Assignment Original Opinion Based on Wuthering Heights

Original Opinion Based on Wuthering Heights

Catherine Earnshaw.

Today I came back home to Wuthering Heights after five weeks of staying at the Lintons. It feels like I’m in someone else’s body from all the flattery and beautiful clothes I have received in the past few weeks. My hair is shinier with its brownness accentuated than before when I never paid much attention to cleaning it. At the Linton’s, I was showered with much more love, and attention than Hindley or my father ever gave me. I felt loved. The only other time I have ever felt this way is when I am with Heathcliff. Of course, living with the Lintons is nothing compared to the rush that comes with being with Heathcliff. Edgar was sweet to me, and his sister even more so. 

But with Heathcliff, our escapades together make me forget how my brother does not care about me. We are too much alike in the way we think but sadly not in the way we speak or in our social status. I was delighted to see him today though he was dirtier than usual. I am afraid he has been bashed more since I left. He also seemed alienated from me. Maybe it is because of the way I laughed at his appearance. He must think I don’t like his presence anymore. Somehow this thought causes a heavy feeling in my chest, and I don’t like it. I will find him and apologize tomorrow. I would like for us to continue being friends, but I suspect my brother Hindley won’t let me. Frances has been paying me visits at the Thrushcross Grange, and I think it is on Hindley’s behalf. They want me to be more mannerly and behave like a lady.

I am happy they are more concerned. I wish they didn’t treat Heathcliff like a vagabond though. It still surprises me how Heathcliff became my father’s favorite and how he defended him from all of us. I did not like him in the beginning, but he became my partner in crime and soon, my best friend. I hope to see him again tomorrow and rekindle our familiarity.




Brontë, E. (1870). Wuthering heights. Smith, Elder.

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Oppositional defiant Disorder Research Paper











Oppositional defiant Disorder

Student’s Name


Table of Contents

Oppositional Defiant Disorder 3

Clinical Presentation. 3

ODD Criteria. 3

ODD Symptoms (Hamilton & Armando, 2008) 4

ODD Diagnosis. 5

ODD Prevalence and Incidence Rates. 6

Causes of ODD.. 6

Theoretical perspectives. 6

Developmental Theory. 6

Learning Theory. 7

Empirical Support for ODD.. 7

Nosology Evidence. 7

Nosology evidence has also proven the symptoms associated with ODD. 8

Treatment Success: Psychotherapy, Medication and Self-help Strategies. 8

Factors Associated with Cause of ODD (Hamilton & Armando, 2008) 8

Biological Factors. 8

Psychological factors. 9

Social factors. 9

ODD Occurrence with other conditions. 10

Prevention of ODD.. 11

Treatment of ODD.. 11

Does ODD Improve Over Time. 14

Case Study. 15




Oppositional Defiant Disorder

Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a behavioral disorder that presents a pattern of defiance, disobedience, and hostility towards authority figures. It is in the group of disorders called disruptive behavioral disorders (DBD) because the adolescents and children who have it show disruptive behaviors. For the case of ODD, the children and adolescents are known to be stubborn, rebel often, and argue with the guardians and adults (Rowe et al., 2010).  Also, they have a problem controlling temper and have anger outbursts. The case of ODD is different from normal adolescent hostility patterns because they display a constant/repetitive pattern of these aggressive and abusive behaviors all aimed towards authority figures in their lives (Sanders, Gooley, & Nicholson, 2000). Children who display these types of patterns require treatment because it is often accompanied by other serious mental health illnesses which can develop into conduct disorder (Schoorl et al., 2018).  The ODD children also risk delinquency and substance abuse. While the cause of the disorder is not properly known, early interventions are advised to best deal with the condition and prevent its escalation. Learning about its risk factors also helps in its prevention.

Clinical Presentation

ODD Criteria

Children argue and disagree with the author from time to time. The same symptoms can also happen to children that are upset, hungry, or tired.  The behaviors also happen to adolescents when they are undergoing transitions, within a crisis or when under stress. Therefore, these exceptions make the diagnosis of the symptoms of ODD difficult.  The criteria of the symptoms, therefore, follows that the children display the pattern of ongoing negativity, defiance, and hostility that is: (Hamilton & Armando, 2008)

  1. Lasts for at least six months
  2. Is constant
  3. Is excessive compared with usual behaviors of children their age
  4. The child is disruptive in all their environments i.e. Scholl, home church
  5. The behavior is directed to the authority figures in their life such as teachers, guardians, coaches, etc.

ODD Symptoms (Hamilton & Armando, 2008)

  1. Excessive arguments with adults
    frequent temper tantrums
  2. Anger outbursts and resentment
  3. Refusing to comply with rules and requests
  4. Often annoyed by others
  5. Spiteful attitude and always seeking revenge
  6. Questions rules frequently
  7. Upsets and annoys others deliberately
  8. Blaming other people for their mistakes

It is important to note that with children with mood disorders such as bipolar and depression, they are not diagnosed with ODD. Typically, also, most children with ODD disorder do not exhibit delinquency.  Recently, research has also covered evidence that the ODD disorder may show different symptoms in boys and girls (Utržan et al., 2018). Girls show their symptoms mostly in words rather than indirect ways such as actions.  For example, girls would most likely lie and be uncooperative in the case when the boy would become angry and argue with the adult.

