The Box: How the Shipping Container Made the World Smaller and the World Economy Bigger

LCL rate =$1 per kg

Each tv weigh = 52.8kg

Annual demand= weekly demand by 52 weeks (56X52=2912 units)

Holding cost =$200/year/unit

Ordering cost = $108

  1. Tvs to be shipped through LCL and annual cost.

Ordering cost

$108 x (56 unit x 52 weeks)= $314,496

Annual transportation cost

Cost per unit

52.8 kg x $1= $52.8

Annual cost

2912 units/yr X $52.8 = $15,375.6

Holding cost X annual cost

$200 X 15375.6 = $ 30,750,720

Total annual ordering and transportation costs 30,750,720 + 314,496 = $31,065,216

 

  1. Tvs to be ordered and shipped through FCL

Units/ container =200 units

Costs/ container = $3000 per shipping

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Cost of ordering

Annual orders =2,912 units

29,912 x $108 = $314,496

Transportation costs

2,912/200unit = 15 shipping turns

15 x $3000 = $30,000

30,000 x 200 = 6,000,000

Total annual ordering and transportation cost 6,000,000 + 314,496 = $6,314,496

FCL is more preferable than the CLC shipping.  One of the reasons is because FCL unit shipping is more likely to be cheaper. One is able to maximize the space inside the container without extra charges. More also shipping with FCL does not take long to process compared CLC since the containers do not need to be consolidated at departure and reaching destination. More also, FCL shipping is considered to be much safer since the container is not opened at different destinations like in CLC where by the cargos are tempered with at different warehouses as more cargo are put inside the container. Lastly using FCL it is easy to track the arrival of the cargo at your destination through the shipping companies tracking systems.

 

Work Cited

Levinson, Marc. The Box: How the Shipping Container Made the World Smaller and the World Economy Bigger. Princeton University Press. 2006

Mathematics “statistic custom paper”

Question 1

  1. Find the sample correlation coefficient, r, between x and y and use it to describe the relationship between the two variables.
  2. Find the mean of all the x-values
  3. Find the standard deviation of all the x-values (call it sx) and the standard deviation of all the y-values (call it sy).

For example, to find sx, you would use the following equation:

  1. For each of the n pairs (x, y) in the data set, take
  2. Add up the n results from Step 3.
  3. Divide the sum by sxsy.
  4. Divide the result by n – 1, where n is the number of (x, y) pairs. (It’s the same as multiplying by 1 over n – 1.)

This gives you the correlation, r

  1. Find the best fitting line

Equations of straight lines are in the form y = mx + c (m and c are numbers). m is the gradient of the line and c is the y-intercept (where the graph crosses the y-axis).

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Trying to plot a straight line graph from the x and y in the table c is 2.1 and m is 1.3 as shown below

  1. What is the estimated amount of weight-loss if the dosage is 3.5? 6.65 lbs

using the formula of y=1.3x+2.1, replace x with 3.5

  1. What is the estimated amount of weight-loss if the dosage is 15? Use same formula

y=1.3(15)+2.1

y=21.6

  1. A recent census of employees at a large automotive company showed that 30% of the assembly line workers were extremely bored with their job. The management of the company arranged for a consulting firm to come and offer a program to reduce on-the-job boredom. After two months of the program, a random sample of 20 workers was selected to help evaluate its impact.
  2. If the program was not effective, how many workers in the sample would you expect to be bored with their job

30/100 of 20 =6 workers

  1. If the program was not effective, what is the probability that exactly 8 workers in the sample would report being bored with their job?

8/20 X100=40%

  1. If the program was not effective, what is the probability that at least 2 workers in the sample would report being bored with their job?

2/20 X 100=10%

  1. If the program was not effective, what is the probability that more than 1 but less than 19 workers in the sample would report being bored with their job?

19/20 X100=95%

  1. The mayor of the city of Chicago was informed that household water usage was a normally distributed random variable with mean of 25 gallons and a standard deviation of 5 gallons per day.
  2. If a household were to be randomly selected, what would be the expected amount of water usage per day? 25
  3. What is the probability that a randomly chosen household uses more than 20 and less than 28 gallons per day?

