M. Renegade Regionalists: The Modern Independence of Grant Wood, Thomas Hart Benton, and John Steuart Curry. Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press, 1998.

Kendall, M. Sue. Rethinking Regionalism: John Steuart Curry and the Kansas Mural Controversy. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1986.

 

[1] “Cummer Resources.” To Engage and Inspire through the Arts, Gardens, and Education. Accessed April 19, 2019. https://blog.cummermuseum.org/2011121-john-stewart-curry-parade-to-war/.

[2] Kendall, M. Sue. Rethinking Regionalism: John Steuart Curry and the Kansas Mural Controversy. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1986.

[3] Dennis, James M. Renegade Regionalists: The Modern Independence of Grant Wood, Thomas Hart Benton, and John Steuart Curry. Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press, 1998.

Reducing Hospital Readmission Pneumonia among High-Risk Patient Population 

Reducing Hospital Readmission Pneumonia among High-Risk Patient Population 

Introduction

Pneumonia occurs as a result of lung infections by fungi, bacteria, or viruses. The disease causes inflammation in the lung’s air sacs filling alveoli with pus or fluid hence interfering with the breathing process. There are many symptoms depending on the age of a patient, and its cause but the common ones include chest pain, coughing, short breath, sweating, fever, and chills (Torres et al., 2015). Doctors request to know the history of symptoms and also give a physical exam such as using a stethoscope to listen to the lungs to detect if there are abnormal sounds. A chest X-ray may also be done in the process of diagnosis. Depending on one’s symptoms, either of the following tests may also be carried out. A blood test and a sputum test which helps detect what is causing it, pulse oximetry to verify if lungs are releasing enough oxygen to the bloodstream. A urine test is also used to detect the presence of pneumonia bacteria.  Moreover, a CT scan provides a clear view of the lungs, and doctors may also test a fluid sample if he supposes that the pleural space has fluid.

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High-Risk Population

Any person can contract pneumonia, although there are populations at a higher risk. Individual who are 65 years and older, as well as infants from birth to four years, are at a higher risk than other ages (Shorr et al., 2013). People with weak immune systems and those who are bedridden, have had a stroke, or have issues with swallowing also stand high risks of ailing from pneumonia. Persons who drink excessive alcohol, smoke, and misuse illicit drugs also fall in this category (Torres et al., 2015). Finally, those with various chronic issues like cystic, asthma, heart failure, or diabetes are also at high risk of pneumonia.

The Relevance of the Topic

Pneumonia is among the leading health issues in the US and is responsible for about a million hospital admissions and 50000 deaths yearly (De Alba & Amin, 2014). It also accounts for about 140000 hospital readmissions each year, leading to increased hospital expenditure (De Alba & Amin, 2014). The topic is relevant in nursing as the population with pneumonia risk factors continues to rise, and hence, the need for a lasting solution. Readmissions strain the patients’ resources, and thus, the nursing fraternity needs to come up with procedures that minimize readmissions. There is a need not only to come up means of reducing readmissions but also pneumonia infections.

Rationale for Readmission

Although some readmissions are avoidable, some cases are unavoidable. Some of the factors causing pneumonia cannot be aligned with the existing interventions. For instance, socio-demographic factors like education level, age, male sex, and the existence of comorbidities cannot be modified (De Alba & Amin, 2014). These factors lead to constant readmissions. Besides, even when the appropriate treatment is administered, some pneumonia cases do not resolve entirely hence the readmission. Conditions such as heart failure, age, and immunodeficiency are the leading causes of why pneumonia treatment is not efficient (Torres et al., 2015). Further, readmissions may result due to other triggers like acute illness and trauma and not necessarily initial pneumonia. Hospitals need to incorporate improved care to reduce hospital-acquired conditions, although some of the readmissions remain hard to eliminate.

 

 

Summary of the Problem

Hospital readmissions after an initial admission due to pneumonia more so among the elderly and persons with health conditions are rampant. The population of people with the risk of contracting pneumonia continues to increase, and so does the rate of readmissions. One out of every five people discharged after being treated for pneumonia is readmitted to the hospital within 30 days after being discharged. Shorr et al. (2013) suggest that hospital readmission has a relationship with the nature of comorbidities and the prevalence of the disease (Shorr et al., 2013).

 

Evidence-Based Interventions to Reduce Readmission

One of the critical interventions to make in the process of reducing readmissions is to ensure effective post-discharge follow-up. For instance, some patients do not obtain the required medication due to financial constraints and or may not have the necessary social support to adhere to the prescription leading to readmissions (De Alba & Amin, 2014). Therefore, there is a need to ensure an efficient post-discharge follow-up. Furthermore, physician-related factors also contribute to readmissions, and these include poor quality of care and early discharges. The doctors should adhere to evidence-based treatment procedures to reduce readmissions.

Conclusion

Once an individual has contracted pneumonia, reoccurrence is frequent even after treatment. The likelihood of readmission depends on the type of pneumonia as well as patient characteristics. Although doctors do not have control over the attributes of their patients, they can offer high-quality care by identifying the specific causes and attending to them accordingly. They also need to check on post-discharge follow-up and ensure that they do not discharge patients prematurely.

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References

De Alba, I., & Amin, A. (2014). Pneumonia readmissions: risk factors and implications. The Ochsner journal14(4), 649–654.

Shorr, A. F., Zilberberg, M. D., Reichley, R., Kan, J., Hoban, A., Hoffman, J., & Kollef, M. H. (2013). Readmission following hospitalization for pneumonia: the impact of pneumonia type and its implication for hospitals. Clinical infectious diseases57(3), 362-367.