ODD Diagnosis

There is no specific medical test to determine the presence of ODD. However, a health care professional can diagnose the condition based on behaviors and symptoms through clinical experience. Physical examination and medical history form the basis of the primary analysis by the primary care physician (Sanders, Gooley, & Nicholson, 2000). The physician first looks out for any mental or physical health issues that may cause the symptoms and if they do not find any, they refer the patient to a child or adolescent psychiatrist to diagnose mental illness (Schoorl et al., 2018). The mental health professionals gather information from the child, parents, teachers, and children’s guardians. Getting more people to provide the information helps the doctor to better detect the patterns and effects of the behaviors. The diagnosis by the psychiatrist determines:

  • If the symptoms and behaviors are severe
  • If the behavior arises from stressors at home
  • If the behaviors are directed towards peers or authority figures
  • If the child reacts negatively to all adults or just a specific group

Just like with other mental health conditions, ODD is not easy to diagnose. Therefore there is a need for open communication from all the parties especially the child and the parents.  When there is openness, the psychiatrist can determine the cause of the condition and understand which category of mental health conditions it fits into.

ODD Prevalence and Incidence Rates

The prevalence of the condition is between 1% and 11% with an average of 3.3% in children and adolescents (Turner, Hu, Villa & Nock, 2018). The condition often appears in late pre-school. For the younger pre-adolescent ages, evidence shows that the condition is more present in the males than the females. The condition is however equally prevalent once the children are in adolescence because the condition becomes evident in girls after they reach puberty. ODD onset is gradual and is most evident after the age of 8yeras and not later than the early adolescence (Hamilton & Armando, 2008). Further, the conditions appear prevalently in families of low socio-economic backgrounds. The children who exhibit the symptoms early have a high likelihood of abuse from parents, school drop out, and crimes; they are also most likely to develop other mental health problems.

Causes of ODD

The main cause of ODD is not fully determined but it is thought to be caused by a combination of social, psychological, and biological factors.

Theoretical perspectives

Two theories best explain the cause of ODD in children

Developmental Theory – developmental theories work on explaining the changes that occur to the child as they grow up. They focus on the emotional, cognitive, and social growth. The theories, therefore, find the relation between children’s behaviors with their family relationships, temperaments, or age. The theories thus explain that as the child is growing, that is where the problem develops. In the case of the children with ODD, they may have had trouble leaning independence from their parents of people who are emotionally attached.  Therefore they display these symptoms as behaviors as a result of the developmental problems. They, therefore, believe that the problem then extends beyond their younger ages.

Learning Theory -The learning theory explains the concepts through which children and people absorb the process and retain knowledge within their lifetime. The learning process is also explained to be affected by emotional, cognitive, and environmental conditions. The children’s world view is dependent on these factors and the absorption of new information and knowledge. Therefore, the learning theories explain that the children learn these negative attitudes that serve as ODD symptoms. The concepts are learned from the parents, teachers, coaches, and other people in authority (Turner, Hu, Villa & Nock, 2018). The children try to mirror these behaviors within their lives. The behaviors also increase their incidence as the parents continue to give negative reinforcement because the children get attention from the parents and other authority figures

Empirical Support for ODD

Nosology Evidence

The validity of the diagnosis of disruption based disorders has been questioned for a while; more so for the females. Research by Keenan et al. (2010) used a large community sample longitudinally from the ages of 7 to 15 years. They found out that many of the children who displayed the conduct disorder showed evidence for ODD. The research also proved the degree of severity of the behavior. Rowe ate all (2010) also proved the incidence of the disease among girls in the Great Smokey Mountain study; it however proved that it wasn’t a major risk factor for CD in girls as in the case of boys. Owe ate al, also proved that the age range of 9-21 was the major incidence age for CD and ODD.

Nosology evidence has also proven the symptoms associated with ODD.

Research by Kolko and Pardini (2010) followed a group of 177 children for 3 years. It proved that the irritability symptoms of ODD were as a result of post-treatment internalizing issues. The defiant facet was the one that predicted conduct disorder and thus the externalization problems. The result was also replicated by that of Rowe at all (2010), which had a larger sample size and a longer follow up period. They discovered that the symptoms of ODD were differentiated into two; irritability and headstrong symptoms (defying and arguing with adults).

Treatment Success: Psychotherapy, Medication and Self-help Strategies

Evidence suggests that ODD is treatable or regulated through psychotherapy (Utržan et al., 2018). The application of psychotherapy has shown improvement in the children’s responses and emotions. They can succeed in improving relationships, improve in school, and decrease susceptibility to other mental health-related issues. Some medications have also come out to help with the conditions but there is no specific one specializing with ODD. Antidepressants for example has helped children better manage their emotions.  Self-help strategies applicable at home have also been proven to assist with the condition. When children improve their communication, social, and problem-solving skills, they show an improvement in their \behavior. The success of all these medication’s principles shows the evidence that the disease is real.