More than 20

Less than 28

Subtract the mean (μ in Step 1) from the greater than value 28-25=3

Divide the standard deviation (σ in Step 1) by the square root of your sample 5/root of 1=5

Divide your result from a by your result from b 3/5=0.6 then

Use the formula from Step 3 to find the z-values. This time, use Xbar2

Subtract the mean (μ in Step 1) from the greater than value 20-25=-5

Divide the standard deviation (σ in Step 1) by the square root of your sample 5/root of 1=5

Divide your result from a by your result from b -5/5=-1

Look up the value you calculated in Step 3 in the z-table

Z value of 0.6 corresponds to .2257

Z value of -1 corresponds to .3413 Note that the bell curve is symmetrical, so if you want to look up a negative value like -1, then just look up the positive counterpart. The area will be the same.

Add Step 5 and 6 together .2257+.3413=.567

  1. What is the probability that a randomly chosen household uses more than 20 gallons per day?

We already did for 20 gallons which is .3413 add 0.5 for the other half =.8413

  1. What is the probability that a randomly chosen household uses less than 20 gallons per day?

20-25/(5root1)=-1 Look up the z-score in the left-hand z-table. It is .8413 However, this is not the answer, as the question is asking for LESS THAN. Subtract from full 1-0.8413=.1587

Political Science Custom Essay “free press”

  1. Why is the free press essential to democracy?

Free press is essential for good governance and sustenance of leadership. With the free press in collaboration with the freedom of speech, people are well informed and are also able to participate in democracy. In account to this, governments are able to work together with journalist and other communication bodies to deliver to the public. Additionally, free press helps the justice system by uncovering information reliable to court cases.

  1. If there was no free press, how would you get your information?

Without the freedom of press then there is no democracy. Therefore, if there is no freedom in journalism, people will have to rely on what or who convinces more whether selling them truth or lies.

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  1. If you could not trust the information, what effect would that have on your political attitudes?

In case the information could not be trusted, information would be revealed through hidden channels, and likely there will be a revolution, people would not trust their government and begin fighting for democracy.

  1. With the rise of “fake news” and the publishing of false information, how do you weed through the overwhelming amounts of literature to find credible news sources?

It is relatively difficult to maintain democracy when people are not concerned about the political events around them. When there is less attention towards what is happening politically, most of the democratic rights are likely to be misused or taken away form the citizens by the government. If people are not mindful of their political events, they have little knowledge of democracy.

  1. Can we maintain a democracy when most Americans pay little attention to political events?

To find credible and true news in this era when there is arise in fake news, you will need to read news from different publishers and most likely trust similar information given by different publishers. It is not easy for two or more news agency to agree on publishing similar news if it was fake. Another method would be avoiding news that do not publisher details or the agency is not a reputable.

How Obamacare became a symbol of America’s Divide

  1. The Obamacare bill was proposed by the former President of the USA in January 2009 with the aim of providing affordable healthcare to all.
  2. The passing of the bill was however faced with plenty of challenges which caused division among the States.
  3. Division among the states came due the rejection of the bill by the Republicans and some of the general public.
  4. In order to pass the bill, Obama started putting pressure on the Democrats in both houses to vote for the bill and make it pass.
  5. Those who opposed the bill argued that the bill will negatively affect the economic state of the United States.
  6. Despite the negative perception of bill, Obama’s government continued pushing for the reforms.Click Here to Place your order and Get 100% original paper on any topic done for Your
  7. Obama’s hope was in his republican representatives.
  8. Some of the American’s who were not in favor of the bill claimed that they would move out of the USA and live in other countries if the bill was passed.
  9. Obama assembled all his staffs on the day of casting votes for the bill to witness.
  10. The voting period was filled with a lot of anxiety from the President, his Vice, staffs and the public.
  11. Much division was seen in the voting where no republican vote was cast.
  12. However the bill still passed with 216 votes from the Democrats only.
  13. The passing of the bill was the begging of change according to Obama.
  14. However, this would also ignite more resistance, from the opposition and the new Tea Party.
  15. The bill is viewed the object of division with the States because other bills were passed by both Republican and Democrats in the two houses.
  16. More also, the Tea Party became more active demonstrating against the bill.
  17. Tea Party leaders were against the bill claiming that it was an assault to the US and termed it as lie.
  18. Contrary to what President Obama had expected, Obamacare caused a lot of divisions politically within the states.
  19. The republicans continue to reject the bill even after it was passed holding campaigns against it.
  20. The Obamacare can be described as one of the major faults that Obama’s government made during his 8 years rule in the USA.

