Iconographic Apparatus




Iconographic Apparatus


Figure 1: Salted Paper Print by Reverend Calvert Jones, A history of design, 1970.

Figure 1 represents the historical development of the first available photographs.  The photo was printed in a Salted paper print produced by Reverend Calvert Jones in England in 1845.  It was among the first ever reproduced pictures in England. The primary focus of the image was a church which was a perfect shot for the type of the cameras because the church was still.

Figure 2: Photo by Augustine Salzmann, A history of design, 1970.


The picture was taken by Augustine Salzmann of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre on Jerusalem in the year 1854. It was part of the first uses of photography for the documentation of the early Christian life. The Church was a holy place used during the medieval era, and the campaign sought to document the archeological aspects of the medieval period in the regions of Asia and the Middle East.

Figure 3: Photo by John Siskin, Picturing Rooms, 2010.

John Siskin photographed it in the year 2009; in addition to this, it is also used by Carter et al. (2010) to depict the uses of lenses to produce a panoramic view of internal photography. The lenses used for the picture was one with 100 degrees field of vision. The usage of a broader lens gives a better picture than a lower one even when equipped with the zoom feature; arguably, most clients seek more expansive images resulting in the lens selection becoming handy in this case.

Figure 4: Photo by John Siskin, Picturing Rooms, 2010.

The picture was taken by John Siskin in 2009 with the use of Umbrella lighting. The image depicts the use of umbrellas to spread the illumination. Use of umbrellas depends on the fabric and use of holes within its surface. The photo made use of a modified umbrella with a hole at the center of the camera and ambient light; arguably, this setup aided in the reduction of shadows and a good spread of the brightness.





Figure 5: Hirsch raw photo, Seizing the Light, 2017.

Figure 6: Hirsch photo edited and 1.5 stops darker, Seizing the Light, 2017.

Figure 7: Hirsch photo edited and 1.5 stops brighter, Seizing the Light, 2017.



Figure 8: Hirsch photo edited using Tungsten balancing, Seizing the Light, 2017.

The four images were taken by in 2017 for the Journal ‘Seizing the Light’. They are used to depict the uses of a software-based editor to change the lighting within raw pictures. Figure 5 represents the original photo that has poor lighting and sharper shadows. The other images make use of Photoshop as their editor. The snapshot in Figure 6 uses Photoshop to make it 1.5stops darker and puts detail to the highlights of the original photo; whereas Figure 7 represents a stop and brighter picture. It has enhanced the shadows also. Finally, the bottom right image depicted in Figure 8 is tungsten balanced; an effect available within the software. It has a cleaned up color of the chandelier.

Figure 8: Hirsch photo using LDR and HDR dynamic range, Seizing the Light, 2017.

Figure 9 represents two pictures taken by Hirsch in 2007, with the one at far right using LDR, while the left one is an HDR version of the same. Dynamic range in photography determines the amount of light reaching the object. To reveal details under the high shadows, HDR should be used; their measurement occurs through reading the exposure value (EV) exposure value. Through the efficiency of lighting provided by HDR, the left image is brighter than the left one even without the loss of original detail or an over-processed look.



Carter, S.A., 2010. Picturing Rooms: Interior Photography 1870–1900. History of Photography, 34(3), pp.251-267.

Ferebee, A., 1970. A history of design from the Victorian era to the present: A survey of the modern style in architecture, interior design, industrial design, graphic design, and photography. Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Hirsch, R., 2017. Seizing the Light: A Social & Aesthetic History of Photography. Taylor & Francis.



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