Factors Associated with Cause of ODD (Hamilton & Armando, 2008)

Biological Factors

  • Adolescents and children are more susceptible to the condition if they have:
  • A parent with any form of mood disorder conditions such as bipolar or depression disorder
  • A parent with a history of conduct disorder, Oppositional defiant disorder of Attention deficit or hyperactivity disorder
  • A parent with a drug problem or drinking disorder
  • Have an impairment in the brain section that deals with impulse control, reasoning or judgment
  • Exposure to toxins
  • A mother who smoked during pregnancy
  • Poor nutrition
  • Brain chemical imbalance

Psychological factors

  • Poor relationship with parents
  • An absent or neglectful parent
  • Problem creating social relationships

Social factors

  • Abusive relationships with adults and parents
  • Neglect from guardians
  • Uninvolved parents
  • Inconsistent discipline
  • Chaotic environment
  • Family instability
  • Lack of supervision
  • Poor social-economic background

ODD Occurrence with other conditions

ODD can occur in children at the same time as other treatable mental health conditions.  Some of the conditions that can coexist with ODD include: (Turner, Hu, Villa & Nock, 2018)

  • Anxiety disorders
  • ADHD
  • Learning disorders
  • Language disorder
  • Mood disorders

Previous research in the study of ODD shows that some children display ODD symptoms as a management tactic for anxiety (Utržan et al., 2018). Anxiety disorders manifest themselves almost similar to ODD because they make the child respond to instability and uncertainty within the child’s school and home environment.  Therefore this similarity increases the chances of the two conditions happening together.  ADHD is the most common condition to coexist with ODD because both share the disruptive symptoms (Turner, Hu, Villa & Nock, 2018). However, in the case that a child or adolescent has both conditions, they have more negative behaviors, are more aggressive, and perform poorly in school than ODD alone.

ODD happens to also precursor CD which is a more serious condition that results in destructive and antisocial behavior.  CD however appears when children are older than preschool. The children who have ODD and ADHD increase their susceptibility to CD which results in a mood disorder and antisocial characters later within their lives. Treatments exist that can deal with coexisting conditions and preserve the mental health of a child.

Prevention of ODD

Research by Burke, Loeber, and, Birmaher B (2002) shows that ODD is preventable when the early intervention takes place. When a child is exposed to individual therapy and some social school-based programs, they can beat the condition before it gets too far.  A head start program that begins in preschool has been proven to help children prevent delinquency and perform better in class. The head start program teaches students social skills, conflict resolution, communication skills, and anger management. It works even better when it targets children from lower social-economic situations. For the bigger children and adolescents, vocational training, psychotherapy and social skills training can work towards reducing the behavior (Turner, Hu, Villa & Nock, 2018). School-based programs that deal with bullying, social behavior, and improving peer friendships can help with the adolescent’s behaviors. The parent also requires training to develop nurturing abilities and setting up boundaries with their child; this way they can better handle the relationships with their child.

Treatment of ODD

No specific treatment would fit it all on treating ODD and it thus requires an assortment of methods.  Each child requires tailoring of the treatment plans to fit the personal needs and symptoms of the child. The best treatment will thus depend on the child’s age, the presence of coexisting problems, and the severity of conditions. Parents also need to participate in the treatment procedure as their goals and circumstances play a part in easing the healing process. In most cases, the treatment procedure lasts several months and thus those involved with the care of the child require being committed. The types of treatment include:

Medication – medication is also necessary for controlling more distressing behaviors (Schoorl et al., 2018). In the case of the presence of a coexisting condition, medication also deals with them. However, only medication cannot serve a solution to the problem.

Individual Cognitive behavioral therapy – this therapy works on the individual to help them cultivate coping mechanisms and positive behavior.  They are taught anger management, problem-solving, and controlling emotions.  The therapist also helps the individual to come up with positive alternative behaviors. The success of this therapy is most felt when the child is between 2-7 years when the social interactions are not hard to change (Turner, Hu, Villa & Nock, 2018). The procedure is more effective compared to other therapy forms

Family Therapy and parent Management Training programs – these types of therapy work on educating the family members more so the parents on ways of managing the child’s behavior. Techniques of positive reinforcement and discipline are important aspects taught within this form of therapy.

Parent-child interaction therapy – the therapy happens to mend the strained relationships between the parents and the child caused by the negative behaviors (Utržan et al., 2018). The parents listen to the therapist and interact with the child as they relate the parenting skills.

Group Therapy – Adolescents having the ODD can work together in group therapy to work out a better outcome.  The method is effective because it helps an individual to be more aware of themselves based on what they listen about others with the same issues (Webster-Stratton & Reid, 2018).

Cognitive Problem-solving Skills Training – The children are involved in inappropriate behavior because they lack positive ways of reacting to stressful conditions.  The program thus equips them with this information to substitute them with their negative ways of responding to life situations (Webster-Stratton & Reid, 2018). Thus, the children get a proper world view and learn the best responses.