Character Analysis; A Raisin in the Sun: Walter Younger

Discussion Board 4

Walter displays that he wants for himself an opportunity to gather all the money he would ever need. He wants to gain the money and get the social status and be looked up by others. He compares himself to his white age-mates, who are making millions and have social status (Hansberry, 1567). He wants to achieve this through his business idea of setting up a liquor store. Walter wants to have money so he can provide the material necessities and luxuries for his family. He says that he wants to hang pearls on his wife’s neck (Hansberry, 1566). He also wants to provide for the needs of his son. After he gets the money, he displays that he would take care of his family when he takes his wife on a date and sets aside some of the money for Beneatha’s school fees.

At first, Walter seems to value his needs more than those of the family. He first wanted the Insurance check to himself for his business, not caring about the needs of his family. For example, when he questions Beneatha’s going to Medical school (Hansberry, 1516). He is even ready to take the bribe from Lindner for his needs (Hansberry 1566). After his mother takes the check and buys the house in a white neighborhood, Walter is frustrated and goes on a drinking spree for 3days (Hansberry, 1543). These first times showed that was he wanted wasn’t in line with what he wanted for his family. Towards the end of the play, he, however, changes his thoughts because when he received the money, he agrees to set aside three thousand dollars for Beneatha’s medical schooling (Hansberry 1547). He even takes his wife out on a date. Towards the end, we see that he turned around did as he wanted for his family.

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Reference

Mays, K. J. (2015). The Norton introduction to literature. WW Norton & Company.

 

 

Racial Discrimination in Raisin in the Sun Custom Essay

Racial Discrimination in Raisin in the Sun

Raisin in the Sun is an autobiographical play center along with an African American family that aspires to passage beyond the segregation happening in the 1950s in Chicago, America. The family of five children living in a poor area dreams of moving towards the middle class in Chicago by supporting their dreams.  The play, therefore, revolves around Walter Younger, who struggles to own a business and get money to achieve his goals. He crosses financial bridges, but when he is about to move into an all-white neighborhood, he is segregated and even offered a bribe not to move there. The Younger’s family ultimately respond to the bribe and segregation with defiance. Racial discrimination was a prevalent theme within the setting of the 1950s when there was subtle segregation of blacks from all walks of life. The play demonstrates that in the presence of racial discrimination, the best way to deal with it is to stand up to it rather than passing it unchecked.

Lauraine Hansberry Autobiography

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Lorraine Hansberry was born in a well-educated black home in Chicago in 1930. She was the youngest in their family of four children, and her parents were actively involved in fighting against racial discrimination. The ear experienced a lot of segregation in living areas and economic lines. The city that Loraine lived in was an example of a place where the people lived in black and white neighborhoods (M’Baye 177). Growing up, Lorraine’s family was the first one to move into a white neighborhood where they faced threats of legal action and violence. Hansberry’s father defended the family and successfully brought their case up to the Supreme Court. Lorraine felt the urge to write about her experiences, and writing A Raising in the Sun was one of the first plays portraying black themes, characters, and conflict in a natural manner (M’Baye 171. It went on to win the New York Drama Critic’s Circle Award, bringing attention to the American Civil Rights Movement.

The Great Migration

The great migration was a massive movement of African Americans from the rural parts of Southern USA to the urban areas in the North and the West. Originally, the Africans were in the southern farms where they live as slaves, but after the emancipation, they were released from the bondage and were free. The main reasons that pushed the blacks to migrate were the poor economic conditions in the south caused by crop damage because of boll weevils, and the Jim Crow laws that had the Africans segregated in the regions.  They moved to the big cities because of the promise of good wages and the good living conditions envisioned for them in major towns such as Chicago, New York, Michigan, Detroit, Ohio, and Cleveland. The migration did not end the discrimination as the African Americans were segregated into ghettoes within the major cities.

