Safety Plan (SPSS) for an organisation
A site-specific safety plan is an effective communication tool that outlines the safety and health policy management within a site. It provides the relevant site information updated to ensure the health and safety elements are continually monitored. It speculates the possibility of risks through a thorough risk assessment and creates the right measures to prevent risks, emergency response activities, and allows for the right training activities, proper material handling, and engineering controls. This paper is therefore site-specific to Davis Constructors and Engineers Inc. within their University of Alaska Fairbanks Project.
Organization, site and activity description
The project undertaken by Davis Constructors and Engineers Inc. is the construction of the University of Alaska Fairbanks Project. This construction will involve construction on a 101,000sq ft. area. The main building will involve a foundation to the bedrock then followed by a four-floor above the ground building. Accompanied to this building will be a mechanical penthouse with type 2 core resistive construction. Outside of the ground building will be a utilidor modification and an access point for pedestrians to get to another building. The planning and construction of these elements will introduce code mandated special engineering solutions with also civil and mechanical constructions with a foundational 20feed excavation in depth.
The project is located on the UAF Bristol Bay campus located on 527 Seward St, Dillingham, AK 99576, United States.
The site has set up several temporary facilities to see through the day to day running of the operations. There are two field offices, six subcontractors, and crew trailers adjacent to the site. Different storage facilities are also present including fuel storage, tools storage trailer, equipment storage. There is also a temporary toilet within the site area. Different utilities are also present within the location. There is a temporary electrical power supply that is fed into the project from the preexisting power supply from the campus. There is also a temporary generator for emergency cases and small lighting for the system.
Site Risk Assessment
Potential Physical Hazards
Slips and trips
A third of the serious injuries within a working construction site are caused by slipping within level surfaces (Jayasudha & Vidivelli, 2016). Those who are at this risk are all the members who work within the site including the contractors, employees, clients, visitors, and the general public. The risk likelihood is very high with moderate severity. It, therefore, results in a moderate risk level which would warrant action to be taken to prevent it.
Working at a Height
Fatalities within a construction site also arise from falls over 2m. Since the building will involve several floors and excavation of more than 20feet, there is a high-risk likelihood (Jayasudha & Vidivelli, 2016). It will potentially affect all the staff members, visitors, and contractors. Since the risk level is high, and the severity is also high, It warrants necessary action to be taken.
Moving Parts and Machinery
Construction equipment would be used within the site and most of them have moving parts that may cause a risk. The control of these moving parts is subject to e Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 regulations (Timofeeva Ulrikh, & Tsvetkun, 2017). The regulations state that access to these moving segments has to be prevented when they are in motion because of these moving parts in machinery, there is a risk especially to the contractors and employees operating the machines or who are close. There is also some risk to visitors. The risk likelihood is low but with high severity. It, therefore, requires several actions to be in places such as protective devices, guards, protective gear, and training of the staff and supervision.
The construction site has electricity thus uses electrical equipment including portable ones that have long terminations or extension cables. Electricity and the equipment pose the risk of electrical shock to the staff and fire (Timofeeva Ulrikh, & Tsvetkun, 2017). The risks arise because of the unsafe location of electrical outlets, faulty wires or equipment, and improper use of cords and extensions. All the staff, contractors, and visitors are at risk. The risk likelihood is low but with a severity between slight and major, therefore the necessary systems should be in place to mitigate the risk.
The excavation and use of construction materials present the case for duct. Dust progresses the risk of lungs and respiratory problems when present in significant proportions (Janani, Chakravarthy & Yazhini, 2016). At different stages of the construction, the risk level will be high such as when mixing concrete and when excavating. The necessary procedures should be followed and the right guards used.
A third of three-day workplace injuries arise from the manual handling operations. It is especially prone to construction and civil but the severity would be severe as it is a high claim area for musculoskeletal disorders (Janani, Chakravarthy & Yazhini, 2016). Those affected by the risk are mostly the employees. There should be proper supervision and safe practices to reduce them.