Social skills program and school-based programs – The programs help the children to relate more positively and improve their school work (Webster-Stratton & Reid, 2018).  They are more successful because they happen in the child’s natural environment; that is the school.

The treatment value depending on the age group of the child.  Younger preschool children have therapies focusing on parent management training. School-age children work better with a combination of individual therapy, school-based intervention, and parent management training. Adolescents on the other hand work best with parent management training and group therapy. The problem-solving skills training is tailored depending on the age and the behaviors of the particular child. (Utržan et al., 2018)

Medication alone does not work to improve the condition of the ODD child. When it is used in combination with other remedies, it serves good purposes.  It helps deal with certain excessive behaviors and other coexisting problems such as anxiety disorder, ADHD, and mood disorder.  Treating these coexisting conditions lessens the behavioral symptoms of ODD.

Most treatment plans for youngsters and youths with ODD last a few months or more. For those with an increasingly extreme ODD or ODD that doesn’t react to treatment, treatment can last numerous years and may incorporate the situation in a treatment place (Utržan et al., 2018). A private treatment place just ought to be considered for families who can’t give treatment at home or school. In-home administrations are desirable over private positions and are frequently supported by state and neighborhood youngster government assistance offices.

Specialists concur that treatments are given in a one-time or brief style, such as training camps, strong but fair affection camps, or alarm strategies, are not viable for kids, what’s more, young people with ODD. These methodologies may accomplish more damage than good. Attempting to panic or coercively pressure kids and youths into acting may just strengthen forceful behavior. Kids react best to treatment that rewards positive conduct and instructs them abilities to oversee negative conduct.

Does ODD Improve Over Time

For numerous youngsters, ODD improves after some time. Follow-up researchers have discovered that roughly 67 percent of kids determined to have ODD who gotten treatment will be side effect free for three years (Schoorl et al., 2018). Be that as it may, other studies additionally show that roughly 30 percent of youngsters who were determined to have ODD will proceed to create CD. Different examinations show that when the social side effects of ODD start in early life (preschool or prior), the kid or pre-adult will have less possibility of being side effect free further down the road (Utržan et al., 2018). Additionally, the danger of creating CD is three times more noteworthy for youngsters who were at first analyzed in preschool.

Furthermore, preschool youngsters with ODD are bound to have existing together conditions, for example, ADHD, nervousness issue, or state of mind issue (gloom or then again bipolar turmoil) further down the road. In all age gatherings, roughly 10 percent of kids and young people determined to have an ODD will in the end build up an all the more enduring character clutter, for example, reserved character issues.

Case Study

Mary brings her child John, 7 years old, to the general expert. Mary says that she can’t deal with his conduct at home and that the teacher has said that he won’t adhere to directions in the class and is harassing his companions. The general practitioner asks how the kid behaved like a little child. He discovers that John would cry often and that it took Mary a long time to calm him. As a little child, if Mary attempted to expel something he needed, John would pitch fits enduring for as long as 30 minutes. As he grew, John would frequently kick his mom and decline to do what she inquired. Presently he argues with her consistently, even about little things. He battles day by day with his ten-year-old sister, Brenda, and consistently accuses her when things go wrong.

Mary reports that she felt deficient as a parent and became discouraged when John was around a year and a half old enough. Further addressing the home circumstance decided that John’s dad, Tom, regularly loses his temper and yells at his better half and kids. The family is encountering budgetary troubles and Tom is frequently unemployed.

John’s teacher thinks that John can do his homework yet is stubborn and won’t participate in tasks with different classmates. He escapes his seat normally and strolls around the room. He will regularly flick different kids on the arms and remove their pencils. He experiences issues making companions as he generally needs them to play his games, what’s more, he will shout at them if they don’t do what he wants.

At the point when the GP gets some information about school and home, John reveals to him that he hasn’t done anything incorrectly and that everybody singles out him and that he gets accused of everything. It’s John’s view that everybody needs him to carry on better and that they should simply disregard him.

For this situation, John meets the criteria for a diagnosis of ODD. He has a background marked by a troublesome demeanor, has been unfriendly toward his mom since he was a baby, what’s more, has experienced issues since entering the preschool framework meeting the teacher’s expectations for conduct and making companions








Hamilton, S. S., & Armando, J. (2008). Oppositional defiant disorder. American family physician, 78(7), 861-866.

Keenan, K., Wroblewski, K., Hipwell, A., Loeber, R., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (2010). Age of onset, symptom threshold, and expansion of the nosology of conduct disorder for girls. Journal of abnormal psychology, 119(4), 689.

Kolko, D. J., & Pardini, D. A. (2010). ODD dimensions, ADHD, and callous-unemotional traits as predictors of treatment response in children with disruptive behavior disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 119(4), 713.

Loeber, R., Burke, J. D., Lahey, B. B., Winters, A., & Zera, M. (2000). Oppositional defiant and conduct disorder: a review of the past 10 years, part I. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 39(12), 1468-1484.

Rowe, R., Costello, E. J., Angold, A., Copeland, W. E., & Maughan, B. (2010). Developmental pathways in oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. Journal of abnormal psychology, 119(4), 726.