Racism and views on blackness  

During the mid-20th century, there were still ideas that the African Americans were people of a lower lifestyle and therefore restricted to low jobs, low pay, and low living conditions. In housing, the black people were restricted to black regions, which mainly consisted of ghettos and crime-ridden places (Gordon 123). Within the play, for example, the Younger family, while living in South Chicago, lived in a cramped apartment where the son did not have a bedroom, they did not have a bathroom and shared it with the neighbors, and privacy was not assured (Hansberry 27-28). The socioeconomic status was low, and the blacks were limited to low jobs, 64% of black women and 34% of black men were servants or maids. In the play, we also see that Walter drove people, and Lena and Ruth are servants. The payments from the jobs were also poor for the blacks. Ruth, for example, did not receive enough pay and showed frustration when speaking to her husband about the check coming in (Hansberry 29). Even Travis was expecting the check as much as the mom because he needed fifty cents for school (Hansberry 31). When Beneatha figure out how much medical school would cost, and they know it is going to be a burden for the family (Hansberry 40). The situations show the extent of poverty within the black homes. It comes to show how segregation caused African American homes to struggle in their opportunities for jobs, housing, and resources.

The other idea that was present in the USA within the period was the restriction and seclusion slogans carried forward by the Jim Crow laws. The Jim Crow laws had been the main ideas that led to the segregation of the blacks into their schools, living areas, and amenities. While the law was abolished and nonfunctioning in the Northern cities, the same restrictive ideas were carried forth up to the mid-20th century (Gordon 122). The idea is witnessed in the play when the Youngers try to move into the White neighborhood. Karl Lindner, who was the representative of the Clybourne Park Improvement Association within the White neighborhood, was also tasked with orienting new neighbors (Hansberry 115). The neighborhood and Lindner are opposed to the idea of a Negro family moving into their locality. He uses the argument that Negro families would be happier if they lived with their people, to try and convince Ruth, Beneatha, and Walter (Hansberry 118). He pulled the race card on the family and even went ahead to bribe them not to move into the place (Hansberry 119). The younger family was wise enough to carry on with their dream of living within a better neighborhood and rejecting the money offered to them. It is clear from Lindner’s arguments that the whites still wanted the black people secluded into their areas and not mix with them despite the poor living conditions in the black localities.

Prejudice for African Americans is also present in this ear and leads to racism. When Lindner received an angry reaction from the Younger family, he asks them if “they thought they could just move into a neighborhood where they are not wanted and could get people worked up when they feel that their whole way of life and everything they had worked for was threatened” (Hansberry 119). There was prejudice on the blacks as they feared that they would destroy their way of living through crime and violence. Blacks in this period were associated with these traits, and Lindner progressed the prejudice. When Walter talks about his dream of a business negotiation with Willy, he comments on the prejudiced state of blacks. He claimed that they were stuck in a community that only knew how to moan, pray, and make babies (Hansberry 89). It showed that even the blacks themselves had believed their prejudiced statements, and it was making them doubt their capabilities.

Writing a Raisin in the Sun and Selection of

A Raisin in the Sun was a good choice for Hansberry because it represented her family’s real-life struggle to reach their dream. It was, therefore, an expression of her experiences. The Younger family was a realistic depiction of a black family during the period and would, therefore, appeal to the audience of the time. The story of injustice in achieving the American dream also tied to the civil rights movement that was ongoing in the country. The African Americans were tired of their oppression. The period was when the country was growing immensely after the wars, and everyone was chasing the American dream. The blacks were the only ones left behind as they were expected to be complacent and satisfied with their domestic structures. Creating such a book at this particular time would appeal to the audience of the movement.