There are numerous fires experienced each year within construction sites. The severity of the fires may be bag enough to risk the lives of the construction workers and the general public around the site. There should be enough measures taken towards preventing and controlling such a case scenario.
Potential Psychosocial Disorders
Musculoskeletal Disorder – These include pains within the musculoskeletal structure. It comes from pain, injuries within the muscles, ligaments, joints, neck back, and limbs. It may be caused by constant working under harsh conditions or injury (Maqsoom et al., 2020).
Nutritional Imbalance – A balanced meal should contain carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, minerals, fats. Most of the workers only concentrate on carbohydrates and proteins.
Claustrophobia – it arises from an intense fear of tight and crowded spaces (Javaid et al., 2016). Some workers might face the challenge within the excavation and in construction of small spaces.
Acrophobia – it is the fear of heights. Going four-floor up might result in the risk of some of the workers getting it (Javaid et al., 2016).
Generalized Anxiety disorder – it is the persistent worry about issues such as family, money, home, works among others. Workers may also face such type of problem.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder – it requires workers to perform some functions, routines or thoughts continuously
Sleep Disturbance – workers may face a lack of sleep caused by constant worry, exhaustion, and other anxiety conditions.
Hazard Control and Management
General Job Site Procedure
New Hire Orientation
A very new hire will be provided with a health and Safety policy and drug alcohol policy to read and sign acceptance of the policies. Next, they will be oriented on every aspect of the construction site, all emergency facilities, and contacts. The supervisor will then explain the injury and accident policy and go through the use of PPEs and reading the hazard signs. The supervisor will also explain the emergency response plan and issue them with all the PPEs.
The success of the policy will be assured with constant training of the staff, management, and contractors. Training will help to inform on how to recognize the hazards and to create awareness of procedures to follow to minimize the risks. Weekly staff training should carry out the form of meetings. New hires should also get training. Each section of the construction should receive relevant safety and health training specific to their roles, equipment, and workload.
The Jobsite should carry our weekly safety meetings with the attendance of all employees and contractors. Safety-related topics, policy changes would be addressed within these meetings. The management staff would organize their safety meetings every month.
The foreman and the superintendent should carry out safety inspections at the beginning of the project using the safety guidelines provided with the site plan. Daily inspection before the start of working should also be carried out by the supervisors of each section of the construction. Daily inspection sheets should be filled and presented to the foreman before the start of the work.
Daily cleanup of the work site will be done daily after completion of the day. Form material will also be scrapped and all protruding nails pounded down. Debris will also be cleared in the passageways (Aboagye-Nimo, & Emuze, 2017). All tools should be laced within the right storage rooms for safekeeping and out of the way. Combustible materials and scarp o be removed every day too.
Alcohol and Drugs
Alcoholic beverages and drugs are strictly prohibited from the premises. No one is allowed to work under the influence. Anyone thus found will be removed from the site and disciplinary action taken against them.
The construction site should be careful to eliminate the exposure of employees and contractors to fall hazards. A fall protection plan will consist of:
- Presence of stairway and proper ladder at any point of access where there is a break in elevation of 19 inches or more
- There should be proper Installation of guardrails on all edges of the site. In the loading bay, there should befall the arrest system.
- A handrail or stair rail should be installed in all stairways that have four or more risers or more than 30 inches high
- All floor holes should be surrounded by guard rails or a hole cover that can support the weight of people and loads. This should apply to all holes greater than two inches in width.
Electrical safety procedures will involve: (Petty, 2016)
- Guarding all electrical parts with the right covering
- All extension cords are kept in safe working condition
- Workers to work away from living electrical equipment unless the circuit is reenergized, grounded or guarded by insulation
- Tagging of the live electrical equipment and those being worked on
- Proper covering of illumination systems, sockets, and switches
- Perilous or flawed devices are taken out from administration and labeled out.