Rowe, R., Maughan, B., Pickles, A., Costello, E. J., & Angold, A. (2002). The relationship between DSM‐IV oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder: findings from the Great Smoky Mountains Study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43(3), 365-373.

School, J., van Rijn, S., de Wied, M., Van Goozen, S., & Swaab, H. (2018). Boys with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder show impaired adaptation during stress: An executive functioning study. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 49(2), 298-307.

Turner, B. J., Hu, C., Villa, J. P., & Nock, M. K. (2018). Oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder.

Utržan, D. S., Piehler, T. F., Dishion, T. J., Lochman, J. E., & Matthys, W. (2018). The role of deviant peers in oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. The Wiley handbook of disruptive and impulse-control disorders, 339.

Webster-Stratton, C., & Reid, M. J. (2018). The Incredible Years parents, teachers, and children training series: A multifaceted treatment approach for young children with conduct problems

Sanders, M. R., Gooley, S., & Nicholson, J. (2000). Early Intervention in Conduct Problems in Children. Clinical Approaches to Early Intervention in Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Volume 3. Australian Early Intervention Network for Mental Health in Young People, c/o CAMHS Southern, Flinders Medical Center, Bedford Park, South Australia 5042. For full text: http://auseinet. flinders. edu. au..


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Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) Research Paper Outline

  1. Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)

Oppositional defiant disorder is a disorder in a child marked by defiance and disobedient behavior to authority figures. It is estimated that 2 in 16 of children have the oppositional defiant disorder, with it being common in boys than girls of a younger age. The symptoms of ODD are noticed when the child is around eight years old, including defiant behavior, vindictiveness, hostility towards peers, aggression and argumentative behavior, and an irritable mood. The cause of ODD is unclear but has been found to likely involve genetic and environmental factors or developmental problems or can be learned from another child. ODD can be distinguished from a typically disruptive behavior by noticing the severity of the behavior and how long it lasts. There are many risk factors associated with ODD, the hallmark being experiencing life stress and trauma.

  1. Clinical Presentation
  2. ODD Criteria

A pattern of angry/irritable mood, argumentative/defiant behavior, or vindictiveness lasting

at least 6 months as evidenced by at least four symptoms from any of the following categories, and exhibited during interaction with at least one individual who is not a sibling.

  1. ODD Symptoms
  2. Angry/Irritable Mood
  3. Often loses temper.
  4. Is often touchy or easily annoyed.
  5. Is often angry and resentful.
  6. Argumentative/Defiant Behavior
  7. Often argues with authority figures or, for children and adolescents, with adults.
  8. Often actively defies or refuses to comply with requests from authority figures or

with rules.

  1. Often deliberately annoys others.
  2. Often blames others for his or her mistakes or misbehavior.
  3. Vindictiveness
  4. Has been spiteful or vindictive at least twice within the past 6 months.

Symptoms of ODD may include:

III.  Prevalence/Incidence Rates

The prevalence of oppositional defiant disorder ranges from 1% to 11%, with an average

prevalence estimate of around 3.3%. The rate of oppositional defiant disorder may vary

depending on the age and gender of the child. The disorder appears to be somewhat more

prevalent in males than in females (1.4:1) prior to adolescence. This male predominance is

not consistently found in samples of adolescents or adults.

  1. Causes

There is no clear-cut cause of ODD. However, most experts believe that a combination of biological, psychological, genetics, environmental, and social risk factors play a role in the development of the disorder.

  1. Theoretical Perspectives
  2. Developmental theory. This theory suggests that the problems start when children are toddlers. Children and teens with ODD may have had trouble learning to become independent from a parent or other main person to whom they were emotionally attached. Their behavior may be normal developmental issues that are lasting beyond the toddler years.
  3. Learning theory. This theory suggests that the negative symptoms of ODD are learned attitudes. They mirror the effects of negative reinforcement methods used by parents and others in power. The use of negative reinforcement increases the child’s ODD behaviors because these behaviors allow the child to get what he or she wants: attention and reaction from parents or others.
  4. Empirical Support
  5. Psychotherapy (Behavioral Parent Training)
  6. Medications
  7. Self Help Strategies
  8. Factors
  9. Biological Factors

Children and adolescents are more susceptible to developing ODD if they have:

  • A parent with a history of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), ODD, or CD
  • A parent with a mood disorder (such as depression or bipolar disorder)
  • A parent who has a problem with drinking or substance abuse
  • Impairment in the part of the brain responsible for reasoning, judgment, and impulse control
  • A brain-chemical imbalance
  • A mother who smoked during pregnancy
  • Exposure to toxins
  • Poor nutrition
  1.   Psychological Factors
  • A poor relationship with one or more parent
  • A neglectful or absent parent
  • Difficulty or inability to form social relationships or process social cues
  1. Social Factors
  • Poverty
  • Chaotic environment
  • Abuse
  • Neglect
  • Lack of supervision
  • Uninvolved parents
  • Inconsistent discipline
  • Family instability (such as divorce or frequent moves)
  1. Genetic Factors
  2. Environmental Factors
  3. Treatment Approaches/Outcomes
  4. Psycho-education is used to help the child and/or parent or caregiver understand how the child’s diagnosis, strategies to manage the child’s symptoms and behaviors, and treatment options.
  5. Social skills training is a proven treatment approach to improving peer relationships that pose difficulty with children with ODD, Children struggling with extreme emotional dysregulation may also benefit from dialectical behavior therapy (DBT). DBT is designed to identify and change negative thinking patterns to enforce positive behavioral changes.
  6. Parent-child interaction therapy is designed to focus on strained relationships that may be contributing to the behaviors. During parent-child interaction therapy allows family members to interact while listening to recommendations from the therapist behind a one-way mirror, so the individual will relate the parenting skills with the parent and not the therapist.
  7. Group therapy is proven to be very helpful treatment approach in ODD. Group therapy allows individuals to develop self-awareness by listening to others with similar issues.
  8. Individual Cognitive Behavioral Therapy teach individuals with ODD various techniques for reducing anger, controlling emotions, and solving problems. Individual Cognitive Behavioral Therapy can provide positive alternative behaviors to replace defiant ones. Individual Cognitive Behavioral Therapy works best when the child is between the ages of 2-7 and when family and social interactions aren’t difficult to change. Numerous research findings suggest that Individual Cognitive Behavioral Therapy leads to considerable improvement in functioning and quality of life. In many studies, Individual Cognitive Behavioral Therapy has been demonstrated to be as effective as, or more effective than, other forms of psychological therapy or psychiatric medications.
  9. Medication is helpful in managing symptoms of ODD. Although there is no FDA-approved medication for ODD. However, antipsychotic medications are frequently prescribed to help minimize symptoms and behaviors associated with ODD. Clinical experience has shown that the majority of individuals diagnosed with ODD show signs of improvement with a low dose of antipsychotic medications.
  10. Core Value-Respect

Different treatment approach is based and build on respect.  During cognitive Behavioral therapy one session can be solely on treating others with respect.

VII. Case Example

Calen, a 7 year old male, has been exhibiting an increase in behavior over the past 7 months. Calen has been displaying anger, aggression and disruptive behaviors in the home and school settings. Calen’s anger has resulted in him throwing the remote control to his video game and breaking the arm on the chair. Calen will argue with his parents and teachers and become disrespectful by talking back to authority figures. Calen has difficulty following rules and will stay out past his curfew and refuse to do his chores when directed. Calen often disrupts the classroom setting by making weird noises and banging on the desk during instruction time. When confronted with his behaviors, Calen has difficulty accepting responsibility for his actions and will blame others. Calen’s sisters state that Calen is purposely annoying by standing in front of the television while they are watching their show and pulling their hair and running. Calen’s parents explained that Calen’s behaviors are causing significant impairment in the home and school settings.

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Produce an original opinion based on assigned literature.

The forum for this week addresses the third learning objective:  Produce an original opinion based on assigned literature.

Which character in Wuthering Heights do you find most interesting? This could be the character you find most relatable, repulsive, complex, caring, strange, etc. Pretend you are this character and write a diary entry. You could consider what motivates the character, how he or she feels about other characters, what he or she will do in the future, etc. Be sure to go beyond the plot summary and develop insights into the character you have selected. If you have not finished the novel, answer this question based on what you know thus far about the character.

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Work Experience in Technical Assistance

Please provide a one paragraph answer to each question:

  1. Describe any experience you have in providing technical assistance or training.
  2. Describe any experience you have in writing guidance, policies, or procedures.
  3. What does customer service mean to you?

Describe any experience you have in providing technical assistance or training.

As a tax technician dealing with court-ordered debt collections and business entity collection in Franchise Tax Board, part of the job was to perform manual worklists utilizing skip tracing techniques to locate or validate information. This involved technical skills in using TLO and IDICORE software to collect debt overdue and accounts receivable. My ability to navigate such software and others was useful in evaluating financial statements and also helped to manage workloads and competing priorities. The use of these software has helped in the recommendation of payment plans to different business owners and the negotiation of their payment. I oversaw the management and supervision of other employees in the absence of the supervisors and managers. This enabled me to provide technical assistance and to train the software to the other staff, which improved my leadership skills and ability to work in and as a team with my colleagues.

Describe any experience you have in writing guidance, policies, or procedures.

During my time at the Franchise Tax Board, I garnered knowledge about the Franchise Tax Board systems such as case management, Taxpayer Information system, Taxpayer folder, Business Entities Tax systems, Accounts Receivable Collections systems, Integrated Nonfiler Compliance, eGateway and Security of State. This knowledge was useful since I had to explain laws, rules, and regulations to taxpayers, business owners, or representatives in either written form or verbally. I had to demonstrate knowledge of policies and procedures administered by the department, which was helpful in skillful negotiations to obtain a voluntary resolution from the taxpayer. Part of my job was also to implement Human Resource policies and procedures to ensure compliance with both the labor and employment laws. While I was a personal banker at Wells Fargo, it was important to maintain a thorough understanding of state and federal policies and regulations. This was useful in taking charge of daily operations and readiness of the yearly audit too.