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The main characters chosen within the play represent the various dreams the African Americans had and how they were determined to achieve them.  Every member of the family and hero had their dream (M’Baye 174). Walter had the dream of setting up his business and making millions like the other whites who were progressing within the commercial field. He, therefore, is the hero to represent this type of dream. Beneatha was chasing the dream of becoming a doctor. Many of the blacks did not have professional qualifications and even the money to pay for college. Beneatha was, therefore, the hero for education (M’Baye 174). Asagai was an immigrant from Nigeria who came to America to chase the education dream. It was difficult for these immigrants in the US during the period, and he was the hero with this dream. Lena Younger was the hero who had the dream of uniting his family and giving them the best life.

Conclusion

A Raisin in the Sun is a remarkable piece of writing that clearly expresses the situation of the African Americans in the 1950’s USA. After the great migration of the early 20th century, the Blacks filled the major cities, and after the Second World War, things were back to normal, and the economy was growing. Everyone was chasing the American dream, and even the blacks wanted a piece of it. However, things had not changed for African Americans, and they still faced racial discrimination in their opportunities, housing, and jobs. Through the play, Lorraine Hansberry demonstrates that the best way to deal with the racism within the journey of a black person is to confront it.

 

 

Works Cited

Gordon, Michelle. “Somewhat like War”: The Aesthetics of Segregation, Black Liberation, and” A Raisin in the Sun.” African American Review 42.1 (2008): 121-133.

Hansberry, Lorraine. Lorraine Hansberry’s A Raisin in the Sun. Samuel French, Inc., 1984.

M’Baye, Babacar. “Discrimination and the American Dream in Lorraine Hansberry’s A Raisin in The Sun.” Bloom’s Literary Themes: The American Dream. Ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Infobase Publishing (2009): 171-187.

 

English Custom Paper “how ideas of race, racism, and the Great Migration in the U.S. influenced the writing and meaning of A Raisin in the Sun.”

Assignment instructions:

Discuss how ideas of race, racism, and the Great Migration in the U.S. influenced the writing and meaning of A Raisin in the Sun.

 

You must have at least three references with in-text citations.

 

You may write your paper in sections; however, you will need a transition to connect the sections to one another.

 

Section 1: Introduction : Introduce the play and the author/add a short plot of the play/add the topic sentence

EXAMPLE: Hansberry’s inspiration for writing A Raisin in the Sun came from the segregation in northern cities after the Great Migration and the racism black people endured in trying to find a better life.

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Section 2: Biographical information about Lorraine Hansberry (no more than 1/2 page).

Section 3: The Great Migration as a historical movement in the early 20th century in the U.S.

Section 4:  Racism and views on blackness   Research racism and ideas about what being black in America meant in the early and mid 20th century in the U.S. and discuss the impact these ideas and views had on our nation. Then describe how the events surrounding racism and ideas of race resemble the way the events of the play and the attitudes of its characters.

Section 5: Writing A Raisin in the Sun      Discuss why Hansberry chose to write a play that reflects injustice in pursuit of the “American Dream.” Discuss why she chose to use Walter–a very conflicted man–as one of her heroes. Discuss how Walter, Beneatha, and Asagai might all represent different ways of getting to that “Dream” as a black person in America. (1 page)

Section 6: Conclusion     Restate the main ideas of the essay.

Computer Science “Getting Started Coding with Python”

Week 4 Assignment: Getting Started Coding with Python

 

Instructions:

 

You will complete this assignment in Python 3.x. Make sure you have downloaded the software and it is installed correctly. You will download it from this site: https://www.python.org/downloads/.

Download Python:

This video demonstrates how to download version 3.4 or the latest version based on your operating system type. 

 

Downloadable Video Transcript for Downloading Python.docx

You should download the Python programming language editor and compiler.  To download Python,  go to https://www.python.org/downloads/ (Download version 3.4 or the latest version–view the video above ).

You may use www.pythontutor.com to practice your codes. You will not be able to save from here, but it is a great site for practicing your work.

You can copy the code from www.pythontutor.com and paste it into .py file or into the student submission text area.