- Power devices are killed and movement halted previously setting down.
- Tools are disengaged from the power source previously evolving drills, edges, orbits, and before any fix or change is made. Force saws, table saws, and spiral arm saws will have operational sharp edge watches introduced also, utilized.
- Portable rough processors have watches introduced covering the upper and back parts of the rough wheel.
Excavation and Trenches
All excavation and trenches will be dug under the supervision of a competent person. The safety procedures will include:
- All trenches and excavations more than 4ft should be protected by guard rails and cave-in protection
- The inception of all trenches daily by a competent person
- Provision of an exit for a trench that is four feet or more
- Equipment placed more than 2 feet from trenches
The site should have proper lighting throughout the working hour. The critical areas include aisles, stairs, ramps, runways, corridors, offices, shops, and storage areas
Vehicles and Motorized Mechanical Equipment
Vehicles and other motorized machines should be operated by professionals. The equipment handlers should consistently be trained and run under a strict vehicle policy.
Information on all accidents and near misses should reach the supervisor, superintendent, and foreman. The accident report will be filled by the employee and supervisor (Guzder, 2019). The injury is treated first if it happens to have occurred. The accident is then investigated and the eight procedures taken towards mitigation.
There will be a good supply of first aid kit within the project offices, safety center, tools truck, and contractor offices. All supervisors and safety officers among the employees would be trained on first aid and CPR procedures.
Emergency Action Plan
Each place of work builds up a crisis activity plan that is inspected with every worker during the direction. The crisis activity plan covers crisis get away from the methodology, techniques followed by representatives staying to work basic tasks before they clear, systems to represent all representatives, salvage and clinical obligations, and how to report crises. Site maps demonstrating site and building departure courses, get together territories and other basic data will be posted on the representative announcement board and other fitting locales around the task. Guides, courses and get together territories will be altered to mirror all physical changes as the task advances.
Evacuation Procedures (Galea, Deere, Xie, Hulse & Cooney, 2019)
- The departure organizer (default to the director, Project Security Manager, or foreman) confirms a crisis circumstance genuinely exists. Assuming this is the case, UAF local group of fire-fighters or crisis administration is advised.
- The departure organizer uses the caution framework or methods for correspondence for example bull horn, open location framework, radio, and so forth to viably convey that clearing of the structure, as well as a place of work, is required.
- The clearing facilitator checks the guest/subcontractor log is eliminated from the structure/place of work.
- The clearing facilitator directs a head check to confirm all workers, subcontractors, and additional guests are securely cleared.
- The clearing facilitator imparts to the local group of fire-fighters either that all faculty are securely emptied or who remains unaccounted for.
- Nobody may come back to the structure or place of work until the departure facilitator or local group of fire-fighters approves such activity.
Health and Safety Responsibilities
The success of a proper safety program requires some people in charge to maintain the proper conduct of the staff and initiate active participation to inform the employees. The duties Should guide to the following main people:
Corporate Safety Coordinator, Project Safety Officer, and Project Manager
- Carry our health and safety training to supervisors and manager
- Coordinate monthly checks and audits of the site
- Carry out and coordinate supervisory safety meetings monthly
- Create and revise the corporate safety manual Safety policy and Site-Safety Policy.
- Create working site notices and postings
- Fill paperwork regarding accidents
Project Safety Manager and the Superintendent
- Direct health and safety activities within the site
- Arrange for medical attention in the case of accidents and injuries
- Ensure all staff is using PPE and safety devices
- Train employees on all areas of safety
- Correct unsafe situations
- Conduct safety meetings
- Complete injury/illness report
- Carry out post-accident investigation
- Enforce health and safety regulations
- Direct the safety and health activities and risk prevention
- Ensure proper PPEs are used and other safety devices
- Instruct employees on safety and health
- Correct unsafe situations
- Ensure safety equipment availability
- Reporting injuries
- Carry out post-accident investigations
- Carry out a daily job site inspection
Employees are prohibited from making repairs on the devices without permission from the superintendent or the foreman. Only a qualified equipment mechanic would do this. The employees are also prohibited from removing any safety device, guard, or appliance from machinery except under supervised maintenance.