What does customer service mean to you?

Customer service is ensuring the client is satisfied with the service provided by either exceeding or meeting their expectations. During my time as a customer service associate in Walgreens, I was responsible for handling cash register operations and merchandising tasks to ensure compliance. My proficiency in MS Office (word, excel, and outlook) aided in the accurate and efficient entry of data into a computerized database to safeguard sensitive and confidential information. My ability to be friendly and provide courteous services to the customers yielded 5star ratings on the customer service provided. Customer service is important to manage multiple priorities and complete them within the established time frame for customer satisfaction. I was able to learn how to interact with different types of customers depending on their mood, age, or their intellectual abilities.

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Opportunity where you used your analytical skills to provide recommendation to management


Tell us about an assignment or opportunity where you used your analytical skills to provide recommendation to management. What did you do? What research steps did you take? What was the outcome?

During my time at the Franchise Tax Board as a court-ordered debt collector, one of the taxpayers had underreported their income. This was not the first time that this particular taxpayer was being selected for an audit. Through the help of the Franchise Tax Board’s CP-2000 program, a computer program developed to identify such individuals, the FTB called for a tax audit on the taxpayer. As per the steps taken during an audit, I assigned the taxpayer a specific auditor. Since this was not the first audit to be carried out on his account, a lot of time was taken to compare the federal and state tax information on the returns.

I notified the taxpayer of the audit to be carried out together with the taxpayer’s rights.  He needed to provide documentation of his tax returns to the auditor. With the use of the Franchise Tax Board and tax law information, I analyzed the taxpayer’s returns by searching for any discrepancies. It was evident that the taxpayer owed money to the FTB, together with interest and penalties. An NPA was issued to the taxpayer informing him of the additional charges he faced, as per the tax law where a tax debt accrues interest until it is paid.

In the outcome, the taxpayer did not file for a protest but instead requested a permanent waiver on his electronic transactions. This was permitted since he did not have an extension payment worth more than $20000. He also requested for an instalment plan on his assessed tax. In the end, the FTB got their dues, and the taxpayer avoided additional penalties.

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Love in Wuthering Heights and Relevance in Victorian Literature.

Love in Wuthering Heights and Relevance in Victorian Literature.

Wuthering Heights is a classic novel that can be termed as both realistic and gothic. It is also not unusual or irrelevant to term it as a romantic novel. The characters and setting created by Emily Bronte are a clear depiction of what took place in the ordinary lives of the people during the Victorian era. Wuthering Heights, as one of the books during this era, helps in bringing out elements covered by the Victorian literature. Themes like social status, the woman question, progress in terms of education status and wealth, religion, and nostalgia about the past were unique to this literature. Love in wuthering heights is influenced by some of these elements, as shown by its characters. This paper focuses on how social status, religion, and progress influences love in Wuthering Heights.

Catherine Earnshaw’s character shows how social status affects love. She has a profound affection for her adopted brother Heathcliff who was found in Liverpool by Mr. Earnshaw. Despite growing up together in Wuthering Heights, Heathcliff still speaks in a vulgar manner, which is associated with lower-class people. His social status is further depreciated when Hindley, Catherine’s brother, takes over Wuthering Heights after their father’s death and reduces him to a servant. When Catherine returns home to Wuthering Heights after staying at the Linton’s, a wealthy family living in Thrushcross Grange, she has improved manners. She has become more etiquette and has formed a friendship with Edgar Linton, a boy from a higher social class. Catherine, though aware of her love for Heathcliff, decides to marry Edgar because he is of a higher social status. She confesses to Nelly, “I’ve no more business to marry Edgar Linton than I have to be in heaven; and if the wicked man in there had not brought Heathcliff so low, I shouldn’t have thought of it” (Bronte 21).

Marriage during the Victorian era was hardly based on love but class. Therefore, companionship was arguably the only thing that mattered when it came to choosing a marriage partner, Catherine Earnshaw knows this, and that is why she chooses Edgar for marriage. When Nelly asks her why she is going to marry Edgar, she can hardly explain why she loves him, but she is assured their companionship is a great reason why they should be together. Catherine compares what she feels for him to what she feels for Heathcliff. She goes on to say, “My love for Linton is like the foliage in the woods: time will change it, I’m well aware, as winter changes the trees. My love for Heathcliff resembles the eternal rocks beneath a source of little visible delight, but necessary” (Bronte 21). The same can be said for the love between Catherine Linton and Linton Heathcliff. Their love was based on them knowing each other. One can say it is forced since Heathcliff wants Catherine Linton for his son Linton Heathcliff. They have entirely different views on the same matters, “I said his heaven would be only half alive, and he said mine would be drunk: I said I should fall asleep in his, and he said he could not breathe in mine, and began to grow very snappish” (Bronte 26).