1.   Create a comment block with the following information:

Your Name

Course Name, Section (example: ENTD200 B002 Spr18)

Instructor name

Week  #

Date completed

 

2.  Problem 1: Create a Python program to solve a simple payroll calculation. Calculate the amount of pay,  given hours worked, and hourly rate. (The formula to calculate payroll is pay = hourly rate * hours worked.) Display hourly rate, hours worked, and pay.

Problem 2: Create a Python program to calculate the average miles per gallon obtained on a trip. Input the amount of gas used and the number of miles driven. (The formula to calculate miles per gallon is miles per gallon = number of miles driven / amount of gas used. ) Display gas used, miles driven and MPG.   Use  your own values to test the.  You can hard code the values or you can use the input() function. See lesson 3 for sample code.

 

Assignment Rubric:

Assessment Rubric

Accomplished

Developing

Beginning

Points Available

Points Earned

Comments

Assignment details in a comment block.

Create a comment block with the following information:

Your Name

Course Name, Section (example: ENTD200 B002 Spr18)

Instructor name

Week  #

Date completed

Student effectively completed the assignment.

Student partially completed the assignment.

Student failed to complete the assignment.

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10

10

 

Logic and print function used to correctly print the solution to Problem 1:

Create a Python program to solve a simple payroll calculation. Calculate the amount of pay, given hours worked, and hourly rate. (The formula to calculate payroll is pay = hourly rate * hours worked.) Display hourly rate, hours worked, and pay.

Student effectively completed the assignment.

Student partially completed the assignment.

Student failed to complete the assignment.

40

40

 

Logic and print function used to correctly print the solution to Problem 2:

 

Create a Python program to calculate the average miles per gallon obtained on a trip. Input the amount of gas used and the number of miles driven. (The formula to calculate miles per gallon is miles per gallon = number of miles driven / amount of gas used. ) Display gas used, miles driven and MPG.

Student effectively completed the assignment.

Student partially completed the assignment.

Student failed to complete the assignment.

40

40

 

Code organization and comments

Student effectively completed the assignment.

Student partially completed the assignment.

Student failed to complete the assignment.

10

10

 

Total

100

100

Criminology Custom Essay “Two Towns of Jasper”

Two Towns of Jasper is an investigative movie which shows the racial differences that are in a small town of Jasper in Texas. The movie entails investigations carried out to come up with clear information concerning the death of a black- American known as James Byrd Jr who was alleged to be brutally beaten and killed by three whites in the year 1998. A black and white film maker, collaborate in investigations to find out the cause of the death.

The two investigators were Marco Williams a black and Whitney Dow a white. Williams carried investigations among the black while Whitney carried investigations among the Whites and the investigations were secretly carried out without anyone realizing they were working on the same project. Both of them used different terminology to come up with the information required. Marco Williams spoke with the Blacks face to face to get more information on the hardships they face from the white who are brutal to them. In the other case, Whitney carried out interviews through a collection of questions to get White’s perspective towards the Blacks.

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The movie production was faced by a number of challenges one of them being lack of funds to support the movie production. They found the funder who would support the movie production while both of them were in the field digging up to come up with clear data about the death. The funds were not enough so the editing didn’t start immediately after the interviews. There were also differences between the directors where each had a different perspective concerning the film. This difference brought about crises which dragged the sponsorship of the film.

 

The research came up with two different views both from the Blacks and Whites. The Blacks claimed that the Whites were main cause of the race rivals that occur on the streets, but the Whites did not accept the claim. They support themselves saying that Blacks mainly brought much disaster in the street and they deserved such punishments to stop them. This is supported by a scenario where one of the White who was interviewed and said that James was a stubborn person in the community. And death of such people (especially the blacks) did not seem to be a big deal to them.

The article of East Saint Louis Race Riot shows a scene where fight a rose up between the Whites and Blacks American in the year 1917. It started after blacks were employed in companies that had government contracts, which was not a usual thing. The hatred between the two races brought up conflict which led to deaths of many. The Whites turned on Blacks through stubbing and hanging them. The Blacks also had to fight back to protect themselves and they killed 8 Whites. In relation to this article and the film of William, blacks are not the cause of the crimes on the streets. Anybody either black or white can be a source of disagreement among a group of people. On Whitney’ film in relation to this article, the differences are not only brought about by the race difference but also factors like dictatorship or hatred contribute.