Torres, A., Blasi, F., Dartois, N., & Akova, M. (2015). Which individuals are at increased risk of pneumococcal disease and why? Impact of COPD, asthma, smoking, diabetes, and/or chronic heart disease on community-acquired pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal disease. Thorax70(10), 984-989.

Nash Equilibrium Case Study

Nash Equilibrium Case

The Nash equilibrium was brought forth by John Nash who was a mathematician.  It is vital game theory that determines the logical and mathematical actions of participants in a game. A Nash equilibrium exists at a level of outcome that does not provide extra benefits to a player within the game if the other players does not change their strategies (Myerson, 1978). The converse also applies when the other players do not get extra benefits is they change their strategies. The principle of Adam Smith about mergers stated that “the best strategy for a group comes from everyone in the group doing what is best for themselves” (Dow & Werlang, 1994).  However, Nash revised the principle to state “the best strategy for a group comes from everyone in the group doing what is best for themselves and the group”.  Therefore, there is no player who can benefit from the changing of their own strategy while the other players keep their strategies the same. To get a win-win situation for a business venture would therefore need to involve fairness and honesty, which would come from working together in a shared values collaborative approach. It is a commitment of all parties.

 

Nash Equilibrium Diagram for the case scenario

Company 2
 
 

Company 2

  Committed Not committed
Committed 30 (Million) $10: $20 (Million)
Not Committed $20: $10 (Million) $15: $15 (Million)

 

The Nash equilibrium exists for the cases of (Commit; Commit) and the case of (Not Commit; Not Commit). The tradeoff equilibrium where the companies share the profit maximally and equal for each one of them is when they both commit or both decide not to enter into the merger.  In the equilibrium point, the strategy changes of either company does not affect that of the other or gain extra benefits. Both of them get to share the profit equally at $15million. The summation of profits for the companies, with or without merger is 30million. However, when one does not commit, it gains more profit (10) million more than the other.

The two pure strategy Nash equilibria (Commit; not commit) and (Not Commit; Commit).

To find the mixed strategy equilibrium, let p denote the probability that company 1 chooses to commit. By the indifference principle, in any equilibrium, Company 2 has to be indifferent about choosing either of the two actions

Thence

Similarly, ; let q denote the probability of that company 2 chooses to commit. Then

Hence the mixed strategy Nash equilibrium is

(commit, 1: not commit,0) (Commit, 1: Not Commit, 0)

The reverse is also true

(commit, 0: not commit,1) (Commit, 0: Not Commit, 1)

 

 

 

Dominant Strategy

The case scenario presents a case that involves a prisoner’s dilemma. Even with adopting the best strategy of honesty and committing, the companies are still uncertain of the best outcome in three cases.  Each player seeks to maximize their profit and minimize the risk of getting the lesser profit (Salant, Switzer & Reynolds, 1983). The option of both committing introduces the uncertainty whether the other one will refuse to commit.   Therefore, the option to commit seems like a double chance which may go either way. The case scenario where one company commits and the other one refuses to commit will be unfavorable to the committing company as they will ensure it gets a profit of $10 million and benefit the other company that gains $20 million. Of the two, the option of committing carries the risk of the other company not committing and resulting in lowering profits.

The dominant strategy in this case for both the companies is to choose not to commit to the merger. Since the profit margin for the case where both companies commit or both do not commit is 15million, thence comes the question of the risk involves. Therefore, the better option for both companies is not committing.

Coworker Strategy

The colleague’s strategy of working through the merger no matter what is not the best strategy for the situation.  From the Nash equilibrium matrix, it is evident that when one company commits and the other one does not commit, the profits of the company that commits is at $10million and the other one at $20 million. In the case where there is the collaborative effort of commitment from both companies in either committing or not committing, the profit margin is $15million for both of them. Therefore, committing no matter what has two results. One where the company gets 15million in profits; the case where the other counterpart commits. The second case will see it gain $10 million in profits; in the case where the other company defaults to commit. It is the prisoner’s dilemma all over again committing no matter what will either of the two outcomes one which shows that the company reduces its profit margin (Kreps et al., 1982).  The profits recorded in the case are not the highest margin in the venture.

The option of not committing no matter what, there are also two options. One; the other company decides not to commit, and both companies end up with profits of $15 million each. The second option where the other company commits and the former company gets $20million in profit, and the latter gets $10 million. Therefore, in this not committing option, the profits recorded are of higher margins. The co-worker’s advice to the company would, therefore, suppose to be not committing no matter what.

Conclusion

Nash equilibrium offers an optimal solution between the agreement for the merger. The equilibrium provided would ensure that no company benefits more than the other in case of the merger. It also eliminates the risk of one company changing their strategy instead of the other.  The Nash equilibrium can be applied in many other fields such as economics and social sciences.

 

 

References

Dow, J., & Werlang, S. R. D. C. (1994). Nash equilibrium under Knightian uncertainty: breaking down backward induction. Journal of Economic Theory, 64(2), 305-324.

Kreps, D. M., Milgrom, P., Roberts, J., & Wilson, R. (1982). Rational cooperation in the finitely repeated prisoners’ dilemma. Journal of Economic theory, 27(2), 245-252.

Myerson, R. B. (1978). Refinements of the Nash equilibrium concept. International journal of game theory, 7(2), 73-80.

Salant, S. W., Switzer, S., & Reynolds, R. J. (1983). Losses from horizontal merger: the effects of an exogenous change in industry structure on Cournot-Nash equilibrium. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 98(2), 185-199.

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