Love takes the form of religion in Wuthering Heights, which acts as a shield to those who fear death and loss of identity and consciousness, in this case, both Catherine Earnshaw and Heathcliff. This is evident in the speeches given by both characters, whereby they both believe and feel they are one, and none cannot live without the other. On her deathbed, Heathcliff says, “I CANNOT live without my life! I CANNOT live without my soul” (Bronte 24). Their love attempts to break the boundaries of both love and death. They both hope to be with each other even after death, just as Christians believe in life after death.

Love in the Victorian period was encircled by the need for progress in literacy levels. This is depicted in wuthering heights by Catherine Linton Heathcliff and her need to educate or help educate Hareton Earnshaw. Hareton’s father, Hindley Earnshaw, does the minimum to cater to his needs after his mother’s death. This leaves Hareton in the hands of Nelly, who is from a lower social status. He never has the chance to learn. Cathy’s and Hareton’s love is the least selfish compared to the love between all characters. It lacks the destructiveness witnessed in Catherine and Heathcliff’s love, “the savage and passion-hate love they share” (Goodlett 316).

Emily Bronte clarifies how to love in the Victorian era was influenced by what people thought was right other than feelings of affection towards a person. During the Victorian period, it is clear that social status, religion, and progress had a large part to play in matters of love and marriage.











Work Cited

Brontë, Emily. Wuthering heights. Smith, Elder, 1870.

Goodlett, Debra. “Love and addiction in Wuthering Heights.” The Midwest Quarterly 37.3 (1996): 316.

Phillips, James. “The Two Faces of Love, in Wuthering Heights.” Bronte Studies 32.2 (2007): 96-105

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Discuss the problem of love in Wuthering Heights and how it fits with relevant elements of Victorian literature.

Assignment Instructions

Instructions:  Develop an essay of 750-1,000 words. Be sure to argue a particular point of view in your essay (your thesis) and cite varied examples from the readings in MLA format in order to support your perspective. Include a works cited page. Additional MLA information can be found in the week’s readings. Please submit your essay to the assignment section of the course. This assignment is worth 15% of your final grade.


Up to this point we have discussed two literary movements, the Romantic period and the Victorian era. You will select one era and in partial fulfillment of Course Objective 4, you will discuss a literary movement in connection with one of our assigned readings.

Select one of the following topics as the focus for your essay:


1.     Discuss Wordsworth’s depiction of nature and how this relates to the Romantic movement in one of the assigned poems from Lyrical Ballads

2.     Identify and discuss elements of nature in one of the assigned poems by Coleridge and explain how they relate to the Romantic movement.

3.     Discuss the problem of love in Wuthering Heights and how it fits with relevant elements of Victorian literature.

4.     Discuss the symbolic significance of the various settings in Wuthering Heights, particularly Wuthering Heights, Thrushcross Grange and the moors, in connection with relevant elements of Victorian literature.

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English Major and Wuthering Heights

English Major and Wuthering Heights

I intend to be an author. That is why I am taking a major in English. I would especially like to specialize in realism, naturalism, and gothic kinds of novels. Realism is characterized by complex characters with mixed motives in different social classes under various social structures. Wuthering heights being one of the realistic books during the Victorian era has a profound impact on my intended career path. Emily Bronte brings in not her suffering but of the world around her by idealizes reality about the social structure during the Victorian era, in Heathcliff and Catherine’s romance. Catherine refuses to marry Heathcliff because she sees him as a downgrade to her despite having affection towards him. The home setting of Wuthering Heights and that of Thrushcross Grange represents the ordinary daily lives of people.

Emily does not create characters with stereotyped behaviors but instead brings out the perfect-imperfect nature of human beings through her characters. For example, though Catherine Earnshaw is beautiful as told by Nelly “she had the bonniest eye, the sweetest smile”, she contains her dark sides and nelly describes her as proud. Heathcliff’s character, on the other hand, is not romanticized. His rogue and alienated nature are as a result of his childhood experiences in the hands of Hindley Earnshaw.

Emily feeds my appetite for gothic novels as it features a ghost story genre as part of its realism. Catherine Earnshaw is a ghost, and she scares Lockwood when he arrives at Wuthering heights. Besides, there seem to be tales that warn of evil spirits as Nelly narrates of “the old man by the kitchen fire” who swears he sees a ghost. In Victorian literature, the lower class was more believing in spirits than the upper level, and Emily brings this out clearly in Wuthering Heights.

Wuthering Heights is a classic novel that combines both realism and gothic themes, which act as a base or reference for my career path.


Brontë, E. (1870). Wuthering heights. Smith, Elder.

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Individual Analysis Wuthering heights.

The forum for this week addresses the third learning objective:  Produce an original opinion based on assigned literature.

Literature is shaped by the society it was created in and typically contains ideas, themes or issues which are timeless. Our own experiences shape how we approach literature and how we discern major themes.

What is your intended career path? How has your major field of study impacted how you have read and interpreted assigned readings for this course? For example, a student working towards a degree in International Relations may apply a political lens to a reading whereas a Psychology major may instead focus on an author?s motivation and life experiences. Please be sure to share specific examples in application to one of the pieces or authors we read during weeks 1 or 2.


Brontë, E. (1870). Wuthering heights. Smith, Elder.

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