The film protrudes the difference that is there between different races especially in whites and blacks. The hatred between different races has no value in the society all it brings about is differences that drags human beings behind in terms of unity and development. This difference has been there since back in the days of slave trading. People should respect different colors and work together as humans with the aim to bringing unity and change in the globe.

 

Reference

1.Darden, J. T., & Thomas, R. W. (2013). Detroit: Race Riots, Racial Conflicts, and Efforts to Bridge the       Racial Divide. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press.

Nursing Custom Paper “Assignment “

For this Assignment, select a local or state (CALIFORNIA) health care policy or legislation that was enacted in the last 5 years. Then:

  1. Summarize the policy or legislation.
  2. Analyze at least one strength and one weakness of the policy or legislation.
  3. Discuss the impact of the policy or legislation for all stakeholders, both providers, and consumers.

Page length: 3-4 pages exclusive of cover page and references.

Support your paper with a minimum of three scholarly references.

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Your writing Assignment should:

  • follow the conventions of Standard English (correct grammar, punctuation, etc.)
  • be well ordered, logical, and unified, as well as original and insightful;
  • display superior content, organization, style, and mechanics; and
  • use APA 6th edition formatting and citation style.

A Recent California Healthcare Policy Analysis

Immunization programs have remained essential healthcare interventions around the globe for many years. However, the United States has been experiencing a public health concern regarding the public`s reluctance and refusal to receive vaccination due to various reasons including religious and philosophical beliefs. This in turn, has led to a substantial increase in the rates of non-medical exemptions in the country over the past few decades. Furthermore, the trend for increased non-medical exemptions in the United States is more pronounced in states that have inadequate or ineffective healthcare policies regarding the issue. To illustrate, many states have provided parents with the option of waiving the present immunization requirement for children who are seeking entry into school or daycare. Therefore, the healthcare policy that eliminates non-medical immunization exemptions in the state of California does not only have various strengths and weaknesses but has also significantly impacted all the stakeholders in the healthcare system.

Summary of the Healthcare Policy

A recent healthcare policy that was implemented in the State of California is a legislation that outlawed non-medical exemptions for immunization. In particular, the state of California enacted a senate bill 277 that eliminated non-medical vaccination exemptions in response to the outbreak of diseases that were preventable by immunization such as the measles outbreak in 2015 (Delamater et al., 2019). In addition, the healthcare policy requires the state to issue a standard medical exemption certification form that is supposed to be filled by the doctor and send to the school in order for a child to gain entry (Cole, Moon & Howard, 2019). To illustrate, the form contains a physician`s statement regarding the child`s physical or medical condition that makes immunization unsafe, the specific vaccines which are exempted and an indication whether the exemption is granted on a temporary or permanent basis (Mohanty et al., 2018). Thus, the form indicates the exemption details such as the medical basis for exemption from immunization.

Moreover, the legislation also gives the state department of health the authority to investigate schools and physicians. For instance, institutions that record an immunization rate of less than ninety five percent and doctors that grant five or more medical vaccination exemptions in a year are investigated by the state (Cole, Moon & Howard, 2019). Nevertheless, the law grants authority to the state to revoke any medical vaccination exemptions by public health officers or state physicians which are considered inappropriate (Cole, Moon & Howard, 2019). Therefore, healthcare policy was aimed at safeguarding children and communities in the state against outbreaks of diseases which are preventable by immunization by increasing the overall vaccination rates for school going children.