Equipment Use and Application
All equipment is to be used for its right purpose. All forklifts and vehicles within the site should run under specified speed limits. Protective devices are required when using all equipment including PPEs, safety belts, and safety guards.
Personal Protective Equipment
The company will provide all the personal protective equipment for the workers. Therefore all employees should be in a hard hat, reflective vest, overall, safety glasses, work boots. All staff will be trained on PPEs upon recruitment
The following conducts are prohibited
- False reporting
- Deliberate misuse of equipment
- Scuffling on the job
- Disobeying supervisors
- Unnecessary risk-taking
- Violating the alcohol and drugs policy
Upon violation of the safety and policy procedures, employees will at first be given a formal verbal warning by the supervisor and any repetition within one month will lead to stage two consequence. At stage two, the employee will receive a written formal warning and suspended for one day without pay. When returning to work, he/she will redo safety training before being permitted to work. If the employee repeats the same mistake within three months they will be terminated.
Dealing with Psychosocial problems (Rodriguez, 2020), (Maqsoom et al., 2020)
|Prevention strategy||Dealing with the problem|
|Giving the workers offs in between high demand periods. (Rodriguez, 2020)||It deals with exhaustion that brings about Generalized Anxiety disorder, musculoskeletal injuries and lack of sleep (Rodriguez, 2020)|
|Creating a culture of health awareness. Making them understand that taking care of their health is an investment||Allows for them to have good health, develop an awareness of their conditions and seek help when need be|
|Educating the workforce on psychosocial issues, consequences, and controls, (Rodriguez, 2020)||It ensures that workers know the risks that they would expose themselves to when working there and take the right precautions|
|Encouraging constant communication with the management and supervisor. (Maqsoom et al., 2020)||It will help to detect some of these problems early enough and secure the workforce better (Maqsoom et al., 2020)|
|Free Psychological and screening of the workforce||It will identify the issues faced by the employees and direct them to the right specialists|
|Providing resources for training to support and up-skill staff in matters such as food and nutrition, time management, financial management and investment (Maqsoom et al., 2020)||They will improve their skills in these matters. These are the matters that cause the most problem within their lives and getting this information will improve their situation (Maqsoom et al., 2020)|
|Getting the staff to select their preferred working regions||It will help deal with astraphobia and claustrophobia (Maqsoom et al., 2020)|
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Galea, E. R., Deere, S., Xie, H., Hulse, L., & Cooney, D. (2019). Construction site evacuation safety: Evacuation strategies for tall construction sites.
Guzder, K. (2019, February 22). RIDDOR: How to Report an Incident or Accident at… The Hub | High-Speed Training; High-Speed Training. https://www.highspeedtraining.co.uk/hub/riddor-reporting-accident-at-work/
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Maqsoom, A., Mughees, A., Zahoor, H., Nawaz, A., & Mazher, K. M. (2020). Extrinsic psychosocial stressors and workers’ productivity: impact of employee age and industry experience. Applied Economics, 52(26), 2807-2820.
Petty, L. (2016, November 8). Electrical Safety on Construction Sites: Guidance for Workers. The Hub | High-Speed Training. https://www.highspeedtraining.co.uk/hub/electrical-safety-construction/
Rodriguez, J. L. (2020). Psychosocial Safety Climate, Psychosocial Safety Behavior, and Injury Reporting among Latino and Non-Latino Construction Workers in New York City: A Correlational Study (Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University).
Timofeeva, S. S., Ulrikh, D. V., & Tsvetkun, N. V. (2017). Professional risks in the construction industry. Procedia Engineering, 206, 911-917.