The Strength and Weaknesses of the Healthcare Policy

The healthcare policy restricting immunization exemptions has various strengths and weaknesses. In particular, the California law which restricts immunization exemptions has been effective in increasing vaccination rates in the state. To illustrate, research has shown a significant increase in the number of children who have received the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine since the enactment of the law. According to Kurtzman (2019), the MMR vaccination coverage increased by more than three percent across the state following the implementation of the healthcare policy. Moreover, the number of non-medical exemptions in the state also decreased by more than two percent after the enactment of the legislation (Kurtzman, 2019). Thus, the policy change on the exemptions from immunization has increased the overall vaccination rate in California to about ninety five percent (Kurtzman, 2019). Thus, the immunization policy has been effective in increasing vaccination rates in the state

In contrast, the law may increase the cases of medical exemptions in schools thereby increasing the susceptibility of students to potential outbreaks and transmission of diseases which can be prevented through immunization. To illustrate parents who hold philosophical or religious beliefs may decide to pursue medical exemptions as an alternative thereby eroding the purpose of the policy (Mohanty et al., 2018). In addition, loopholes in the law has increased doctors who may be willing to write medical exemptions for parents that either refuse or are reluctant to embrace immunization programs since the legislation does not specify conditions that are covered under medical exemptions (Mohanty et al., 2018). To illustrate, some physicians not only advertise medical exemptions for a fee but also medical exemptions are  being granted by unauthorized healthcare professionals such as nurses, cardiologists and surgeons who do not treat children. Thus, the legislation may increase the rates of medical exemptions thereby increasing the vulnerability of children to disease outbreaks.

The Impact of the Healthcare Policy for all Stakeholders

The California healthcare legislation which eliminates non-medical immunization exemptions has affected various stakeholders. Foremost, the law has increased the burden on the staff of the schools by giving learning institutions the responsibility of ensuring that the all the requirements in the law are met and filed away (Mohanty et al., 2018). In addition, schools face the risk of losing their average daily attendance funding by excluding students who do not meet the requirements of the healthcare policy from joining the institution (Mohanty et al., 2018). Secondly, the law has exposed physicians to potential disciplinary actions for lack of compliance. In particular, the law gives physicians the authority to make decisions regarding individuals that are eligible for exemption thereby exposing them to disciplinary actions when they are misled by parents. To illustrate, the state conducts a review on physicians that grant more than five medical exemptions in a year (Cole, Moon & Howard, 2019). Thirdly, the policy has both a positive and negative impact on the consumers of healthcare. In particular, the law has increased parents` compliance with regulations in high-risk areas and the number of children who are immunized. Nevertheless, the law has caused frustration on some parents who previously sort exemption on personal beliefs thereby making them to seek alternatives such as medical exemptions or home schooling.

Conclusion

All in all, the healthcare policy that eliminates non-medical immunization exemptions in the state of California does not only have various strengths and weaknesses but has also significantly impacted all the stakeholders in the healthcare system. The state of California enacted a senate bill that eliminated non-medical vaccination exemptions by requiring physicians to complete a form and include details about child`s physical or medical condition that makes immunization unsafe, the specific vaccines which are exempted and an indication whether the exemption is temporary or permanent. While the law been effective in increasing vaccination rates in the state, the policy could also increase the cases of medical exemptions in schools thereby increasing the susceptibility of students to potential outbreaks. The California healthcare legislation which eliminates non-medical immunization exemptions has affected various stakeholders such as the schools, physicians and consumers.

 

 

References

Cole, D., Moon, S. & Howard, J. (2019). California governor signs bills limiting vaccine exemptions. Retrieved from https://edition.cnn.com/2019/09/10/politics/california-vaccine-bill-gavin-newsom/index.html

Delamater, P. L., Pingali, S. C., Buttenheim, A. M., Salmon, D. A., Klein, N. P., & Omer, S. B. (2019). Elimination of Nonmedical Immunization Exemptions in California and School-Entry Vaccine Status. Pediatrics, e20183301. doi:10.1542/peds.2018-3301

Kurtzman, L. (2019). Barring nonmedical exemptions increases vaccination rates, study finds. Retrieved from https://www.ucsf.edu/news/2019/12/416271/barring-nonmedical-exemptions-increases-vaccination-rates-study-finds

Mohanty, S., Buttenheim, A. M., Joyce, C. M., Howa, A. C., Salmon, D., & Omer, S. B. (2018). Experiences with medical exemptions after a change in vaccine exemption policy in California. Pediatrics, 142(5), e20181051. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2018-1051